Jump to content
Thor

Making sense of John Williams' air force stint

Recommended Posts

OK, if you're uncomfortable with all the digging into Williams' personal life, you can look away now. Objection noted in advance. However, I do think this has musical relevance as well. Let it be the ultimate John Williams Air Force Resource Thread. :)

Personally, I'm trying to make heads and tails of the air force stint, and the primary source for this is -- of course -- the old newspaper article we've all seen several times:

http://mahawa.jw-music.net/early/airman.jpg

The way I interpret the timeline is as follows:

  • Fall 1951: Williams signs up voluntarily for the air force while he is still studying at Los Angeles City College

775th%20AF%20Band%20on%20TDY%20to%20Cast

  • March 1952: Transfer to 596th AF Band, Pepperell Air Force Base, St. John's, Newfoundland.
    • Williams returns to his Canadian roots (on his mother's side)!
    • Arrangements for the 596th Dance Band
    • 1954: Scores the 22-minute film YOU ARE WELCOME based on local folk melodies
    • Here's a rare video of what it was like during "Armed Forces Day" on the Pepperell base in 1954, presumably while Williams was still there (or just after). Notice the marching bands. Maybe Williams is among them?

    • The Pepperell base was closed in 1960, just a few years after Williams was there. I have no idea what is there these days.

  • 1954?: Transfer to March Air Force Base, Riverside County, California.
    • Plays with base band at service club dances
    • Accompanist of Eugene Loring Ballet Group. This could be the production "Capital of the World" (1953).
    • Arrangements for the "new Pete Candoli orchestra" (I wonder what this means? Any Candoli albums in this time period that Williams could be involved with?)
  • January 1955: Discharge

JWFAN member dfenton claimed in a previous thread that he was in Korea at some point, but I have found no evidence to suggest this. Theoretically, there may be room for this in 1953. JWFAN member airmanjerm claimed in yet another previous thread that he entered the AF in January-1951, but I find this impossible to merge with the UCLA and LACC education beforehand. He cannot possibly have done both of those over just one semester, having graduated from North Hollywood High in May or June-1950.

This is just scratching the surface. There is obviously far more research to be done and far more details I could provide. Williams has always been a busy man, and over 3 years, he could have done lots of stuff. My guess is that he also had the time to compose several things that we haven't yet heard about. Time will tell. I'll add more info as I come across it.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks, Miguel. I've edited the post to provide a more structured overview (and easier to add specifics, should they appear). If anyone has anything to add or correct, I'll be glad to do so.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thor,

This is nice! And believe me, I've scoured all those Air Force Musician websites looking forward photos of his three bands to see if any of them happened to have a photo of Williams.

As for the enlistment date, the January 1951 date was an assumption based on the fact that his ETS (End of Time of Service..."discharge") is mentioned in the article as January 1955. Air Force enlistments at the time were for four years, and due to the Korean conflict it was notoriously difficult to have your enlistment reduced. Yes it's an assumption/estimation on my part, but a safe one.

I remember we played somewhere in CA once and did some John Williams piece. We mentioned the Air Force connection, and at intermission some old guy came up and chatted with our commander and mentioned that he had been stationed with Williams. I didn't hear about this story til later, but it's possible some of those guys may remember some details. They aren't going to remember his enlistment date or anything like that, but maybe some general details. I'll see if I can't post a question or two.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks, airmanjerm. Maybe there were some special circumstances that allowed Williams to do only 3 years instead of 4?

We know for a fact that Williams was half a year at LACC immediately preceding the air force. And then we know for a fact that Williams graduated from North Hollywood High School in May or June-1950. We also know for a fact that Williams was at UCLA after NHHS and before LACC -- maybe half a year, maybe one whole year, we don't have the exact duration. From that, however, we can deduce that he needed to have at least one year to get it all done, more likely one and a half. So the earliest I can picture Williams entering the air force is in the fall of 1951, and that is if he was only one semester at UCLA.

There is, however, evidence to suggest that he was at UCLA also during the spring of 1951, since he composed his piano sonata there that year (probably an 'exam piece' of sorts after orchestration and composition studies with Robert van Epps and Mario Tedelnuovo-Tedesco). So when all of these facts are put together, I can't see how it's possible to enter the air force before January-1952. But I'm open to all other facts. :)

Here's the timeline preceding the air force, the way I see it:

June-1950: Graduation, North Hollywood High School

August-1950: Enter UCLA

June-1951: Finish UCLA (incl. the piano sonata)

August-1951: Enter LACC

January-1952: Air force

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Hey Thor,

Here's some info I've managed to track down.

I understand that the timeframe is a little "paradoxical," but I've managed to at least nail down the fact that JW enlisted in the Air Force - without being drafted - definitely in 1951. I know that the article says that "Uncle Sam beckoned in 1951," but here's a more ironclad giveaway:

The AF newspaper article mentions his Air Force service number: 19389341. That tells us MUCH more than you might think.

First, the first two numbers are a HUGE deal. The first two numbers are a geographical identifier. In this case, 19. That number was used for enlisted members who enlisted from the states of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, or Washington. So, for Williams, likely California. Had he enlisted in New York, his first two numbers would have been 12.

The other thing that number tells us is that Williams voluntarily enlisted without being drafted. If he'd been drafted, his first two digits would have been a number between 50-59. Those were the digits reserved for draftees. Why did he join up voluntarily? Not sure, most likely he knew he'd probably be drafted eventually and decided to get it over with. That's pretty solid though...you can bet Uncle Sam knows who volunteered and who didn't! (haha)

The next 6 numbers are just a number to identify each person individually. So, Williams' very own number was 389341. This tells us more though:

The U.S. Army (which used the same service number system) used the numbers 000001-200000 for these 6 digits. The Air Force was assigned the numbers 200001 and higher. Follow me?

Tracking down a few charts from the National Archives and Veterans' Administration, I found out that the numbers 324,486 - 420,000 were issued between the years 1949 and 1951, with approximately 31,900 numbers issued each year. So, for each of those three years the personal numbers would have fallen approximately as such:

1949: 324,486 - 356,386

1950: 356,387 - 388,287

1951: 388,288 - 420,187

Keep in mind these are estimates, but since Williams' number was 389,341, that's pretty early on in the 1951 allotment.

There's also this photo....not sure if it's our guy, but remember that in 1951 Air Force Basic Training was 8 weeks and after that amount of time, your looks can change a little from exercising and wacky military food. haha

031101-F-1951A-028.jpg

I'm not sold on that photo being JW, but after looking through dozens and dozens of BMT photos, that's the only caucasian J. Williams I could locate. (So far.)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Great research, airmanjerm. Like you, I'm not quite sold that that is our Williams. The resolution is a bit too low. But it would have been awesome if it were him.

Maybe it's possible to squeeze Williams' air force entry into November of 1951 or thereabouts. He could have jumped off LACC early (after just 3-4 months of studies).

Following my timeline, 8 weeks of basic -- if that was the norm -- means that he must have entered in December, at the latest, to allow at least one month in Tucson, Arizona, before he was transferred to Canada.

The alternative is that he was just briefly at UCLA and LACC (a couple of months per place), and that he wrote the piano sonata during basic training in the army. Not very likely, but as I've said repeatedly -- we're lacking information here.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Because of the information about an 8-week basic training period, I've edited the first post to allow for Williams' entrance in December-1951 -- even though it "eats" one month of his LACC semester.

What we really need is handfast documents either about his entry into the air force or some sort of graduation paper from UCLA and LACC. That would explain a lot.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Because of the information about an 8-week basic training period, I've edited the first post to allow for Williams' entrance in December-1951 -- even though it "eats" one month of his LACC semester.

What we really need is handfast documents either about his entry into the air force or some sort of graduation paper from UCLA and LACC. That would explain a lot.

Yes, the whole thing is a little confusing to sort through, but the 1951 is at least a definite.

I'm not being argumentative, please understand Thor, but I think it's highly likely that his entry to the AF was much earlier than December. The reason being that his 6-digit personal number - 389,341 - is much lower than the 420,000 number that was reached by the end of December, 1951. If his number was something closer to 420,000, I'd definitely think it was December.

Again, I'm not being argumentative on purpose, I'm trying to talk through this thing too. It's very difficult to sort through and I don't have the answers either. :-)

Are you using the old AF newspaper article as your source for saying that JW was enrolled in classes at UCLA prior to joining the Air Force? I wonder if it's possible that JW may have been enrolled in classes during the summer? Or even possible that UCLA used the "quarters" system instead of semesters.

ALSO:

Something more trivial but a thing you can edit in your original post:

During the 1950s, March Air Reserve Base was an active duty base, not a reserve base. So, it was just called (at the time) March Air Force Base. It wasn't changed to a Reserve base until just a few years ago, as a result of the BRAC (Base Realignment and Closure) decision.

The band that was at March AFB (which had been the for a long time - the same band that JW had been in) was decommissioned in the early 1990s, and the personnel and equipment transferred to Travis Air Force Base in northern CA where it combined with the AF Band of the Golden West. This is the band that I spent the first 12 years of my military service in, and a few of our members were guys who had even been in the March AFB Band.

Oh yeah, another thing.

I don't have a CLUE if this means anything, and even if it's the right guy, it's not a big deal. But....

I wonder if this article (by Roger Ebert) is about the same Paul Galloway who wrote that article about Johnny Williams back in 1954. This Paul Galloway (who eventually became fairly well-known in the Newspaper industry) would have been 20 years old at the time, and he did serve in the Army, so he could definitely have been assigned to the Air Force Public Affairs office at March AFB in 1954.

http://www.rogerebert.com/interviews/paul-galloway-a-beloved-legend-sheep-galloway-sheep

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Galloway

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks for the correction re: March Air Force Base. I've edited the post accordingly.

I want to keep the timeline as is for the time being if only because I must allow some room for the education beforehand. That's not to be difficult either, it's just untill I have some sort of confirmation from the universities. I've contacted both UCLA and LACC for this information, but to be honest -- I doubt they'll answer, or if they do, they probably can't help me.

The information about UCLA and LACC has been culled from a variety of sources, including Williams' own words. You should check out the 'Making sense of John Williams' higher education' thread, where I go into some of that:

http://www.jwfan.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=22998

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Of course Thor, I wouldn't expect you to change anything until there's something more definite.

I've popped into the other thread a few times but haven't had much chance to spend time with the info you've accumulated there. I know it's a lot! I was just wondering about the possibility of the UCLA time being earlier in the year.

Another thing I've had bugging me is the time he spent at the base in Arizona before being transferred to Newfoundland. We call it "Time on Station," or TOS. Moving from one base to another in less than a year is unheard of, BUT...there's a possibility that the band there was considered a "training" unit, before members shipped out to a more permanent assignment. We still do that now with Air National Guard band members, who spend a few weeks in an active duty band after basic training.

The other possibility is that he was sent to Arizona as an assignment, then was sent to Newfoundland because they had a vacancy for a piano player. The air force assignment system has always had a clause where overseas assignments must be filled first, and I've seen piano players (and other rhythm players) get bounced around with less than a year time on station.

Anyways, just more food for thought.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

He was at LACC before the air force, not UCLA. So let's say Williams "graduated" from Lackland in July (even though the particular Williams you found in the picture may not be him). Substract 8 weeks of basic from that, and you have May-1951. If that's the entry date, Williams had only four months at LACC before he jumped ship. He would then have written the piano concerto at LACC, not UCLA. The fall semester of 1950 would then be dedicated to UCLA. Combined, it's less than a year of higher studies. It's a possibility. A faint possibility, but still.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Another thought-

It's possible that if that IS our John Williams in that photo that it doesn't mean the photo was taken at the end of the 8 weeks of basic training. I don't personally remember what week of training we were in when they took our photos, but I do know and remember that it wasn't close to the end. It was much closer to the beginning, so they have time to have then developed and all that. So, even though I made another comment about how your appearance can change and all that, he's never really been a chubby guy, so he'd of probably looked like that photo early on in his BMT time anyway.

So, if that IS him (and like you, I'm still not sold), then he could have entered basic in June or even July, and the picture still say July.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thor, how did William's people respond when you wrote them for more information? Did you tell them you were writing a biography, or article on Williams? Did they simply not respond, or send you a typical "fan" email canned response...what?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thor, how did William's people respond when you wrote them for more information? Did you tell them you were writing a biography, or article on Williams? Did they simply not respond, or send you a typical "fan" email canned response...what?

I haven't contacted Williams' "people" for this -- I've only sent off an e-mail to UCLA and LACC. I told them the truth -- that I'm researching Williams' early life and work. No response so far. I could contact Jamie Richardson (his assistant), but I doubt he could be of much help. Besides, he wasn't very forthcoming when I asked for a brief interview in LA last year.

By the way, do you know the nature of basic training in those days, airmanjerm? Was there any musical relevance at all, or was it just running around, shooting, mending airplanes, first aid courses and what-have-you? Also -- and you may have said this before -- once he was stationed at the various bases, were the musical tasks sometimes interupted by more basic army duties? Or did he just sit around in offices and arrange music, perhaps conduct during a parade etc.? I'm very curious about the contents of his AF period.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Wow, excellent work! If that picture does show our Johnny... he was WICKED skinny back then! Weight gain can puff features out and with age, the skull can actually change a bit (brows tend to keep growing for example), but I wonder - using a little forensic stuff here - if a similar angle overlay could line up the skulls. It's a fairly faded, low-res pic in that poster, but a basic outline may be able to be lined up.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Sorry it's taken me a few days to reply, but I've done a little research (including stopping by the MTI museum here at Lackland Air Force Base, where I am more-or-less stationed) and have spoken to a couple older Air Force band veterans ("alumni" lol) who were in the AF back in the 1950s. I've separated it here into Basic Training info and then some stuff more related to the bands specifically. I know it's a lot, but here you go...

Basic Training Info:

It's important to realize that when JW joined the AF, the Korean War was in full effect. With air power becoming much more popular due to WW2, the Air Force had LOTS of people joining up. In fact, here's something interesting I found out: from January 1st - 5th of 1951 there were 11,569 NEW RECRUITS who showed up for basic training. Yes, 11,569 people in FIVE DAYS. Because of that, basic training was cut from 13 weeks down to just 2 weeks, and then even cut down to essentially just in and out processing, with only a little time for issuing uniforms and paperwork. Those who underwent this sort of hectic training did follow-up training at their next base. After that massive amount of people was dealt with, Basic Training settled at eight weeks (as I've mentioned previously) in March, 1951. It underwent more change in following years, but not until well after we know JW was through with BMT.

At the time - and even now - basic trainees don't really even touch or go near an airplane. So, there was no "mending airplanes" for JW as you asked (and it's a common question, so no worries). Any sort of aircraft maintenance training is (and was) given after basic training in what they now call "Tech School." In tech school, people spend anywhere from 6 weeks to a year learning the aspects of the job they are going to do in the Air Force. Some jobs (such as military police, aircraft maintenance, and others) take less time; others (such as a military linguist) can take close to a year.

What did they do? Well, a lot of what they do now, and what we did when I went through it in 2000. Lots of exercising, naturally, and (like you mentioned) first-aid classes, weapons training, and other classes on things like Air Force regulations & policies, etc. There's lots of attention on things like uniform care, team-building, and of course marching and drill. During JW's time, they did two separate field training exercises, where they simulate the construction of a remote air base and live there for a couple of days. We still do that, but when I went through (and now) it's adapted slightly into one lengthy training, and set in a (simulated) desert environment.

Air Force Band "Life":

In the bands, our "training" is a little different. In JW's day there were dozens of Air Force bands, and anyone who could play their instrument successfully could join. Nowadays, we only have about 9 bands in the Air Force, and only a certain number of people in each band, so joining is a little more selective. When we have a vacancy, the hiring process is similar to a professional orchestra: we announce and publicize the vacancy, accept applications, and invite qualified applicants to the live audition. If a person is selected in the audition, we do paperwork-type things and they work with an Air Force recruiter to get scheduled to go to basic training. After that, there is no Tech School for Air Force Band members: because of the competitive nature of our auditions, anyone selected to join the band has already had to demonstrate their ability to perform their instrument during their audition. About 95% of those who are selected to join the band have already earned at least a Bachelor's degree in music, and many have a Master's or DMA. So, there's no Tech School...it wouldn't make sense to have that.

During JW's time, the bands weren't quite so selective, just because there were so many of them and they had plenty positions for musicians. You still had to pass an audition, but other than that, life in the band was pretty much the same as it is now. In the Air Force bands, you are a musician and that is your job. In some other services (notably the US Marine Corps), bandsmen are considered "musicians second," so they can be pulled away from their musical duties for more militant things.

So, during JW's time he likely did as you suggested....just sit around in offices and arrange music. (Which is what I do....ha!) It's highly doubtful that he ever conducted a parade, and aside from the "You are Welcome" project he probably didn't conduct much, if ever. Keep in mind he was a very young man at the time, and although he was a talented pianist and upcoming composer/arranger, band commanders in those days were notoriously "territorial." I won't say it's unheard of (in fact, I've had the opportunity to conduct our bands several times), but at the time, it was highly unlikely that his duties ventured much outside of writing music and playing piano.

I'm still doing some research to see if I can locate anyone who was ever stationed with JW at any of the three bands we know he was in. I'll keep you posted!

P.S. - This is EXTREMELY trivial Thor, but just for what it's worth, it's incorrect to refer to an Air Force member as an Army member, or doing "army duties." It doesn't offend me in the least, I only mention it for the sake of your writing. It's very common in the USA for Air Force or Marine Corps members to be referred to as soldiers, when that term is technically reserved only for members of the U.S. Army. When referring to AF members, the correct term is "Airman" or "Airmen" (capitalized). Again, doesn't offend me, just some FYI junk. :)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The more I blow it up, I'm leaning heavily towards it being him. Something about the eyes look familiar. It's amazing how skinny he was though, which is what is throwing us off, in addition to the resolution quality of the original photo.

post-7-0-53717100-1366142251_thumb.jpg

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks for the extra info regarding the contents of the duty, airmanjerm. I think it's safe to assume, then, that Williams entered AFTER the hectic weeks you speak of.

And yeah -- thanks for the correction re: army vs. airman. As a former army man myself, I know the importance of delineating between the two. It's just easy to forget when you're writing in your second language. Sorry about that. :)

I love this thread, btw....right up my alley!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

John's enlisting was key I believe to his posting. Had he been drafted his chances would be lower to end up where he did. I know my father enlisted and got his preferred assignment, a jet engine tech/mechanic. He was in and out before Nam.  

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
14 minutes ago, airmanjerm said:

Dredging up this ancient thread to say WATCH THIS SPACE... 

 

The Air Force Band is celebrating its 75th Anniversary, and the Band's commander/conductor Col Larry Lang got to do a nice interview with John Williams regarding his time in the Air Force. It'll eventually be posted on the band's website and I will be back to post a direct link when it is available. 

 

Very cool, can't wait.

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
22 minutes ago, airmanjerm said:

Dredging up this ancient thread to say WATCH THIS SPACE... 

 

The Air Force Band is celebrating its 75th Anniversary, and the Band's commander/conductor Col Larry Lang got to do a nice interview with John Williams regarding his time in the Air Force. It'll eventually be posted on the band's website and I will be back to post a direct link when it is available. 

 

Looking forward to it!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Well since i missed this thread in the past... i will just say that i think the army photograph could be him.

 

Can someone find that young photo of him sporting a big 50's toupé? He was skinny there and i think he resembles the photo more than the older more rounder face.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The "J. Williams" in the army photo is NOT him. At that point in time, he was having a summer holiday between the UCLA and the single semester at LACC.

 

But yeah -- looking forward to whatever Williams will say in that interview; hopefully with details, and not just general remarks.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Interviewer: "Hello Mr. Williams! Thank you for taking time out of your busy schedule to participate in our interview."

JW: "It's my pleasure! Thank you for having me!"

I: "Now, can you please answer the following questions: On what date did you join the USAF? Why did you join voluntarily? What did a typical day in training look like for you? How many miles did you run each day, and what was your best time in the obstacle courses?  How many days did you train for?  Did you ever come near an airplane? What food did you eat, and how much on average per day? Also, is this your picture here?"

JW: [leaves room]

 

Seriously though, whatever Williams reminisces about the Air Force, I'm sure it will be interesting to hear. After all it was a very significant moment in his life, when he developed as an arranger and conductor, as well as an all-round musician (and trombone player!)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

He, he...that's taking it a bit far, perhaps, but in my dream world, he would at the very least clarify the timeline. I agree, though -- anything he says about this is valuable. And certainly a change of pace from all the 'standard' interviews with standard replies.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Cool, thanks!

 

Most of the information, we already have in the previous news clip, but what does 'enlisting in January 1951' mean? That he signed up, but didn't necessarily enter?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
14 minutes ago, airmanjerm said:

No, enlisting is joining. So, apparently he joined in January 1951.

 

If that is true, it completely screws up my timeline! Dammit!

 

Let's say it's true and that the news clip has its information correct. It means several things. Since he graduated from high school in June 1950, it means that the single semester he had at LACC must be put in the fall of 1950. And if it's true that he was discharged in January 1955 (pr. the previous news clip), it means he served four years in the air force. In 1955, immediately after discharge, he goes to New York to study at Julliard. And then in early 1956, it's back to Los Angeles to work etc., and then we know the story from there. I think some of you can see where this is leading:

 

WHERE THE HELL DO WE PUT THE TIME AT UCLA?!? (minimum 1 year).

 

And his piano sonata is usually credited as a "student piece from 1951", meaning that it's most likely an exam piece from UCLA. He can't have written it while in the air force. Could it be that he studied at UCLA in 1956 and 1957 while also working in the industry, and that the piano sonata (and the wind quintet) is from this period, not 1951?

 

Nah, I don't believe it. I think we must still hold 1951 "reserved" for studies. We need some way to confirm this information.

 

Edit: The UCLA alumni site suggests he studied there in 1953:

 

https://alumni.ucla.edu/awards/john-williams/

 

...which of course is smack in the middle of his air force stint.

 

:eh:

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I've written dozens of pieces (including several for college classes) while I've been in the Air Force. It's not a stretch to think he could have been doing that. 

 

Also, he ended up at March Air Force Base in 1953, which isn't far from UCLA at all. So my guess is he used his Air Force time for the studies there. 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Yeah, but there are so many other factors countering this information. Here's another piece from the UCLA alumni site (it even says 'alumnus of 53'):

 

Quote

He was drafted into the United States Air Force in 1952, and upon entry served as a composer for several Air Force bands. Two years later with a discharge, he moved back to New York to attend Julliard and subsequently worked with Pink Panther composer Henry Mancini and pop singer Frankie Laine.

 

https://alumni.ucla.edu/stories/john-williams-53/

 

So I guess it's a matter of what you're going to believe. An ancient news clip or most other sources online. For now, I'm sticking to most other sources online. Of course, UCLA in 1953 ALSO screws up my timeline, so I'm none the wiser.

6 minutes ago, airmanjerm said:

Also, he ended up at March Air Force Base in 1953, which isn't far from UCLA at all. So my guess is he used his Air Force time for the studies there. 

 

Interesting theory, i.e. overlap between air force and UCLA (although the UCLA site says otherwise). I'll need to think a bit about this now.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I just consulted the original news clip again, and it says he was enrolled at UCLA before entering the air force. This only complicates matters further.

 

I've tried to make some sense out of the "new" timeline, but it's complete and utter chaos now. I think only John Williams himself will be able to clear it up, and even he would probably have to consult old documents in his archive.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


×
×
  • Create New...