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  1. Now here is a long post! I hope you enjoy it as much as I enjoyed writing it. And if there are any correction suggestions fire away, especially on the nuts and bolts of music theory of which I profess very little knowledge. And many thanks to all the people from this messageboard without whose excellent discussion and insights this analysis would not have been possible. You know who you are. UPDATE December 2016: The analysis now includes information and revisions based on the Lala-Land Records The John Williams Jurassic Park Collection which features the complete The Lost World: Jurassic Park score. The Lost World: Jurassic Park John Williams on a symphonic rampage A Complete Score Analysis by Mikko Ojala In 1997 four years after the original box office monster Jurassic Park had stomped onto the big screen and brought the dinosaurs so vividly to life through the magic of special effects wizardry, Steven Spielberg released the much clamored sequel to his hit film. The Lost World: Jurassic Park was loosely based on the novel by Michael Chrichton, whose own initial reluctance for writing a sequel (he had never done so before) was finally assuaged by Spielberg himself, who requested it after the success of the first film. The second Jurassic Park novel was released in 1995 and after the period of adaptation of the book into a script (by David Koepp), the production of the new movie began in 1996. Koepp’s script retains only some major outlines of the novel, mainly the locale of Isla Nublar’s sister island Isla Sorna, forsakes nearly all the characters and uses some broad ideas of the action that took place in the book but replaces the ending with a dinosaur rampage through San Diego. This was actually a suggestion from Spielberg during the late stages of the production and the original ending prepared and storyboarded before the last minute change was much more in line with the novel with an exciting chase involving Velociraptors and Pteranodons. Interestingly some elements of the script migrated right out from the original Jurassic Park novel, in particular the scenes with the small Compsognathi dinosaurs from various points in that story. The only retuning character from the previous film and novel is the nervous and edgy chaos theorist and a mathematician Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) with a whole new supporting cast of Malcolm’s love interest paleontologist Sarah Harding (Julianne Moore), Malcolm’s teenage daughter Kelly (Vanessa Lee Chester), a big game hunter Roland Tembo (Pete Postlethwaite), John Hammond’s greedy corporate businessman nephew Peter Ludlow (Arliss Howard), a documentarian and environmental activist Nick Van Owen (Vince Vaughn) and Roland’s second-in-command Dieter Stark (Peter Stormare). In addition the film features a cameo apprearance of three main characters from the original film, Richard Attenborough reprising his role as John Hammond the capitalist entrepreneur now turned naturalist and Joseph Mazzello and Ariana Richards as his grandchildren Tim and Lex Murphy. The film takes place several years after the horrifying events of Jurassic Park. Dr. Ian Malcolm, a survivor of the Isla Nublar incident is drawn much against his will back to the world of dinosaurs by John Hammond who invites him to lead a scientific expedition to another island full of dinosaurs. Hammond has kept the knowledge of Isla Nublar’s sister island Isla Sorna secret from the world and reveals that it was originally the site of the creation of the dinosaurs and that they were bred and raised there and then moved to the larger Isla Nublar and the park itself. These beasts are by some miracle still alive and well even though they were supposed to die without human provided nutrients. Malcolm refuses flatly to go but is forced to accept Hammond’s offer as he hears that the millionaire has hired his girl friend paleontologist Sarah Harding to document the dinosaurs in their natural habitat. She jumped at the chance and is already on the island. With no alternative Malcolm wants to mount a rescue operation immeadiately. Thus begins the journey to the island that conincides with the plans of the ruthless head of the InGen Bioengineering Peter Ludlow of salvaging dinosaurs from the island to reap profit from them, the operation going awry, dinosaurs on a rampage, a desperate escape from the island and finally a T-Rex on the loose in the streets of San Diego. The stuff of wildest dinosaur dreams for monster hungry movie crowds. The Lost World proved to be another box office smash even though its world wide gross was considerably less than its predecessor's. It still held the record for the best opening weekend for 4 and half years until another Williams scored film, Harry Potter and the Philosopher Stone (2001) dethroned it and the highest single day box office take for a couple of years until Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace claimed the honor, again scored by Mr. Williams. Despite the huge box office success the film got mixed reviews that commented both positively and negatively on the plot, the characters and the action and the movie garnered a plethora of mainly special effects plaudits, award nominations and wins. It was even nominated for Razzies in three categories but lost in all of them (Williams was nominated for an Academy Award for Amistad that year but lost to James Horner's enormously successful and popular Titanic). Whatever the merits or failings of the film itself, its score stands proudly as one of the most unique, daring and energetic of John Williams’ career. Here in his 14th collaboration with Steven Spielberg the composer has once again renewed himself and indeed created in chameleon style a new voice. The music is as much a departure as it is a return to the sound of Jurassic Park, the composer treading different ground in the sequel that contains only hints of the familiar themes and atmosphere that was so effective and made dinosaurs so magical only four years prior. New sound for the sequel Steven Spielberg’s initial impulse was to create something very different for this film, as he well knew that it would certainly not so much about the wonder of the dinosaurs anymore since the audience knew what to expect and more about darker sense of adventure, and so he asked from Williams a different stylistic approach for the score than for its predecessor. He wanted it to be exotic and tropical, percussive and driving, addressing as much the action as it did the location. Williams when interviewed for the The Lost World :Jurassic Park DVD documentary commented on the starting point for the new score: Steven’s idea was that this was all taking place on an island in some Carribean area and that the music might have, might be driven by some drums if you like. Or some sort of ethnic or jungle kind of texture or flavour that might drive the music and might give it a kind of unique flavour. And so much of what in the action sequences I did, to begin with at least, was driven by this drum thing, which I enjoyed and we had some wonderful percussionists come onto the stage and it contributed in a nice flavour, I think, to the film.[1] Themes for a Lost World With the new locale, characters and situations it seems like Williams started his writing almost from scratch and in this respect the score resembles his gripping and thrilling sequel score for Jaws 2, where he created a whole new extension for the franchise’s world to complement the famous Jaws theme with all new musical motifs and ideas. Similarly in this film the familiar and famous main themes from Jurassic Park return but are complemented by prominent all-new thematic material. Returning Themes The Island Fanfare that previously addressed the heroic and adventurous side of the action in Jurassic Park, most notably underscoring the magnificent helicopter approach to Isla Nublar, is used mostly in subtle references, rising only a few times to heroic proportions in the new score. This theme is also heavily referenced for a sense of nostalgia, the subdued variations giving it an air of worn and by-gone glory and often commenting on the broken dream of the Jurassic Park. The actual hymn-like Theme from Jurassic Park (titled Dinosaurs in the original score) appears only in the last scene of the film to signal a happy ending to Ian Malcolm’s adventure. The haunting and ominous 4-note Carnivore motif, that in the first film heralded the appearance of the most dangerous dinosaurs, T-Rex and the Velociraptors in particular, makes fleeting appearances in the sequel e.g. when the dreaded raptors are mentioned for the first time. The Lost World The new primary musical idea of the Lost World is the theme of the same name. This heroic, energetic and questing melody is usually carried by the horns, trombones and strings, augmented by a varied battery of rolling percussion, creating at once the sense of travel, the exotic jungle location of the story and adventure with a hint of danger to it. It begins with a minor key scale ascension that almost builds up through the scale and gives a feeling of progress and movement towards a goal. Williams further elaborated on this theme in his traditional concert version which he wrote for the end credits (this piece can be heard as the opening of the original soundtrack album). Pounding drums announce the theme, playing a forceful rhythm that carries through the whole piece and becomes a sort of musical motif in itself. The swaying melody, almost a Spanish or South American flavoured waltz or sarabande surges forward with dazzling brass and percussion interjections, woodwind runs and subtle synth accompaniment, becoming more and more agitated, hinting danger and sudden dire turn of events in its bridge melody but finally overcoming the obstacles it returns to the main theme, bursting victoriously to a rapturous and rhythmic finale augmented by the whole percussion section with tambourine adding an almost festive colour to the proceedings. Here Williams has created a perfect theme for a jungle adventure that in its contours captures both the excitement of exploration and awe and the danger of an island full of dinosaurs and contains the right amount of exoticism to illustrate locale of the story. Noteworthy is that despite being the main new theme of the score, this musical idea is used sparingly in the context of the film, where its grander readings are reserved for exploration sequences on Isla Sorna and most adventurous moments early in the movie. The theme actually seems to neatly bookend the whole Isla Sorna experience as it is first heard on the voyage there and then again when the protagonists are leaving the island after their adventure. The Island’s Voice The other central musical theme in the score is subtler but ever pervasive, in essence a replacement for the original 4-note Carnivore motif from the first film. This new rising 4-note motif, which from now on is called The Island’s Voice in this analysis, is at least initially more mysterious and ominous than the cruelly rising and direct Carnivore motif from the previous film yet remains a close cousin to it. Williams uses these ascending 4 notes to maximum effect in his music, injecting the score with this signal throughout the film, often cleverly interpolating it to nearly any situation, a grim reminder of the dangers inherent in the encounters between dinosaurs and men. This music often appears to warn the listener of the carnivorous dinosaurs, Velociraptors and the T-Rexes and to create a sense of foreboding that is so clearly and well captured in these 4 simple ascending notes that seem to be telling us that in Jurassic Park the dinosaurs were dangerous but confined to the park but this time on Isla Sorna they are the ones in complete dominance and roaming free. This material is often woven into the frenetic and percussive action sequences with such skill that it is hard to notice this musical backbone of the entire score from its environment. And as the story progresses so does the insistence and weight of this musical signal, assuming highly dramatic, ponderous and exclamatory form in the final scenes of the Tyrannosaurus loose in San Diego. It could be said that over the course of the film this motif becomes the musical glue that binds much of the score together. The Percussion and Jungle Sounds As mentioned above in Williams’ quote, the percussion plays a large part in the orchestrations of this score and lends a very specific texture and feel to the music. This collection of instruments includes e.g. congas, bongos, "jungle drums", taiko drums, gourds, guiro, log drums and tabla alongside the more traditional orchestral percussion of timpani and bass drum providing a pulse and rhythm that drives the events constantly forward. The brooding, tropical jungle atmosphere is further enhanced by other instruments, such as shakuhachi and "animal sounds" effects played by a synthesizer.[2] Williams has several different percussion instruments or sections playing layered rhythms over and under the orchestral textures and motifs and offering them even some solo moments where the pure percussion rhythm independently churns underneath the action before the next burst of thematic ideas from the orchestra. Aleatoric Procompsognathi and Other Musical Terrors Another common stylistic element in this score is aleatoric writing. To create a sense of chaos and terror, Williams provides a series of pitches to a group of instruments and instructs them to play them quickly ad lib for a given number of measures. Although this technique has been used in many scores by Williams and other composers, The Lost World employs this effect with unusual frequency.[3] In fact this chirping, whirling, wild and agitated aleatoric writing becomes in itself a musical signature for the small carnivorous Compsognathi dinosaurs and is heard whenever they appear. This style of writing is also attached to the most frenzied of the action music and underscores the dinosaur attacks throughout the movie but it is especially noticeable in the Raptor sequence towards the end of the film. This bed of sizzling effects adds another layer of raw terror to the proceedings, lending animalistic furore to the music. *** As a whole the sequel score is much darker than its predecessor as the film does not offer us so much moments of awe and marvel as mounting anticipation of the coming terrifying encounters with the dinosaurs. There is less a sense of mystery than there is of foreboding and Williams’ music enhances this feel considerably from the start. At appropriate moments the music will also sound heroic, positive and luminous often quoting the old themes with almost a sense of nostalgia but as a whole Williams roots the score in darker textures and motifs with lots of low woodwind, string and brass writing, earthy tones, complex rhythms and driving beats. The rhythm seems to define this music so much that many pieces seem to revolve solely around them, forgoing themes for pure percussive effect and each track seems to have a nearly unique percussion rhythm and feel to it, with each instrument echoing the percussion at varying points. Williams offers a small personal analysis on the differences of the two Jurassic Park scores in the DVD interview: I have not made an experiment of comparing the two scores but I think we’d find that Lost World is probably more frightening, maybe more dissonant, maybe a little bit more... with little harder edge to it and maybe scarier than Jurassic Park would be, of necessity because of the different styles and look and texture of each film. [4] The new score is as Williams puts it more aggressive and harsher, the action music more propulsive than thematic or balletic like in many previous Spielberg/Williams collaborations perhaps taking its cue from its predecessor Jurassic Park where Williams already constructed his action set pieces around small musical cells like the aforementioned Carnivore motif and built independent yet stylistically connected action sequences for that film. This new sound fits the movie to perfection complementing and enhancing its atmosphere and world considerably. It could be said that The Lost World is to an extent a watershed between the old Williams sound of the early 90’s and the modern Williams of the 2000’s. It contains elements from both worlds and perhaps is reflection of change in the film making as well, the movies demanding more and more rhythmic propulsion and pulse over operatic and balletic thematic development that the composer is so known for, especially in Spielberg films. And surely Williams as an artist is ever self-improving and these shifts in his style could be seen as development of his compositional voice and thinking throughout this period. The Lost World Pillaged in Post Production It is a well-known fact that film music is nearly always presented in some way edited form in the film as the medium often requires adjustments to the one hundreth of a second, fast changes for new edits of scenes or the whole film, the music facilitating special effects work etc. and The Lost World is no different. Steven Spielberg usually affords Williams’ music with enormous respect and has even in some instances done the opposite of the norm and edited his film to music (the finale of E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial is the classic example), but in The Lost World music went through a bit more rigorous editing process. It might have been the last minute special effects work as the movie did have longer scenes with CGI dinosaurs and ILM did a lot of late post production work on the material or Spielberg's absence from the recording sessions since he was in the final stages of shooting his next film Amistad but whatever the reason was, the score was tinkered with quite heavily in places in the post production. Tracking, editing and placing music written for a specific scene into a different one, took place most likely because so late in the post production there was no time for Williams to write replacement material nor prepare additional pick-up scoring sessions before the release of the film and his other film commitments that year (Jean-Jacques Annaud's Seven Years in Tibet and Spielberg’s second film Amistad) would not allow it. Most notable case of tracking, made evident by its frequent use, is the inserting of the concert/end credits version of the Lost World theme into many scenes where Williams had either written different music or that were not scored at all. The reason for this is that Steven Spielberg after hearing the main theme fell in love with it and wanted to make wider use of it in the film although the original concept had been that the theme only underscores the arrival and departure from Isla Sorna and the end credits. The comparison of these replacements with the original musical ideas would indicate that Williams’ original vision of the music is a good deal darker than what Spielberg wanted in the end as the most prominent placements of the tracked main theme suggests a need to add positive, heroic or triumphant feel to the sequences and keep the main theme in the music throughout the score, whereas Williams most often uses it sparingly as was the original plan. As there was no time to revise the music after the director's input late in the post production, tracking was the method chosen to accommodate the director's wishes. Editing and tracking of the music in the film itself present a slightly fragmentary picture of the score as a whole, especially when the finished product is compared to the music as it was originally conceived. It is not the worse case of a film score being edited to pieces (like e.g. Horner's Aliens) in the post production but this is the first so prominent a case in a Spielberg/Williams collaboration even though done here with certain amount of respect to his original ideas. *** The score was recorded at Sony Pictures Scoring Stage in Los Angeles in two chunks in the spring of 1997 (March 18-21 and April 18th, 20-22 1997) with Spielberg away finishing the principal photography of his next film Amistad, much as he had been away in Poland filming Schindler's List when Williams was recording the score for Jurassic Park. The music was orchestrated by Williams' frequent collaborators Conrad Pope and John Neufeld and it was performed by the Hollywood studio musicians. The original soundtrack album released at the time the film came out offered 68 minutes of music from the film, presenting many of the major hightlights from the score and Williams as is his habit, edited together and truncated some musical sequences for listening experience purposes. The complete score runs for almost 2 hours, so well over 40 minutes of music have remained unreleased and also in part unused until LaLa-Land Records' The John Williams Jurassic Park Collection which came out on 29th of November 2016 and included the complete score presentations of both Jurassic Park and the Lost World. TRACK-BY-TRACK ANALYSIS All tracks are named by their original Williams given cue titles. This is followed in parentheses by the disc and track number on the John Williams Jurassic Park Collection and the original soundtrack album if the music can be found on it and the time stamps of where in the track the music can be found. After this comes the the orchestrator information for each cue and the length of the sheet music (in bars). 1. The Island’s Voice (1m1) 3:38 (LLL set D 3 Track 2, OST track 2 The Island Prologue, 0:00-3:32) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 68 bars Rumbling contra clarinets, tam tams and ominously murmuring low strings open the score as we see a tropical coastline, hear the crashing of the waves and a title card announces the location: Isla Sorna 87 Miles Southwest of Isla Nublar. As the main titles appear Williams introduces the 4-note Island’s Voice motif on eerie synthesizers (the sound named in the written score as Animal Call) which is repeated twice over a bed of low woodwinds and subtle percussion (0:15-0:32). A solitary flute and brass voices slowly rise, supported by growing orchestral swells and percussion, piano adding sudden icy notes to the building atmosphere. With this musical portent the film introduces us to a luxurious yacht anchored off the coast of the island with the ship’s bustling crew and a rich British Bowman family coming into view. The music is eerie, uncomfortable, full of muted colours from brass, sizzling cold synthesizer sounds, yawning strings, cascades from the harp, a complete opposite of what we are seeing, a well-to-do family on a cruise having a picnic on the shore on a sunny day, but Williams’ music is most expressively hinting that something is not right. It is suppertime on the beach and the family’s little girl Cathy (Camilla Belle) goes off to explore the beach with a sandwich in hand. At 2:04 a curious small melodic snippet on clarinet with synthesizer doubling is introduced as the girl arrives at the tropical forest edge and sees a little green lizard in the underbrush. She approaches it and wonders aloud what it is, even feeding some of her sandwich to the more than eager animal. At this point the music becomes increasingly uncomfortable, with all the different orchestral sections (especially the woodwinds and stopped horns) producing nervous and uneasy sounds until at 2:37 a climbing flute figures announce the arrival of a whole pack of these small green creatures from the jungle, the orchestra mimicing their movement and sounds and creating a slightly dangerous but curious feel as the Compsognathi surround the now frightened girl, jumping for the sandwich. Williams presents here furious aleatoric writing for the Compsognathi that chirps and whirls, pace quickening, percussion pounding more and more agitated, sharp brass, rhythmic jabs from strings, shrill woodwind runs all careening into a rage. As the ship’s crew and the parents hear the little girl’s screams and rush to see what is wrong the Island’s Voice motif sounds again in trombones towards the frenzied finale (at 3:09-3:15) buried underneath the chaos, the final percussion supported woodwind howl underscoring the horrified scream of the mother rushing to the scene. The sudden end of the cue leads to the next scene where we see tired Ian Malcolm yawning in a New York subway, the image mirroring the screaming mother right down to the screeching of the stopping subway train. Spielberg quite cleverly allowed Williams to score the action and letting the music tell us what has happened, the raging orchestra perfectly depicting a furious carnage happening off-screen and the sudden building panic at the end of the scene. *** Ian Malcolm, a chaos theorist and a mathematician, one of the survivors of the original Jurassic Park incident, is on his way to meet John Hammond, the owner of the disastrous dinosaur theme park, who has invited him to his palatial residence for some mysterious reason. He is ushered into the house to the refined sound of Ludvig van Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 8 in C Minor, op. 13 "Pathetique" (Performed here by Jeno Jando) playing softly in the background and he meets in the hall Hammond’s grand children Lex and Tim with whom he shares a warm moment. But before Malcolm has a chance to see their grandfather he runs into Hammond's nephew and the current CEO of InGen corporation, Peter Ludlow, with whom he obviously is at odds. The two exchange icy insults, Malcolm finding out that Ludlow has wrested the control of InGen from his uncle due to the recent incident with the little girl and that he has plans of his own for it. We cut to Hammond’s bedroom to hear the old venture capitalist tycoon... 2. Revealing the Plans (2m2) 2:18 (LLL set D 3 Track 3, OST track 8 Hammond’s Plan 0:00-2:13) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 37 bars With Mozart’s Piano Sonata in A Minor, K.310 playing softly somewhere in the background John Hammond reveals to Malcolm the tale of the second island, Isla Sorna, and proposes that Ian should lead a four member scientific team to document the dinosaurs living there. Malcolm flatly refuses, remembering all too well the incidents on Isla Nublar four years ago and vows that he will stop the rest of the team from going. The cue starts as Hammond reveals that Sarah Harding is on the team, a smoky alto flute solo opening the piece with an air of mystery and apprehension, the melody seeming to subtly suggest perhaps the Island fanfare or the main theme from Jurassic Park in its contours drifting ominously over low strings. Harp ghosted by a subtle but sharp synthesizer effect (marked “zither” in the manuscript), flute and the string section lend a tentative and enigmatic air to Hammond’s revelation that Sarah is already on the island as Malcolm tries to call her. Here Williams adds a hint of additional foreboding to the moment by cleverly reintroducing very subtly at 1:11-1:15 the Carnivore motif from the first film on the high strings almost as a reawakened horror from Malcom's memories. He is now both furious and worried. Music is waiting, almost holding its breath as Hammond tries to convince Malcolm of the safety of the expedition and Sarah’s situation on the island when a small melodic snippet on oboe with harp and horn support finally seems to finish a quick deliberation and as Ian Malcolm announces that he is going and this will be a rescue mission, the score opens into a heroic full orchestra statement of the Island Fanfare, the orchestration here distinctly recalling the cue Jurassic Park Gate from the original film. And just as Malcolm is leaving Hammond smiles satisfied having just gathered up his team. *** Ian meets up with the other members of his team, a video documentarian Nick Van Owen (Vince Vaughn) and a field equipment expert Eddie Carr (Richard Schiff) at Carr’s busy workshop full of all kinds of travel and survival gear the latest technology only can provide. Not only does he meet the technician and the photographer but also his teenage daughter Kelly, who he had invited to meet at the workshop and who he should be looking after since her mother went off to Paris on short notice. Malcolm is trying to send her off to stay with a friend called Karen for the weekend as he is obviously busy but Kelly refuses. They argue (another Spielberg trope, poor parent/child relationships), the father being outmatched by the daughter and as Malcolm turns his attention elsewhere for a moment in preparation of the coming trip, Kelly goes wandering about in the workshop. 3. To the Island (3m1) 3:40 (LLL set D 3 Track 4, OST track 3 Malcolm’s Journey 0:00-3:37) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 123 bars The music starts as Kelly walks through the busy workshop and steps into a large trailer van full of blinking lights and high tech equipment. Strings, celeste, harp and woodwinds, most notably airy flutes and a distant call of a solo horn create a curious, luminous and almost spellbinding feel as she explores the vehicle. Expectant build-up begins, bubbling woodwinds, synthesizer and upward stirring strings joining rest of the orchestral forces and a percussive “jungle drum” rhythm in triple meter, a first hint of the Lost World theme, emerges as the camera shows a close-up of the map of the sea and coast of Costa Rica and the islands marked Las Cinco Muertes, The Five Deaths. We cut to a barge at sea, the vessel ploughing through the blue waves, the deck full of vehicles. Lower strings and woodwinds repeat a rhythmic pattern, borrowing the triple meter from the percussion that continue to pound their motif underneath the orchestra, the high strings presenting here for the first time in a nearly formal fashion the Lost World theme, the brass joining them in a robust declaration, harp decorating the upper ranges with dazzling slightly rhythmic glissandos. Music implies the sense of movement and travelling with its constant rhythm, the swaying theme itself here suggesting perhaps a sea voyage, brass intoning the main theme with assured spirit of adventure. This rendition forms a thematic bookend for the whole Isla Sorna adventure which Williams and Spielberg chose only to open and close with the theme (the closing statement following in 12m2 Heading North). When the audience sees a wider shot of the mountainous island that is their destination Williams provides a deeper and a hint more ominous rendition of the Lost World theme and continues to develop the material further, adding new instruments, woodwinds passing phrases of the theme around the orchestra accentuated by synthesizers. Ian Malcolm has been discussing with Eddie Carr, their field equipment expert, but now turns to listen to Nick Van Owen who translates the reluctant barge captain’s horror stories about the islands. The Lost World theme continues underneath the dialogue and finally builds into a triumphant crescendo ushered by timpani and colored by tambourine and cymbal crash when the film cuts to the trailer and two cars bursting into view on their way through the jungles of Isla Sorna. Malcolm follows the coordinates provided by Sarah’s satellite phone and tracks her signal in the jungle. He nears a riverbed and to his horror sees her broken and ripped backpack on the ground. Music changes pace accordingly to underscore this tension, the brass and strings sawing furiously, presenting an urgent variation on the Lost World theme, the ever present percussion propelling the men forward. And then the music suddenly comes to a dead stop as Malcolm searches Sarah’s backpack and discovers that her satellite phone is still inside. The trio shouts Sarah’s name trying to locate her but they soon find something else. 4. The Stegosaurus (3m2) 2:13 (LLL set D 3 Track 5 0:00-2:14, OST track 11 The Stegosaurus 0:00-2:12) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 44 bars The men watch in silent awe as gargantuan beasts emerge from the jungle to the rustling of leaves and branches and rumble of the earth under their feet. These creatures are Stegosauri whose massive size and gentle presence and awe they evoke are all reflected in Williams’ luminous score, orchestrationally and stylistically reminiscent of his music for the Brachiosauri and Triceratops in the first film. Slow low string harmonies swell accompanied by bubbling contraclarinets and flutes and a warm horn line, soon joined by the violins and violas and harp, creating an atmosphere of awe and wonder, the melody blooming into a gentle crescendo. Horns present an inquisitive searching melody with the celli and basses plucking a gentle pizzicato underneath to enhance the feel of these gentle giants as more Stegosauri appear from the forest. A clear solo flute and high strings offer a excited and curious melody as Nick Van Owen climbs closer to photograph the animals, the music rising to a sweet string swell as the frame reveals Sarah Harding in the same activity just few feet away. Same awed atmosphere continues as woodwinds, high strings, horns and synthesizers present snatches of the previously heard melodic idea when Sarah notices both Malcolm and Eddie in the background and offers excited report of her findings only to be cut short by Ian holding her torn backpack, the warm music turning slightly ominous as alto flutes and double basses flutter to express Malcolm’s concern. 5. Finding the Baby (3m3) 3:13 (LLL set D 3 Track 5 2:15-end, OST track 11 The Stegosaurus 2:13-end) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 91 bars Without a pause Sarah is off to follow the family of Stegosauri, Malcolm and the two other men trailing after her. She continues to explain her findings, Ian protesting and complaining continually. The paleontologist leaves the men behind and creeps closer to get a better shot with her camera, crawling slowly through the underbrush. Tense strings open the piece, sawing away a little urgent motif as Sarah is approaching the Stegosauri, music remaining rhythmic and suspenseful for a brief moment until the dreamy awe-filled musical atmosphere of the previous cue returns when Sarah discovers a baby Stegosaurus behind the bushes. This short opening passage (0:00-0:26) was cut from the film, most likely because it enhanced the tension and suspense of the moment too much and undermined the surprise coming shortly after. The score turns curious and probing as excited Sarah and the animal observe each other with mutual wonder. Same playful and gentle mood that filled My Friend the Brachiosaurus in Jurassic Park is very much apparent here even though this piece is less openly melodic. It is here that Williams presents a subtle and probing atmospheric motivic idea for the Baby Dinosaurs (2:40-4:00) on strings with flute, woodwinds, orchestral chimes and harp all creating a luminous innocent quality around it, the motif repeating in dreamy wandering variations throughout but an unsettling undercurrent takes hold as brass plays threatening bursts underneath and a cold high string line offers gradually growing unease as if to tell us that something is about to happen. And quickly it does. When Sarah starts taking pictures of the baby her camera runs out of film and begins to rewind loudly. The dinosaur baby is alarmed by this new sound and lets out a fearful cry. The orchestra begins an almost march-like repeating rhythmic phrase that is joined by the percussion, the strings, brass and flutes becoming more and more insistent in their reading of the motif as the Stegosauri attack, protecting their baby, tense brass and shrill woodwind runs underscoring the tension and panic as Sarah, who is caught in the middle of the angry lumbering beasts, dives into a hollow log for safety to get away from the deadly spiked tails of the dinosaurs. As one of them rams its tail through the log, nearly impaling her, Williams underscores the impact with a cry from the horn section (at 2:22), low pounding piano notes and percussion (log drums, tablas and timbales) commenting the aftermath, orchestra and percussion slowly winding down as the beasts wander off, strings still playing the rhythmic action motif and fading into silence as the danger recedes into the jungle. 6. Fire at the Camp (4m1) 0:54 (LLL set D 3 Track 6 0:00-0:54) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 25 bars The group is returning to the camp and Nick boasts of the footage he caught of the dinosaurs, dreaming of a Pulitzer prize. Sarah and Malcolm on the other hand are heatedly arguing about the dangers of coming to Isla Sorna. Williams provides a bit of travel music with percussion and jaunty lower strings and horns offering somewhat exotic and eerie jungle atmosphere for their discussion. All of a sudden rhythmic celli and deep horns announce that something is wrong as Eddie spots smoke in their camp. Music continues urgent with the orchestra rumbling to signal danger when all rush to the trailer only to see Kelly, Malcolm’s daughter, coming out with a smoking frying pan, the girl proclaiming her innocent intention of making dinner, the high strings releasing the tension and winding to a stunned finish in the low register, underscoring Malcolm’s reaction. What follows is an argument between Ian, Sarah and Kelly but their familial discussion is soon interrupted by the appearance of 7. Corporate Choppers (4m2) 2:24 (LLL set D 3 Track 6, 0:55-end. Unused in the film 0:40-0:58) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 76 bars InGen transport choppers rumble into view carrying heavy machinery while log drums, jungle drums, marracas and tremoloing strings and horns announce their arrival. Music is marked primitif in the score, the nervous high strings, alto flutes and low horns and trombones creating an ominous feel amidst the constant jungle percussion pulse. A queasy clarinet solo further enhances the sense of something being wrong and the brass finally building to a statement of the Island’s Voice motif at 1 minute mark, repeating several times as we cut to Peter Ludlow and his associate, big game hunter and leader of the expedition, Roland Tembo in their jeep. Music is here with very little subtlety announcing who the bad guys of this story are, tying the Island’s Voice theme as much to the dinosaur hunters as to the most ferocious of the beasts living on the island. As Roland countermands Ludlow’s ill-advised orders to his crew and gives a severe lecture on who is running the show, percussion continues its beat, woodwinds and brass veering into uncomfortable clusters and nervous rhythmic strings and synthetic voices announcing eerily the Island’s Voice again as the InGen team prepares to start 8. The Round Up (5m1) 3:30 (LLL set D 3 Track 7, OST track 4 The Hunt, unused in the film) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 144 bars This is the first actual action set piece of the score. Pounding low piano and percussion, sizzling tambourine notably adding its unique colour into the mix, repeat a rhythm that reveals itself to be the one associated with the Lost World theme, brass galloping to the fore, enhancing momentum and sense of panic and ferocity of the chaotic scene where the dinosaur flee from the pursuing humans. Williams uses variations of the triplet ideas inherent in the Lost World theme to underscore this wild chase, changing the heroic and questing nature of the composition to that of a terror and oppression, the insistent motivic fragments repeating continually in the brass, becoming almost tortured, percussion making heavy bursts, the music building steadily in orchestral power, like some monster rolling forward with unstoppable momentum. Cymbal crashes, flurries of panicked woodwinds, hooting horns, merciless timpani and the ever present snippets of the Lost World theme rhythm propel the cue along and finally to a slowly fading finish on percussion and low piano as the hunters have captured their prey, the music stopping as Dieter’s jeep closes in on the InGen team trying to capture the Parasaurolophus. In the Making Sadly this brilliant aggressive and propulsive music (performance direction to the players marked bestial in the score) was not used in the film due to the fact that the scene was extended and restructured and thus would have created problems in trying to conform the composition to the new picture. Still the original cue captures so vividly the ferocity and sheer terror of the wild chase on-screen that is it hard to believe that it was just discarded. It also cleverly hints that the only monsters in the scene are human, not the dinosaurs, who pursue them relentlessly with high tech equipment and round them up like cattle to be carted away off to an amusement park. Perhaps Spielberg felt that the composition was too powerful for the scene or that it might have dominated it or that it was too difficult to treat properly by editing and decided to use some tracked music in its stead, most notably ending with the heroic Lost World theme, which seems tonally an odd choice for a sequence which is in essence a chase and a panicked stampede. Williams' original idea also strongly emphasizes the brutality of the sequence whereas the tracking would seem to indicate a need for a slightly more adventurous tone. The changes made to the film were in the final stages of the post production and thus denied the composer a chance to re-score the scene properly. Williams was reportedly dismayed to hear that the music was discarded and the pride he took for this particular cue is easy to understand. 9. Big Feet (5m2) 1:40 (LLL set D 3 Track 8; Unused in the film 0:42-1:02) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 21 bars This cue begins as Malcolm’s team is surveying the end of the disheartening round-up, powerful timpani roll, rising strings and horns performing a 2 chord motif (performance marked tortured in the score), chimes in particular adding a fateful feel to the scene. We then shift to Roland Tembo and his companion Ajay at the jungle’s edge, bent over a huge T-Rex footprint. The Island’s Voice motif appears first subtly in basses under a sheen of eerie synthesizer effects when Roland’s and Ajay’s faces are reflected from the puddle formed into the gigantic footprint. When the accompanying dinosaur expert Dr. Burke confirms to him that it is indeed a T-Rex print we hear the Island’s Voice repeated with stronger orchestral backing, horn soloing darkly in the background and woodwinds presenting a high register bird-call style answering motif to enhance the forest atmosphere. English horn over low piano rumble and cold queasy strings and subtle comments from marimba are introduced as Tembo readies his gun, Ludlow arriving to congratulate him and then wondering where he is going. As Tembo walks off “to collect his fee” Ludlow follows a few steps behind but lands his foot into the puddle earning a sudden downward surge from the strings as the camera tilts to show the footprint again ending the piece in a low bass drum thump full of meaning. 10. Spilling Petrol (5m3/6m1) 3:45 (LLL set D 3 Track 9) Orchestrator: John Neufeld & Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 85 bars This piece begins a two part musical sequence. The cue title refers to an unused part of this particular scene where Sarah and Nick sneak into the InGen camp to release the dinosaurs from their cages while the “hunters” are occupied by Ludlow’s presentation to the InGen board of directors via satellite uplink. In the original cut there was a short segment where the duo sabotaged the vehicles by emptying the petrol from the gas tanks, hence the cue name. The percussion section first presents a rhythmic base (marked driving jungle groove) for suspense and night time jungle atmosphere while synthetic animal sound adds a primal feel to the proceedings as Ludlow is giving his speech and the two “gatherers” creep around in the camp, sinister synth sounds accompanying them, celli, basses and high strings all maintaining tension. Around 1 minute mark ghostly shakuhachi with synth doubling lets out a haunting sigh, violins and brass following a foreboding melodic line, music building around the percussion section, the synthetic animal sound wailing in the background. The orchestral writing comes suddenly to fore when Sarah and Nick open the heavy bolted doors of the dinosaur cages (2:20->), high end orchestral sounds, harp, strings and synths commenting this turn in the events, the music resembling the textures of the Baby Dinosaurs motif as we see a caged baby Stegosaurus among the captured animals. The drums return to focus again when the camera shows us Ludlow’s tent where he continues his sales pitch to the InGen board of directors, recounting the original Jurassic Park’s folly and the existence of park facilities in San Diego and his plan of recouping the company's losses with the captured dinosaurs transported to the main land. At the mention of the Jurassic Park amphitheater in San Diego the percussion give way to a nostalgic, nearly wistful, ghostly reading of the Island Fanfare which passes through the woodwind and horn sections in remembrance of Hammond's dream. Then the music without warning bursts into a Triceratops... 11. Horning In (5m3/6m1 Part II) 1:26 (LLL set D 3 Track 9 3:46-end) Orchestrator: John Neufeld & Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 45 bars Alarmed ascending hooting horn cries and energetic rhytmically charged strings underscore the Triceratops suddenly crashing into Ludlow’s tent and other dinosaurs escaping from their cages, wreaking bloody havoc around the camp, tearing through the panicking InGen crew and scattering their equipment all around. With merciless percussion and crushing staccato exclamations from the brass section an exploding jeep flies through the air and almost hits Roland and Ajay in their hideout tree where they are stalking the T-Rex, the pair just barely surviving the flaming projectile. Rhythmic strings continue to drive the action from 0:38 onwards backed by sharp snapping percussion beat as Nick finds and rescues the Tyrannosaurus baby (to another briefest hint of the ghostly Baby Dinosaurs music) that is tied to the ground and used as bait by Roland Tembo to capture an adult T-Rex. This is followed by an almost militaristic reading of the previous string idea when Roland returns to the camp, surveying the damage, reprimanding his second-in-command Dieter Stark, deep brass and cold strings underscoring Dieter’s sullen look which promises retribution to whoever did this. The percussion suddenly subsides and the music shifts to an apprehensive orchestral passage as Sarah sees Nick bringing the injured T-Rex baby to their jeep. In the Making The beginning of this cue seems to consist of music re-purposed from a later scene (see cue Truck Stop) with Williams re-orchestrating it for the dinosaur rampage in the InGen camp. This music becomes semi-thematic in the score as roughly the same energetic rhythmically insistent staccato brass and percussion section of the piece is later reprised in another cue (Rialto Ripples) as well. *** In the van Malcolm and Kelly try in vain to contact their ferry when Sarah and Nick burst in with the baby T-Rex, Malcolm horrified and nervous, Sarah going straight for an operating table to find the damage done to the dinosaur by Tembo. Kelly panics and wants to go somewhere safe. Malcolm leads her to Eddie and... 12. Up in a Basket (6m2/7m1 Part I) 3:27 (LLL set D 3 Track 10) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 66 bars Deep drums and alla marcia rhythmic horns begin a taut militaristic and almost funereal procession as we see Eddie Carr asking Malcolm what is happening and the mathematician taking Kelly to the high-hide, a metallic cage that can be hoisted up to the trees with a winch to give an observation platform and safe vantage point for the team. There is a sense of anticipation and preparation in the music, Sarah and Nick trying help the T-Rex baby. Ghostly fluttering flutes, apprehensive strings and brass underscore the high-hide reaching above the tree tops, Kelly fretting about the dinosaurs and Malcolm is trying in vain to comfort her. As he says they are now in a completely different situation than when he was in the Jurassic Park a loud roar of a Tyrannosaurus echoes through the jungle. The following passage of music, that should have started around 1 minute mark, was cut from the finished film. Under the T-Rex roar we hear a constant uncomfortable synthesized sizzling sound and the orchestra begins an urgent churning motif full of foreboding, the music raising the tension when Malcolm attempts in vain to call the trailer, trying to reach Sarah and Nick to warn them. Nick is about to answer the ringing phone but the paleontologist calls him for immeadiate assistance, the ensemble repeating the motif ever insistent. Malcolm decides to descend and get to the trailer to warn the two, Kelly begging him not to go, music changing pace to another rhythmic motif with a low piano groove, percussion and strings forming the basis as Malcolm says he is coming back and dropping out of sight down a rope. Interjections to the nervous orchestral rhythm from lowest brass become more noticeable, underscoring Eddie and Kelly witnessing the T-Rex approaching through the jungle, made visible only by the trees swaying back and forth, Williams’ repeated deep brass motif for trombones underpinned by bass drum here suggesting an almost subliminal connection to Jaws, a beast lumbering almost unseen towards our heroes, personified just by the music. These heavy brass blasts drive Ian Malcolm onward through the rainy jungle and just as he reaches the trailer door and bursts inside to warn Sarah and Nick of the coming threat the orchestra reaches an ominous shuddering crescendo. In the Making This cue plays from 0:00-0:59 in the film as composed but the rest is dialed out, letting the sound effects and silence carry the tension of the scene. The music as written would have immediately continued with 13. Up in a Basket II (6m2/7m1 Part II) 2:21 (LLL set D 3 Track 11) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 75 bars Nick, Sarah and Malcolm do not have much time to prepare before the sharp snapping percussion reminiscent of the cue Horning In and brass section making constant nervous blasts inform them and the audience that something is coming, namely the parents of the infant T-Rex they have in their care. As the beasts peer through the windows on both sides, composer introduces first the animal howl-like synthesizer voice echoing menacingly which then flows into cold shimmering orchestral and synthetic writing, the percussion sounds slowly giving away to a high register ghostly melody in the strings that resembles the benevolent musical idea Baby dinosaurs originally used for the Stegosaurus baby from the earlier scene as the T-Rexes view their whimpering offspring inside the trailer, the little motif underscoring an eerie moment of parental concern from these gigantic carnivores (0:42-1:51). The initial rhythm creeps slowly back into the music when the trio lifts the baby and carefully presents it to the parents through the trailer door, the percussion groove and subliminal shimmer synthesizer effects coming to an abrupt silence as Eddie Carr informs via the phone from the high hide that the apparent threat is over and the beasts have decided to return to the jungle with their infant. In the Making The whole cue was cut from the film, perhaps thought too energetic, aggressive and prominent for the scene, adding too much tension and drive where the silence and the eerie noises of rain and dinosaurs was all that was needed to convey the menace of these massive beasts. *** But the safety is only momentary as suddenly the dinosaurs are back and the team has only a few seconds to prepare themselves. With determined rage T-Rexes push the trailer off the cliff face, half of it dangling over the edge, our heroes in the falling half holding on for dear life as everything topples down, the van turned into a corridor to death. *** 14. Pain of Glass (7m2/8m1) 4:05 (LLL set D 3 Track 12) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 67 bars With a sharp blast from timpani and trombones Sarah falls to the bottom of the trailer’s up-ended section landing on a rear window pane (hence the pun in the cue title). The celli and basses weave an urgent chaotic motif as she is momentarily knocked out but as she comes to the pane begins to crack, small cobweb of fractures spreading under her weight. The music here has a hint of familiarity, the string idea slightly reminiscent of the Dies Irae-like danger motif from Jurassic Park (found in the cues like The Falling Car (OST CD the latter half of Incident on Isla Nublar) and Highwire Stunts) as Malcolm tries to lower himself to rescue her, the music enhancing the urgency and danger of the scene considerably. He reaches for Sarah’s hand, but the satellite phone left hanging from a tablelamp by the fall slides off and topples down, the suspense peaking fast, high strings racing and brass keening in panic, Sarah reaching for Malcolm’s hand with all her desperation. The glass shatters to the sounds of tortured aleatoric brass and furiously sawing string section but the paleontologist makes a grab for life, Ian catching her with the lucky backpack. Here an extended queasy string glissando facilitates a scene transition to Eddie Carr. Outside Eddie Carr arrives to the site of the half destroyed trailer and frantically searches for survivors as tropical storm starts to spew torrents of rain on the island. The trapped trio hollers to him for help, Williams providing suspenseful jungle beat from the percussion and the brass, piano pouding its own jazzy suspense grooves with rhythmically tugging string accompaniment that add their weight to the field equipment expert's toil and determination as he hurries to safe the team, trying to tow the trailer back up with his jeep cable as a steady rhythm from the percussion section and strings continues to underscore his efforts. 15. Truck Stop (8m2) 5:10 (LLL set D 3 Track 13, OST track 7 Rescuing Sarah [0:00-2:12] (2:12) / Unreleased (1:04) / 7 [2:12-end] (1:48) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 156 bars Eddie’s actions come in the nick of time for the trailer is starting to slide on the muddy cliff in the pouring rain, pulled towards the cliff edge by the weight of the fallen section. The music bursts to life as Eddie notices how the vehicle is slowly beginning to move towards the edge and he runs to his jeep and tries to use it to pull the van back, percussion of all kinds among them bongos, congas, logs, bass drum and gourd beating wild rhythms (performance marked brutally) to emphasize the tension and fight against time. The timpani and the rest of the orchestra then join in this seemingly chaotic and driving barrage, which propels as much Eddie’s efforts as they comment the team’s dire predicament. Woodwind trills and runs, panicked and tortured brass exclamations hinting at the Island’s Voice motif, sharp and furious string figures and above all the percussion assault the poor protagonists, filling the air with dire expectation, underscoring the efforts of the trio in the van to escape the death trap, holding on to a rope, making desperately their way up and out of the slowly falling car. Williams keys everything into the rhythmic drive in this orchestral tour-de-force of percussive invention, relentless and primal. Eddie’s valiant rescue efforts and momentary success receive near victorious brass fanfares as he fights to keep the trailer on safe ground, his determination seeming to win them the much needed time to escape. But the score announces more trouble for the team with shrill woodwind runs, queasy muted horns and kinetic string writing. Only to make matters worse, calamity piling atop of another, the two T-Rexes like harbingers of doom return, stomping out of the dark rainy jungle, orchestral chimes, fateful exclamations from the whole brass section and swirling pained and panicked string figures underscoring their footfalls at 2:52, ringing a death knell for poor Eddie as the dinosaurs attack his jeep with fury, the percussion instruments beating an ever present barrage under the orchestra. The furious brass piles on top of the strings in staccato jabs accompanied by wild riffs from the drums and sharp cymbal accents as the monsters tear the car to pieces and Eddie in half, the orchestra and percussion reaching violently racuous heights, sounding like the full ensemble is nearly toppling on itself. The trailer finally falls to its destruction but the team makes a miraculous escape, underscored by fateful deep descending chords from the trombones, orchestra winding slowly down with percussion, brass and woodwinds flailing as in the death throes of the vehicle while the Tyrannosauri return to the jungle and the trio hangs on the rope against the cliff face. When the heroes finally climb up, receiving unexpected helping hand from Roland Tembo waiting at the top of the cliff, the percussion quiets down and a horn led strained but heroic fanfare sounds out, nearly quoting the Island Fanfare but taking a different turn, the music blossoming to a tragic and noble melody of operatic proportions joined by the entire orchesta, wearily celebrating their survival but also mourning the loss of Eddie Carr. 16. Reading the Map (8m3) 3:11 (LLL set D 3 Track 14) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 90 bars Percussion returns with the rhythmic low strings to signify preparations as the two teams, hunters and gatherers, decide to join forces despite their differences of opinion in order to trek across Isla Sorna. Williams adds another rhythmic element into the mix, a subtle interpolation of a deep bass synthesizer (marked "Fender Bass" in the score) playing its own jazzy figures underneath the basses and celli to beef up the atmosphere. Roland, Ludlow and Malcolm's group inspect a map of the island and discuss their route to the old InGen facilities and communications center where they want to radio for help, mentioning to Malcolm that the buildings are at the center of island, where unfortunately the carnivores and more specifically Velociraptors live. As these cunning and deadly dinosaurs are mentioned Williams reprises the 4-note Carnivore motif on ghostly shakuhachi flute (doubled on synthesizers) much in the same style as he did in the Opening Titles of Jurassic Park, the theme calling out several times over the dominating rhythms of the percussion section. High strings, horn and woodwind colours creep into the texture of the rhythm, adding deep sonorities to the pace of the music and lending it grim determination. In the Making The first 0:00-1:42 were not used in the film and the music begins when we first hear Ludlow mentioning the Raptors and hear the first rendition of the Carnivore motif. 17. The Trek (8m4-9m1) 5:25 (LLL set D 3 Track 15, OST track 5 The Trek) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 138 bars And so the group is on its way in the rain through the jungle towards their destination. Deep resonant exotic drums play a steady softly pounding figure for the jungle trek, the horns rising ominously in series of dark melodic phrases, a Trek motif, strings making nervous jittery interjections, lower woodwinds bubbling subtly underneath and growing into a percussion accompanied horn statement of the Island Fanfare while Ian Malcolm talks to Ludlow and mentions John Hammond and his doomed dream of Jurassic Park. The rising Trek melody from the beginning of the track is repeated more grandly in the brass with woodwinds squirming underneath as we see the long line of people walking through the jungle scenery, cloud capped mountains looming ominously in the background and Roland giving a dark nervous glance as they hear the distant roar of a Tyrannosaurus. When the group arrives to a red wood forest the travelling music gives away to a collection of dark orchestral and percussive sounds that underscore Roland Tembo spotting blood on Sarah’s coat and asking is she hurt, the eerie music enhancing the dangerous situation and environs these people are in. Dieter Stark hears the nature’s call and wanders off to satisfy its demands, hollering to one of the men, Carter, to keep at a shouting distance in case he gets lost. Carter, with a walkman blaring Mexican music ("Tres Dias" by Tomas Mendez), is completely oblivious to this which is announced with foreboding by queasy strings. After stopping for a suitable spot, followed by the unnerving snapping of the orchestra and percussion, Dieter is interrupted by rustling in the underbrush and he grabs his gun, ready for anything, backing away, searching for the assailant. As he sweeps the bushes with his gun he is startled by a single Compsognathus sticking its head out of the undergrowth accented by a shakuhachi wail at 3:48. Dieter is annoyed and tries to tazer the little lizard as he has done once before but it escapes in a sizzle of a rubbed tam-tam and bubbling of woodwinds and strings. But now the mercenary is truly and hopelessly lost and Carter (who still enjoys the fine performance of the Mariachi Los Camperos De Nati Cano) can’t hear his screams from the jungle. Strings pull nervous twittering sounds, shakuhachi howls again and pizzicato violins and the sizzling of suspended cymbals all cry out his panic as he wanders through the woods frantic, woodwinds, choice brass and low strings joining an insistent rhythm as he trips on a tree root and falls down a steep slop. Suspended cymbal swell and synthesized metallic zither notes underscore him hitting the bottom with a thump. In the Making This cue was dialled almost in its entirety out of the film, the Lost World theme tracked from To the Island in its stead, replacing the rising Trek motif for the travelling sequences, the film makers favouring silence and the adventurous feel in the music over Williams’ darker and more tense and grimly determined take on their journey across the island. The eerie underscore of the red wood forest was also removed and Dieter’s predicament left mostly unscored (although the music from 3:20-3:59 for compy's appearance from the underbrush is heard in the film), very likely because Williams’ music added too much tension and foreboding to the preceding dialogue between Roland, Nick and Sarah and could have dampened the horror of the Compsognathi in the following scene. 18. The Compys! (9m2) 1:34 (LLL set D 3 Track 16 0:00-1:34, OST track 1 Island Prologue 3:27-end) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 67 bars This music should have continued without a pause from the previous cue. Dieter has no time to gather his wits after the fall when he is attacked by a swirling pack of Compsognathi, biting and clawing and climbing all over him. Piccolos chirp furiously, sul ponticello strings bow queasily, horns hoot and growl full of menace (performance for the whole ensemble is marked sinistro in the score) and is soon joined by the rest of the orchestra, the percussion pounding mercilessly, many sections of the ensemble playing aleatorically, achieving an organized chaos that describes the little dinosaurs perfectly as they swarm upon the mercenary with blood thirsty glee. The music is very similar to that heard in the first cue of the score, the little dinosaurs characterized by the same orchestral effects but even more frenzied this time around. Dieter repels the attack of the swarm and drives them away, swaying wearily along the river bed, the sinister strings, synthesized breath effects and woodwinds promising him no respite while at the temporary camp Roland calls everybody to continue their march. 19. The Compys Dine (9m3/10mA) 2:54 (LLL set D 3 Track 16 1:35-end, OST track 10 The Compys Dine 0:00-2:47) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 76 bars Carter rises from his place to leave and the camera lowers and catches Dieter’s backpack on the ground forgotten, celli and double basses and a subtle timpani rumble commenting this with quiet and tense notes. Tabla drum and maraca take us back to the river bed where the mercenary is fleeing, still shouting for help. Horns and muted trombones rise menacingly, the woodwinds slowly return to the aleatoric style of the previous cue, all orchestral sections joining in a cacophonic carnage as Compys attack in force, appearing all around, Williams scoring both their action and the sheer terror they evoke with equal precision, the musical texture and performance style becoming a theme of its own for these little carnivores. Dieter stumbles over a large fallen tree and out of sight but the dinosaurs follow in a merciless swarm, music rising to a fever pitch with raging clarinets and piccolos, timpani accenting their menace and the brass announcing the end of the man at 1:10 as we see the water turning blood red, fluttering flutes and unsympathetic strings sighing as if for his last breath. Later Roland Tembo questions Carter about Dieter Stark and atmospheric percussion and rhythmic tugging of double basses underscore his decision to go find his second-in-command. Flutter-tongued shakuhachi carries the danger inherent in the decision and the troop gets moving again, leaderless, to the sound of low ominous brass and woodwinds repeating a subtle quote of the Trek motif from cue The Trek. A light cascade of notes from the harp and percussion transition to the night camp where the dark mood is further enhanced by the cold string lines and drum rumbles as the camera moves past the sleeping men. 20. Rialto Ripples (10m1) 5:53 (LLL set D 4 Track 1, OST track 12 Ludlow's Demise 0:00-1:35) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 183 bars As Roland returns from his search double basses start a subtle menacing figure, bass drum beating a ghostly rumble in the background, the big game hunter noting flatly that Dieter is dead. Flutes, rubbed aluminum rod, triangle and vibraphone strike a cold clear sound when Tembo lights his flashlight and Malcolm and Ajay read the map with him and make plans for their next move. Strings continue dark and mysterioso, the woodwinds and brass joining them, a few slow deep bass drum cadences giving the listener a small hint of what is to come as we see Kelly and Sarah sleeping in a tent, Malcolm walking towards them. Then Sarah is suddenly awake and feels a low rumble, alarmed by it. At 1:02 the percussion section starts pounding a steady, simple and menacing march rhythm as trombones and horns flutter and growl full of dark danger, woodwinds joining soon in a repeated figure, the suspense climbing continually, timpani spiking the tension along with the continuous sizzling sounds of a suspended cymbal. Outside Malcolm sees the ripples in a muddy pool, realizing the coming threat (Williams’ cue title refers to this and nods humorously at an old rag time standard by George Gershwin called Rialto Ripples). Inside the tent the paleontologist notices the bloody coat left hanging out to dry inside, realizing that the smell of blood of the baby dinosaur must be attracting the T-Rexes but before she can do anything about it, a huge shadow is cast over the tent. The violins and violas add their cold colours to the mass of sound, suspended cymbal hissing over the bed of repeating churning orchestral effects and timpani attacking violently as the beast approaches. Here the brass becomes more pronounced, the blasts oppressive and demanding underpinned by the rolling overpowering percussion as the T-Rex pushes its head inside the tent, searching, sniffing. Kelly wakes up, and Sarah who is in a state of terror herself tries to keep the girl silent and still. The presence of the dinosaur hammers at them in Williams' music, the coiled, violent bursts of the orchestra threatening to crush them. The strings, first the high and then low register, spin uncomfortable cyclical figures backed up by synthesizers, further ratcheting up the suspense to unbearable levels. But suddenly the bottled up tension is released at 3:24 as Carter wakes up and sees the beast, screams and fires at it with his gun. Strings whip into frenzied action as they flail in rhythmic anger and the whole camp wakes up in panic, the T-Rex turning to face the sudden attackers, the lowest brass ascending ominously in the fashion of monster music of old as we get a wide shot of the dinosaur. To add to the constant sense of energy Williams keeps the pounding march from the opening half of the cue constantly going underneath the action, creating a relentless steady drive to the scene. From 3:35 until 4:06 the music again reprises a furious staccato brass and percussion passage from the cue Truck Stop underscoring here the panicked flight of the people and Tembo’s failed attempt to shoot the T-Rex as Nick Van Owen had emptied the shells from his rifle while Roland wasn’t looking. Panicked, forward hurtling rapid fire brass phrases (with virtuoso playing from the session musicians) and sharply chirping woodwind runs underscore the wild flight of the team through the jungle with the T-Rex on their tail, characterized by the low brass sounds. As the scene shifts rapidly the percussion strike up an agitated jungle rhythm underpinned by aggressive brass blast again when Roland Tembo tries to capture the other T-Rex with a tranquilizer gun, rattling clanging metallic percussive sounds further instilling momentum and tension and the low brass again rising to a monster music style deep exclamation as Tembo hits his quarry. The rhythms from the furious sawing strings, pealing synthetic chime effects and percussion become increasingly frantic as we cut to the T-Rex chase, the score surging to keep up until the ingeniously driving and wildly chaotic orchestral and percussive melange comes to a dead halt when the fleeing protagonists jump through a waterfall for safety. In the Making In the film this piece underwent editorial tinkering and as a result it was re-edited, layered with material taken probably from the unused portion of the Up in a Basket I and mixed very differently resulting in the opening part prior to 3:24 to sound wildly different in the film compared to Williams' original intentions. 21. Steiner in the Grass (10m2) 2:28 (LLL set D 4 Track 2, OST track 8 Hammond's Plan 2:05-end) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 60 bars The survivors of the T-Rex attack (Carter and Dr. Burke didn't make it) continue towards the InGen facilities and cross a meadow of high grass, the line of people filing through high stalks, forming dark furrow as they go while Ajay is in vain trying to stop them. The title of the cue is a wink to the grandfather of film music Max Steiner, whose score for 1933 film King Kong was almost certainly a partial inspiration for this score and contained exotic music for the jungle travel and locale of the Skull Island, Williams is tipping the hat to the old master in styling his piece in somewhat the same vein. Another new jungle rhythm on the percussion and jazzy low piano open the cue and slowly rising ominous brass and string lines continue in the style of the previous Trek motif but spinning unique melodic variations for the scene. Soon colder tones from the tense brass, strings and woodwind stings creep into the texture of the music as we see new dark furrows forming in the grass all around the group. Velociraptors approach and stealthily start picking off people one by one, soon creating another panicked flight. The brass continue to develop the trek material, ever ominous as Raptors go about their bloody business and the protagonists behind the main group appear just at the edge of the meadow. Nick finds Ajay’s bag in the dark, the rhythmic basses and marimba beating almost a countdown and as Malcolm hears the horribly familiar snarling in the darkness and the cries of the dying men, he breaks into a hurried flight, the orchestra following suit and with a swirl at 1:55 mark, releasing the tension, picking up speed, all orchestral sections urging them on with furious flurries as the heroes race towards the forest edge and safety, only to tumble down a slippery slope, a downward string and woodwind surge and a percussion hit signifying the end of their fall. The music continues without a pause with 22. After the Fall (10m3-11m1) 3:05 (LLL set D 4 Track 3, OST track 6 Finding Camp Jurassic) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 58 bars Under a brooding contrabassoon drone, deep trombone sonorities and celli’s and basses’ menacing murmurs the heroes find themselves in what seems like a dinosaur graveyard with huge rib cages surrounding their path. Nick says he is going to find the communications center and radio for help, not staying to wait for Malcolm who has hurt his leg in the fall, piano and harp playing probing notes as the photographer runs through the broken gates of the facility towards the main building with strings rising full of mystery. As he enters through the main entrance of the Camp Jurassic center a percussion rhythm starts over nervous strings and bubbling woodwinds. At 1:11 when Nick first jumps at seeing a T-Rex’s snout in a poster and then looks at a faded advertisement banner of Jurassic Park on the wall, we hear an equally faded and ghostly setting of the Island Fanfare, a reminder of lost dreams and faded glory, Williams again tying the old theme firmly to the earlier park rather than Isla Sorna's situation. As Nick continues to explore the vines and jungle infested main building, part shadowy part enigmatic orchestral and percussive elements take over, heightening the suspense of the exploration until another subtle variation of the Island Fanfare on brass supported by woodwinds at 2:30 announces his success of turning on the power and finding the radio, the percussion slowly fading into silence as he makes contact with the main land. 23. The Raptors Appear (11m2) 3:44 (LLL set D 4 Track 4, OST track 9 The Raptors Appear) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 104 bars Malcolm, Sarah and Kelly have finally caught up with Nick, walking past dinosaur bones and huge geothermal pipes. A ghostly wail of the Island’s Voice motif sounds repeatedly on synthesizer accompanied by almost breath like shakuhachi synth effects, tabla drum echoing alone in the distance. The group reaches the gate and the courtyard of the InGen center with strings and subtle percussion keeping up the suspense, when out of nowhere a Velociraptor appears and attacks Sarah, eliciting a rising scream from the horn section and a new action rhythm from the percussion. Luckily the raptor decides to maul Sarah’s backpack instead and so she escapes with her life. Malcolm heroically attracts the attention of the beast as Kelly and Sarah run for safety into an old shed but two more Raptors appear and immediately go after them and try to dig their way in, all the while the women try to dig their way out from the the other side of the building and Malcolm fights for his life in the courtyard. Much as in the cue Truck Stop, the percussion rhythm established at the beginning dominates while brass makes snarling and hooting interjections and drives the music forward by presenting snatches of their own action motif and the Island’s Voice, the synthesized animal noise rising to haunt the protagonists along with aleatoric woodwind screams as three raptors try to kill our heroes. The Island’s Voice calls out in deadly synthesized voices around 1:25 and 2:25, receiving a more ponderous reading with brass accompaniment at 2:42 as the situation grows more dire and until all the orchestral forces, notably including wild aleatoric woodwind section, grow more chaotic by the second and finally the music comes to a staccato halt with brass and percussion hits when the women get the boards loose in the back wall and try to escape that way. 24. High Bar and Ceiling Tiles (11m3-12m1) 4:12 (LLL set D 4 Track 5) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 136 bars But another Raptor is waiting outside and a sharp timpani stinger and the percussion rhythm return as the action writing in the style of the previous cue continues fresh and furious. Sarah and Kelly have no choice but to go up climbing toward the roof for safety. Malcolm who has been trapped in a car, succeeds in evading the Raptor and runs inside driven by nervous blasts of brass, only to find himself face to face with another of the vicious carnivores that has nearly gotten in. He decides to climb as well and the orchestra and percussion follow his movements while cruel rhythmic brass exclamations trail the Raptor jumping after him. In the nick of time Kelly saves her father with a well targeted gymnastic move, sending the dinosaur through a window and to its demise below, impaled on a palisade, underscored by cymbal crashes and deep fateful staccato bursts from the brass section starting at 1:19. But the victory is only temporary and after a short pause the Raptor brass sounds return with vengeance as Sarah heads for the roof while Malcolm and Kelly escape through the shed door. Nervous aleatoric woodwinds again creep into the score alongside Sarah’s panic as the vicious beast is after her and she has to make a leap to the roof of another building with the creature in hot pursuit. Her jump falls short, leaving her hanging from the slate roof edge with the score ratcheting up the tension and drive with the ever present percussion drive and sharp trumpet figures. The dinosaur jumps ahead of her so now one Raptor waits Sarah on the roof and another on the ground below. She hangs by the roof tiles and gets a quick idea and begins to pull the slates down. Slowly but surely the shingles give away and take the precariously balanced Raptor with them. Here the raging woodwinds, quick sharp brass bursts and string figures now accentuated by cymbal hits create a feel of deadly unpredictability, the musical chaos climbing to a small crescendo at 2:31 resembling the finale of the previous cue. But as Sarah loses her hold of the tiles and falls, the score shifts to new action rhythm and the two Raptors, now is midst of a scrambling fight with one another battling for the quarry, are scored by keening brass tones and a subtle quote of the Island’s Voice at 2:36. The paleontologist tries to stay out the way of the hissing, biting creatures and suddenly falls through a trap door and out of a window to land safely near Malcolm and Kelly. Brass and percussion continues in staggered bursts, repeating the action motif of the previous two cues, the Island’s Voice howling several times in the brass becoming each time more dramatic and ponderous as the heroes try to make their escape. And almost as if exhausted along with the characters the score comes to a sudden slow fading coda in the strings and weary horns as they get to the helicopter pad of the visitor center with Nick waiting for them and InGen helicopter approaching. In the Making In the film the Lost World theme concert version was tracked in as Sarah falls through the floor and continues when the trio heads for the main building’s helicopter pad, the triumphant feel more suitable for their rescue. Williams original music was much darker and harsher, letting the savage mood and tension continue almost up until the last minute. 25. Heading North (12m2) 2:14 (LLL set D 4 Track 6, OST track 3 Malcolm’s Journey 3:33-end) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 46 bars Weary string lines rise as the helicopter is taking our heroes off the island, offering a melancholy respite from the ordeal they have just experienced, harp and brass offering their own somber tones to the quiet moment of aftershock for the protagonists. Deeper brass creeps into the music assisted by a timpani roll when we are shown Ludlow and Tembo with another InGen team capturing the sedated T-Rex male, the CEO congratulating the hunter for his prize. Tembo, who has lost his friend Ajay, is grim, remarking that he is glad to get away, having spent enough time in the company of death, timpani rumble, husky flutes and low strings underscoring his lines. For a transition shot of the helicopter appearing in the night skyline of San Diego Williams offers a grand yet dark reading of the Lost World theme complete with tambourine flourishes, but even in triumph it is tempered by the horrors experienced on Isla Sorna. And thus the new main theme of the score musically bookends the whole experience on the island. But the story isn't over yet. 26. Ludlow’s Speech (12m3) 3:15 (LLL set D 4 Track 7) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 91 bars This cue begins the last act of the film. Ludlow is desperate to re-coup his losses and is transporting the T-Rex to San Diego on a boat, having already spirited the infant Tyrannosaur to the InGen facilities in the city via helicopter. He has gathered media at the docks to greet the arrival of the cargo ship due to land in the early hours of the morning and is holding a press conference. Ian Malcolm and Sarah are there to witness this folly. The music continues very much in the jungle mood as the percussionists set up another rhythmic groove underneath the orchestra that now has both a conspiratorial and expectant feel to it, especially thanks to the dotted nervous woodwind lines that crisscross the composition. As the harbor master interrups Ludlow’s speech and calls him to inspect something in the offices, the inexorably rising orchestral and synthesizer lines of the Island’s Voice motif supported by the percussion section give us a forewarning that something is certainly amiss as the motif is taken over and repeated in turn by several sections of the ensemble. The ship arrives but they can’t make contact with it, the vessel approaching the docks with an alarming speed with no signs of slowing down and when the blinking dot on the radar grows closer and closer the brass and woodwinds present their own nervous dotted figures over ominous high string lines and percussion for the nearing ship. A tense countdown motif begins in the orchestra, rhythmically taut and persistent, gathering up speed with the vessel, a ghostly synthesized wail of the Island’s Voice and full ensemble reaching terrifying intesity and a lengthy thunderous crescendo the score comes to a halt just after the ship appears from the darkness and plows into the pier wreaking chaos and destruction. In the Making In the film the music stops short at 1:59 as people are watching the night sea and hearing the ship approaching, the rest of the mounting tension of the scene is carried just by sound effects. 27. WOMPI’s Wrench/Wreck? (12m4) 2:22 (LLL set D 4 Track 8, OST track 10 The Compys Dine 2:47-end) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 36 bars Muted horns and slow ominously tremoloing strings set the mood of building horror for the scene, the Island’s Voice motif performed cruelly by the woodwinds and then passed between different instruments, obviously announcing death. Ludlow, Sarah and Malcolm with the harbour and InGen officials climb to inspect the ship only to find carnage onboard, with bodies littering the decks, victims of unseen assailants. The Island’s Voice is heard again in ghostly synthesizer voices, Ludlow nauceously backing out from the bridge of the ship after seeing the captain’s severed hand holding the wheel. Sarah and Malcolm both notice the big cargo hatch of the ship clanking as if the mechanism had stuck and notice a dead man holding the remote. With tabla playing softly in the background, the brass section starts a slow menacing series of growling bursts that grow in intesity, the Island’s Voice making another exclamation in the midst of mounting dread. Strings shudder, the brass continue their deep ponderous blasts now paced out slower for increasingly foreboding effect as Ludlow wants the cargo hold opened and while Malcolm tries to stop him, one of the police is quicker and obliges. Malcolm calls everybody off the boat. In the Making This cue went completely unused in the film which favours again silence over music. The music would have started immediately in the aftermath of the ship’s crash, as the survivors survey the devastation. 28. Monster On the Loose (12m5) 2:38 (LLL set D 4 Track 9) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 50 bars And thus the button is pushed setting the Rex on the loose! The ponderous monstrously deep brass blasts from the previous cue return with even more commanding weight as the T-Rex emerges from the cargo hold, crying havoc, the rhythmic gait of the music underscoring its heavy steps as it disembarks the ship and heads for land. Strings spiral into a tight knot and a percussion and timpani rumble alongside the grave brass heralding a dire reading of the Island Fanfare as Malcolm announces to the trembling CEO of InGen that now Ludlow is like John Hammond, his dream in pieces and a monster set free in the city of San Diego, the theme here another bittersweet reminder of the noble pipe dream gone awry for the second time. The T-Rex crashes past the harbour buildings to the heavy plodding of the orchestral forces, high strings presenting their own fateful rhythmic motif over the cymbal crashes, double bass and timpani, Tyrannosaurus Footfalls, the phrase ending with pounding timpani notes as we see the creature against the silhouette of the city growling its fury. The percussion section offers some suspense accompanied by writing for strings and synthesizers, Malcolm and Sarah inquiring from the InGen technician what was used to tranquilize the beast and demanding from Ludlow where the T-Rex baby was taken, Sarah planning to use the infant to lure the monster back to the ship. The Island’s Voice on ghostly synth voices and strings makes an eerie another appearance, Ludlow sitting despondent and still in shock, telling them the baby is at the InGen waterfront facility, muted sharp horns and clarinets underscoring the duo’s decision to go and get it as they speed off in Malcolm's car. In the Making In the film a portion of this composition was replaced by music tracked from the following cue (A Neighborhood Visitor) when we see the T-Rex against the city lights. 29. A Neighborhood Visitor (13m1) 3:26 (LLL set D 4 Track 10 0:00-3:26, OST track 13 Visitor In San Diego 0:00-3:24; Unused in the film 0:00-22) Orchestrator: John Neufeld Length (sheet music): 72 bars In the middle of the night the T-Rex wanders around a San Diego suburb, seeing a pool in the backyard of a house and stopping for a drink. Deep taiko drums, bass trombones, contrabass clarinets, bassoons, celli and double basses shudder under the steps of the monster, catching its movements, horns growling a throaty and pinched variation of the Island’s Voice motif. The camera moves inside the house and into the bedroom of a small boy. The fish tank beside his bed vibrates to unseen footfalls, the tremors captured by the harp, metallic rub rod,skittery sul ponticello strings, woodwinds and percussion and synthesizers, the Island’s Voice subtly quoted by bass clarinets as the boy wakes up. He sees the T-Rex and backs away, goes to his parents’ room and drags the sleepy and complaining pair to his room babbling all the time about a dinosaur in their backyard, the expectant nervous orchestral effects coalescing, clarinet and flute presenting twice a jumpy variation on the Island’s Voice in a bed of bubbling woodwinds and percussion. At 1:35 very quietly at first a familiar rhythm of Tyrannosaurus Footfalls takes hold of the score, growing slowly in menace under rising string reading of the Island’s Voice, finally reaching a dramatic peak as the parents see the hulking beast through the window with a dog coop hanging by the chain from its jaws, ferocious horns repeating the 4-note Tyrannosaurus Footfalls rhythm and adding a 5th note here imitating the T-Rex’s roar. At 2:09 the Tyrannosaurus Footfalls and its accompanying rhythmic string motif continue as we cut to Malcolm and Sarah speeding towards the InGen facilities, the cymbal crashes coinciding with the moment before the car crashes through a guardpost safety beam. The heroic and urgent Island Fanfare calls out over the string motif as the two arrive at the Jurassic Park facilities and the discovery of the caged baby T-Rex is treated to a brief ethereal passage for flute and synthesized zither, perhaps a textural nod to the earlier music for the infant dinosaurs heard in the film. As our heroes take the infant and get into the car, the forceful string motif from earlier returns and with this determined musical ally the pair prepares to go searching for the adult Tyrannosaurus. In the Making The heavy percussive opening (0:00-0:22) was ultimately not used in the film and T-Rex steps into the backyard in silence, the sound effects again carrying the suspense without musical help. 30. Streets Of San Diego (13m2) 4:14 (LLL set D 4 Track 10 3:27-end, OST track 13 Visitor In San Diego 3:24-end; Unused in the film 0:00-0:41) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 105 bars Meanwhile on the streets the panic is rising. A quick cut to a screaming woman’s face opens the cue as rapid fire trumpets and yelping piccolo runs launch her car away from the T-Rex only to crash into the side of another vehicle. Sharp snapping of piccolo snare drum, percussion, resounding cymbal hits and brass describe the on-screen mayhem with raucous fury, low thumping piano and the strings joining the fray. People flee in panic. The Island’s Voice makes a doom laden announcement in the brass further enhanced by the cymbal crashes at around 0:50. The raging orchestral forces push the action forward, Malcolm and Sarah spotting the monster, Sarah waking the baby and its voice luring the adult T-Rex after them and the beast giving furious chase all captured with brilliant aggressive and blazing music for orchestra, brass and percussion highlighted throughout the cue. Again the rhythm seems to be the key here, the ever driving momentum hurtling the action forward with unstoppable speed. At 2:32 a new action rhythm appears, underpinned by deep blasts from trombones and tuba, the trumpets wild and fervent, horns howling the Island’s Voice, the music underscoring Malcolm and Sarah dashing through the streets and into the harbor, abandoning the car and cutting through the warehouses on foot with the T-Rex in hot pursuit, reaching the ship and dropping off the Tyrannosaurus baby and with the final flourish of the Island’s Voice from the orchestra the pair jumps over the ship's railing into the water, leaving baffled Ludlow to take measure of the situation. In the Making The opening 42 seconds music were not used in the film for the initial shots of the Tyrannosaur attack starting from the transition to the screaming woman backing away from the dinosaur up until the shot where the mauled bus crashes into the video rental store. Interestingly a brief snippet of High Bar and Ceiling Tiles (deep Island's Voice exclamation) makes an appearance for the shot of fleeing Japanese businessmen before the actual cue returns as the script writer David Koepp makes his cameo as the unfortunate pedestrian who gets eaten by the Tyrannosaurus. 31. Ludlow’s End (13m3-14m1) 2:52 (LLL set D 4 Track 11, OST track 12 Ludlow's Demise 1:35-end) Orchestrator: John Neufeld & Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 74 bars A string motif similar to the one heard under Tyrannosaurus Footfalls (and in snippets in the previous cue) returns in much accelerated guise with full orchestra backing as Ludlow looks down into the cargo hold with a helicopter and a sniper emergimg from the background ready to kill the adult dinosaur. In a shimmer of harp the motif dies down and atmospheric sul ponticello strings and the nervous percussion passages underscore Ludlow descending to the cargohold to find the baby T-Rex, synthesized animal howl further enhancing the edgy moment for the InGen CEO. But soon the adult T-Rex emerges behind the cargohold doors and comes down to find its infant and the previous string action ostinato motif returns with vengeance punctuated by agitated woodwinds, fateful brass rising to an exclamation point of Ludlow’s demise, orchestral hits scoring the baby T-Rex descending on the wounded man and finishing him off. Outside Sarah and Malcolm are determined to safe the dinosaurs, Sarah loading a tranquilizer gun, the string action motif, breathlessly fast brass figures and cymbals raising the tension while in the helicopter the sniper is ready to take the T-Rex down per Ludlow’s orders. Finally the piece reaches its dramatic conclusion with the tortured string and brass lines over percussion pulse rising to a climax, a heavy orchestral thump announcing Sarah’s tranquilizer dart finding its mark. In the Making In the film only the first 15 seconds of the cue are used but the suspenseful underscore is dropped and the T-Rex capturing and crippling Ludlow and feeding the man to his infant and Sarah tranquilizing the creature were tracked with the Lost World theme concert version (and End Credits intro). Williams originally scored the scene much as a continuation of the previous action cues, the string motif heavy and unrelenting, enhancing the ferocity and merciless way the dinosaurs dispatch Ludlow. The film makers’ intention was obviously to highlight justice being done, the bad guy of the movie getting his rightful reward for his actions, with the dinosaurs representing the nemesis and the music celebrating the happy ending for these animals. This could be seen as a continuation of a tradition started in Jurassic Park of showing the T-Rex in a heroic light as it's appearance was re-scored with tracked music (The Island Fanfare) also in the first film to give the finale an optimistic feel. But in some way the original cue fitted the action much better even though it deprived the scene of a victorious sense of closure, which Williams reserved for the next cue. 32. The Saving Dart (14m2) 3:01 (LLL set D 4 Track 12, Film Edit LLL D 4 Track 15, OST track 14 Finale and Jurassic Park Theme 0:00-2:23) Orchestrator: Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 57 bars Fluttering woodwinds, synthesized celesta/piano and tremoloing strings announce the Tyrannosaurus falling unconscious and into the safety of the cargo hold. Led by the horn section the orchestra rises to a noble but tragic exclamation of victory and the end for the adventure as Malcolm, weary and breathless surveys the scene in front of him, offering Sarah a grateful and relieved look. We cut to a hotel room and see the trio on a couch with a CNN news report showing on the television, Sarah and Malcolm sleeping, Kelly alone watching the transportation of the dinosaurs back to the island. With harp accompaniment flutes, horns and strings present a luminous slow and fragmented major mode variation on the Lost World theme, here warm and comforting, the news showing the cargo ship at sea escorted by the military back to Isla Sorna. When John Hammond offers his own view on the matter in the TV interview, piano enters alone, playing the Dinosaurs theme (or the Main theme) from Jurassic Park offering its gentle blessing to the endeavor and to Hammond’s dream continuing in another form. The film then cuts to Isla Sorna and shows the dinosaurs living in their natural habitat while a wistful and slightly pensive coda using subtle interpolation of the Island's Voice motif on synthetic chorus with gentle harp arpeggio accompaniment trails into silence as a Pteranodon lands on a branch of a nearby tree, letting out a victorious cry. Life has indeed found a way. In the Making In the film the short 38 second ending of the cue was replaced by the Island Fanfare tracked from the concert suite material recorded for the film, ending the movie on a more positive and triumphant note. This editorial version was also included on the LLL set (Disc 4 track 15) while on the original soundtrack album the suite from Jurassic Park followed immediately after the piano rendition of the Dinosaurs theme. Williams original more subdued and pensive ending can be heard on the LLL set for the first time. 33. End Credit Intro (unnumbered) 0:14 Orchestrator: ? Length (sheet music): 11 bars For the End Credits Williams wrote a revised opening for the new theme of the film featuring a bit deeper brass, horns and trombones in particular, and percussion than the original version. This is edited to flow to 34. The Lost World (End Credits) 3:34 (LLL set D 3 Track 1, D 4 Track 14 (with End Credit Intro), OST track 1 The Lost World) Orchestrator: John Neufeld & Conrad Pope Length (sheet music): 134 bars The concert version of the main theme. As with many Williams’ concert suites this seems to almost tell the story of the film. Here the thematic material receives its most adventurous, celebratory and lengthiest development closing the score in the most triumphantly thrilling and satisfying way. 35. Jurassic Park Theme 5:30 (unnumbered) (LLL set D 4 Track 13, OST track 14 Finale and Jurassic Park Theme 2:23-end) To accommodate the length of the end credits Williams re-recorded his concert arrangement of his two main themes from Jurassic Park, which he created after the release of the first film and recorded for one of his Boston Pops compilation albums, Williams on Williams: The Classic Spielberg Scores. In the suite he first presents the Dinosaurs Theme/Theme from Jurassic Park, which starts much as it does on the original soundtrack album, on solo horn, but the performance is markedly faster and there is no choral accompaniment. The composition fuses together thematic development from the Welcome to Jurassic Park and the cue Dinosaurs from Jurassic Park and goes fluidly to the Island Fanfare that has also gotten embellishments in the orchestration, making it a bit more powerful performance percussion-wise than on the Jurassic Park OST and closing with the triumphant music from the end of T-Rex Rescue and Finale. In the Making In the film the Island Fanfare portion of this suite opens the end credits which is then edited to continue with the Lost World theme concert arrangement which in turn is editorially combined with theme's variations from the cue To the Island . The Theme from Jurassic Park section of the suite goes completely unused in the film and the end credits and can only be heard on the album releases of the score. -Mikko Ojala- © Special thanks to Datameister, Jason LeBlanc and Goodmusician for complete cue lists, musical analysis, mock-ups and all the rest. Notes [1]The Lost World DVD documentary: The Making of the Lost World. © 1997 Universal Studios & Amblin Entertainment Inc. © 2001. All Rights Reserved. [2]Wikipedia article: The Lost World Jurassic Park (film score) written by Datameister. [3]Wikipedia article: The Lost World Jurassic Park (film score) written by Datameister. [4]The Lost World DVD documentary: The Making of the Lost World. © 1997 Universal Studios & Amblin Entertainment Inc. © 2001. All Rights Reserved.
  2. Recently, the question of how much of the CoS score was done by William Ross came up, and I said I'd do an analysis basen on what we have. Well here it is! There are also a lot of misconceptions thrown around about how much of the score is just retreading the first one, I hope my final numbers can put an end to that. Any thoughts and corrections on calculating errors, typos and unnoticed references are most welcome! I'm using the leaked PS and CoS sessions, so the main analysis will only take into account the final intended version of every cue so far known to be recorded for the movie, no unused/not recorded music from leaked sheets and no tracked cues. I will assume satisfactory knowledge of the movies and all major themes at least. I've also decided to have a look at the OST and recommend the best cues not on it, and also to break down the major tracked cues appearing in the cue list, just for completion's sake - look for the Appendix at the end of this post. The Analysis My custom terminology OM - Old Material, used in PS, similar tempo, similar orchestration - will reference PS session cues, slates and timecodes if relevant, won't if unnecessary (I don't have to point out where Nimbus 2000 is in Hedwig's Theme) AM - Adapted Material, themes/specific cues used in PS or other movies, but adapted/orchestration and tempo changed significantly enough (like Nimbus 2000 in Cakes for Crabbe and Goyle, for example) NM - New Material, thematic and melodic material first heard in CoS From Reel 3 onwards, I'll be using contractions for frequently reappearing themes with long and tedious names : 3NL - 3-Note Loop (original Philosopher's Stone motif here repurposed as a generic danger/mystery theme) HWWO - Harry's Wondrous World Opening N2 - Nimbus 2000 Reel 1 Reel 1 Old Material: 05:52 Adapted Material: 03:19 New Material: 06:07 Complete: 15:18 Reel 2 Reel 2 Old Material: 5:56 Adapted Material: 3:22 New Material: 8:40 Complete: 17:58 Reel 3 Reel 3 Old Material: 2:49 Adapted Material: 3:51 New Material: 5:43 Complete: 12:23 Here I must also stop to say the movie must have been criminally overspotted, because a lot of good and new bits have been left out. Normally, lots of bits and pieces go missing, because the picture gets trimmed after the recording takes place, so the music goes with them, but here most scenes are intact and the music is taken out from under them, for example the beginning of Transformation Class (I guess they wanted the 3NL to be more sudden and dramatic in its appearance?) or the Whomping Willow and some Spiders material (probably tension and "jumpscare" reasons). This could potentially be forgiven had most of Reel 8 not been tracked - a lot of important action score, mysteries and big revelations to never see the light of day because JW had to spend his time writing minutes of unrecorded music, and writing and recording several more minutes that were not used. Kind of like The Arena vs. The Battle of Geonosis all over again! Reel 4 Reel 4 Old Material: 3:40 Adapted Material: 1:54 New Material: 8:46 Complete: 14:20 Reel 5 Reel 5 Old Material: 2:05 Adapted Material: 4:57 New Material: 7:20 Complete: 14:22 Reel 6 Reel 6 Old Material: 2:40 Adapted Material: 1:27 New Material: 3:31 Complete: 7:38 Reel 7 Reel 7 Old Material: 4:56 Adapted Material: 1:54 New Material: 9:58 Complete: 16:48 Reel 8 Reel 8 Old Material: 00:00 Adapted Material: 2:16 New Material: 9:35 Complete: 11:51 Reel 9 Reel 9 Old Material: 4:13 Adapted Material: 3:24 New Material: 4:14 Complete: 11:51 Conclusions Standout NM cues: All Dobby material, Magical Household, all Lockhart material, all Flying Car material, all Fawkes material, Writing on the Wall, Transformation Class, Petrified Colin, Dueling Club, The Spiders Pt.2, Ginny Gets Snatched, Reel 8 Standout OM cues: Escape from the Dursleys, Letters from Hogwarts, Harry meets Lucius, Introducing Colin / Mail, Flying Pixies, Dumbledore and Harry, Reunion of Friends Total Numbers: Complete: 2:02:29 Old Material: 32:11 (26.27%) Adapted Material: 26:24 (21.55%) New Material: 63:54 (52.17%) Discrepancies between the final numbers and the cue list numbers can come down to podium changes, or the fact that I couldn't be bothered to count the seconds of silence on the beginning of every sessions track or in the middle of some cues. The final percentages would not be impacted in any significant way. So on an expanded 2-disc release, counting with 78 min. max per disc, there would be at least 36:40 left for bonus material, probably a few minutes more, since the aforementioned silences and properly joined tracks would make the score shorter than my estimate. I believe we have no idea how many alternates exist/were recorded/were even written, if not many, this could probably house the Children's Suite (24:11 if we count Harry's Wondrous World as the finale, 18:50 if we don't). We'll 100% get HWW as the HP1 Credits, so on HP2 it'll either be the Credits or the Suite (and thus the CD2) finale, if the suite or even the HWW is on there, of course. Appendices Appendix A Reel 10 (Additional material, I don't consider these part of the score) Appendix B The tracked cues - what do they consist of? (An editing guide) Appendix C A complete intended score editing guide This includes every single sessions cue (even ones removed from the movie) and tracked cues. Note: this is simply a guide to my preferred way of listening to the score, not an attempt at a complete film edit recreation with all edited out bits and pieces tracked down; that exceeds even my patiance and tolerance levels, it's work for another year - and probably another user. (A Remixed and Restored trilogy á la Jurassic Park based on the Black Friday John Williams Harry Potter Collection, perhaps? :P) I consider two types of edits: hard and soft. A hard edit means two cues were written to be joined/overlapped, but recorded separately. Listening to them separate worsens the listening experience because you get a buildup to an unsatisfying climax, a few seconds of silence, then a sudden out-of-nowhere climax and continuation. Temple of Doom, for example, is filled with these types of transitions. A soft edit just means one cue is winding down/a note is held, while the other starts or winds up without there being a gap between these. Not joining these cues does not necessarily worsen the listening experience. Hard edits I always recreate, this means I had to split a few tracked cues in half in Reel 8 to avoid overstuffed, non-focused 15 minute tracks. Soft ones I'm more liberal with - if it makes sense musically and thematically as one track, I'll even join cues separated by seconds of silence in the movie. Since there are way more soft edits than hard ones, I'll only indicate hard edits (+ and +h instead of +s and +h). The final track names are my own creations, sometimes I'd reference the edit I've listened to for years, sometimes an original session name since I like it better, sometimes it's completely made up. Appendix D So what is on the OST? Personal comments incoming, feel free to ignore them if you happen to like inexplicably random and non-chronological presentations! OST Old Material: 22:26 (31.83%) Adapted Material: 6:44 (9.55%) New Material: 41:19 (58.62%) Complete: 70:29 Appendix E Which unreleased cues can I look forward to most in a future expansion if I don't touch bootlegs and session leaks? (Personal favourites, recommendations) Yes, I've got way too much free time.
  3. In this video, I explore how John Williams adds memorability and interest to some of his most famous themes with a rhythmic technique I call "Cell Repetition with Divider". Enjoy! Edit: Video updated!
  4. Hi everyone, first time poster here! I'm writing an academic paper on how Williams approaches scoring gender, and using KoCS as my main case study. Wondering what everyone's thoughts are on how it sits within the canon of the Indy scores? Personally, I enjoy Irina's theme but its presentation of her as some femme fatale style figure seems somewhat reductive(?). Especially when compared to Dr. Schneider in Crusade! The Crystal Skull motifs are very hypnotic, but don't compare to the Ark or Grail theme. The variations of the theme when linked to Mutt are interesting, it seems as if the music was trying to tee him up to take over from Ford. And the callbacks to Marion's theme and the father/son theme were welcome additions, I think JW stuck a nice balance between nostalgia and making something new. Any insights, or links to Williams talking about the score would be much appreciated!
  5. Hello, Some time ago I made that score reductions and analysis of Yoda's Theme and The Throne Room like other scores are analyzed on FilmScoreAnalysis channel. I think that's very interesting to look and analyze some masterworks by John Williams and other composers. (New version): I'm also working on analysis of Across The Stars and I will upload it at the end of the month. If you have any ideas what to do to make my analysis better, please, tell me. 🙂 Edit: Here's Across The Stars analysis Edit 2: Here's Anakin's Theme: Edit 3: Han Solo And The Princess https://youtu.be/8lbR7n1DcKE Edit 4: The Emperor's Arrival https://youtu.be/HJXs0HP35p8 Edit 5: Leia Breaks The News Edit 6: Another Happy Landing: Edit 7: Star Of Bethlehem The Death Star Theme from Schindler's List: Ps. And if you have any ideas what score should I analyze next also please, tell me.
  6. Well it is finally done and I am glad that I can present this in the honor of our Maestro John Williams' 80th anniversary. As always input, critique and comments are more than welcome in every regard. I hope you enjoy this rather lengthy analysis. EDIT: The analysis has been updated on 17th of December 2018 after La-La Land Records' Harry Potter: John Williams Soundtrack Collection was released after 27th of November 2018. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone A Magical Masterpiece A Complete Score Analysis by Mikko Ojala Auspicious beginnings – The birth of a modern fantasy classic When J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter children’s book series had gradually taken phenomenal flight after the release of the 1st novel in 1997 and continued its rise with the sequels that came in steady flow in 1998, 1999 and 2000, Hollywood took interest. This was obviously becoming a popular children’s franchise and a literary phenomenon that appealed to readers of all ages and was taking the world by storm. The film studios saw the potential in this colorful and compelling story which had a great mix of humour, adventure and danger and more than a sprinkle of magic and that would be ideal to make it into a hit film. In 1999 Rowling sold the rights to the first four books to Warner Brothers who immediately began to plan a series of films based on them, with the first film’s release set initially for the summer of 2001 but later postponed due to production delays to the fourth quarter of the same year. The first novel of the series Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (HPPS for short) tells the story of the eponymous protagonist, a young English orphan boy living with his aunt, uncle and cousin in Surrey, England. The relatives treat him terribly and have housed him in a cupboard under the staircase. His life is quite miserable but he seems to have unexplainable abilities that manifest when he is in trouble or angry, that makes strange things happen around him. Thanks to these mysterious occurences his stuffy and ordinary relatives shun and fear him even more, being as they are the paragons of normality, a virtous image of British suburban life and as a consequence coming off as thoroughly dull and conventional. But suddenly on his 11th birthday Harry receives a letter from an unlikeliest of places, Hogwarts, a school of Witchcraft and Wizardy, informing that he has been accepted there to study the magical arts. The revelation that he is infact a wizard opens a whole world of magic, wonder but also of danger to him. He goes to this strange school, leaving his dreary life with his relatives, the Dursleys, behind him and diving headlong into the new and exciting world of wizards and witches that co-exists with the world of normal people or Muggles as wizards call them. At school he makes two inseparable friends, Ron Weasley , a red headed, loyal and good humored boy and Hermione Granger, a studious, clever and serious girl, with whom he shares his adventures. During his first year Harry also befriends the Hogwarts’ half-giant Groundskeep Hagrid and the Head Master Albus Dumbledore but also makes a few enemies, the chief among them a teacher, Magic Potions Master Severus Snape and a fellow student Draco Malfoy who continue to be an obstacle in his adventures throughout the book series. In the backdrop of the story looms the shadow of Lord Voldemort, the greatest dark wizard of all time who, as we find out with our protagonist, killed Harry’s parents yet the boy by some miracle survived and Voldemort himself was mysteriously destroyed. Harry received a lightning shaped scar on his forehead from this tragedy and this earned him the enigmatic title of the Boy Who Lived. Harry’s first school year is full of new exciting things, magic, broom flying lessons, Quidditch (a wizard sport played while flying with broom sticks through the air, a sort of mix of rugby, cricket, basket- and baseball), extraordinary encounters with monsters, ghosts and curious events and people. More than that Harry gets involved in solving a mystery surrounding Voldemort’s possible return and the Philospher’s Stone, a magical artefact, that this dark wizard covets. In the end the three friends succeed in stopping the dark lord from returning (for the time being) and keeping the precious miracles performing stone safe from the clutches of his evil. Through magic, honesty, friendship and most of all simple courage our small hero overcomes nearly insurmountable obstacles and defeats his foes and at the end of the school year returns home to Dursley’s for the summer, the final lines of the book promising his return to the world of magic next year (and the inevitable sequel novel). The Movie makers Rowling sold the film rights to the Warner Bros. for a sum of 1 million £ (US$1,982,900) and made additional stipulations regarding the production, including an all British/Irish cast (exceptions for foreign characters were allowed) to keep the cultural integrity of the film and she retained the right to inspect and approve the screenplay. The film production began in 2000, with Chris Columbus being chosen to create the film from a short list of directors that included among others Steven Spielberg and Rob Reiner. Columbus had a lot of experience in working with children having such movies as Home Alone, Home Alone 2, Mrs. Doubfire and Stepmom under his belt, each with children in major roles and the work on these family pictures was cited by the Warner Brothers as one of the main reasons for their decision to hire him.[1] And Chris Columbus was no stranger to fantasy genre either, having penned a number of fantasy/adventure screen plays in the adventure film’s heyday in the 1980’s including e.g. The Young Sherlock Holmes, Gremlins and Goonies, which also featured children or teens in lead roles and contained an ample amount of fantasy elements. The screenplay for HPPS was written by Steve Kloves who went for Rowling for approval and she received a certain amount of creative control over it. As already mentioned she also retained some degree of creative control over other aspects of the production, an arrangement that the director Columbus did not mind and by including her insured that her creation was treated with respect. The film was shot at Leavesden Film Studios in England and numerous historic buildings and sites around the United Kingdom. Chris Columbus’ vision for the world of Harry Potter was to present the Muggle or ordinary world as drab and devoid of colour and in constrast the magical world of Hogwarts would have a stronger palette of vibrant colour and detail.[2] The Hogwart’s School of Witchcraft and Wizardry receives a highly British veneer from extensive location shooting at various historical sites and buildings, the castle becoming a sprawling and varied cultural backdrop for the story to unfold. The colorful and whimsical cinematography captures a story book atmosphere reaching for inspiration in the most luminous architectural and design ideas of various historical periods mixed with modern sensibilities, evoking at the same time somewhat Dickensian spirit throughout. The British (and Irish) cast included the young newcomers as the protagonist trio, Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley and Emma Watson as Hermione Granger, who were found only after an extensive and difficult casting period involving auditions of thounsands of children. The top tier British thespians lending their talent to this first instalment of the story include Robbie Coltrane as Rubeus Hagrid, Richard Griffiths as Vernon Dursley, Fiona Shaw as Petunia Dursley, Richard Harris as Albus Dumbledore, the Headmaster of Hogwarts, Ian Hart as Professor Quirrell, John Hurt as Mr. Ollivander, Alan Rickman as Severus Snape, Maggie Smith as Minerva McGonagall, John Cleese as the ghost Nearly Headless Nick and Julie Walters as Molly Weasley only to name a few. In time the series would feature nearly all major names of the acting talent of British Isles in roles large and small from Kenneth Branagh of the Shakespearean fame to Bill Nighy and Imelda Staunton. One small but none the less curious aspect of the production was the name of the movie. The film was titled Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone in Europe just as the novel was but in USA it was dubbed as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. This was due to the fact that the original US publisher Scholastic Corporation had thought that no child would want to read a book with the word "philosopher" in the title and, after some discussion, the American edition was published in October 1998 under the title Rowling suggested, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, a decision she later regretted.[3] As a consequence of the change of the film’s American title all scenes that mention the philosopher's stone had to be reshot and/or dubbed, once with the actors saying "philosopher's" and once with "sorcerer's". This also affected all the publicity material and merchandise, including the soundtrack CD, which was to have two different incarnations, one for Europe and the rest of the world and another for USA. The film was released in the United Kingdom and United States in November 2001 and received positive critical reception, made more than $974 million at the worldwide box office, and was nominated for many awards, including the Academy Awards for Best Original Score, Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design (although it lost in all 3 categories). As of June 2011, it is the ninth highest-grossing film of all time.[4] It also went to start one of the most succesful fantasy film series of all time and remains as one of Warner Brothers’ crown jewels. Choosing the right composer To complement his visual style and the scope of the story director Columbus by his own admission had only one composer in mind, John Williams. Having worked previously with him on the phenomenally succesful surprise hit Home Alone (1990) and its sequel (1992) and the small intimate family drama Stepmom (1998) Columbus had established a good working relationship with Williams, who not only had adored his movies (Home Alone being the prime example) but also seemed to have a great affinity and understanding of them. Of course Williams was also known for his larger than life adventure and fantasy scores for films like the Star Wars series, Indiana Jones trilogy, Superman, E.T. and Jurassic Park, where his music had played a large and integral role, and he had through the decades created a whole host of memorable themes for them that have become part of the cultural lexicon of the movie going audiences. Harry Potter seemed something right up Williams’ alley. It would continue the series of large symphonic, bold and colorful scores, that had begun two years prior in 1999 with George Lucas' Star Wars Episode I the Phantom Menace and would go on all the way to The Adventures of Tintin the Secret of the Unicorn in 2011, in which Williams would score one major action and adventure filled score after another in the Star Wars and Harry Potter franchises and several films for Steven Spielberg. Williams admits that by pure chance he had to deviate from his normal working procedures for this film. Usually he prefers to know very little about the subject beforehand so as to have as few as possible preconceptions about the matter before he starts his work. This way he can react to the film much as a member of the audience and use this reaction and feeling as part of the compositional process. This is why the composer does not usually read scripts nor the novels if a movie is based on one, but this time he had already done so because in his own words "In this case, because my kids were all reading the books, I read the first Harry Potter book," he says. "I never even imagined I would be writing a score for the film. I didn't even know they were planning to make a film when I was reading it."[5] So Williams was happy to take on The Sorcerer's Stone because J.K. Rowling's work had multi-generational appeal in his family. "I have grandchildren who read them (the Harry Potter books) and love them. I have children who read them and love them. In my family, there are three generations of American people enjoying Rowling," he told The Times of London. He also stated that his score for Philosopher's Stone was to be, naturally, "theatrical, magical and to capture a child's sense of wonder in the world." [6] John Williams was hired in the autumn of 2000 [7] and in November Columbus and the producers asked him to compose music for the upcoming teaser trailer they were putting together [8]. And later in June the next year he provided music for the official full length trailer as well.[9] The music in the trailers was based on his impressions of the novel and the footage he had seen and Williams responded to the imagery with a whimsical waltz theme in which he tried to capture feeling of magic and flight. This little over minute and a half composition for the teaser received the name Hedwig’s theme after Harry’s pet Snowy Owl, and because of the overwhelmingly positive feedback from the film makers, Williams decided to incorporate this material into his score. As it turned out this musical motif was to become the corner stone of the score and in time the central theme for the whole franchise. It has indeed become the most enduring element of the musical lexicon of Harry Potter and has since received wide recognition, been re-recorded countless times since 2001 by various orchestras and attained near pop culture status and a place among Williams’ most iconic themes. The music for Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone was composed during the spring and summer of 2001, mainly at Tanglewood and in Los Angeles and recorded in London between August 28 and September 12.[10] The orchestrations were prepared by Conrad Pope and Eddie Karam and the score is performed by a studio orchestra on which reportedly there were members from both of London’s most distinguished symphonic ensembles, the London Philharmonic and the London Symphony Orchestra. The choral talent was provided by the famous London Voices under the direction of their founder and musical director Terry Edwards, who also had two years prior worked on Williams’ Star Wars Episode I the Phantom Menace. The score was recorded and mixed by Simon Rhodes, and Ken Wannberg, Williams' long time collaborator, returned once again to the duties of the music editor. Randy Kerber, a Los Angeles based veteran musician of countless soundtrack recordings and a frequent keyboard player on John Williams' soundtracks, performed the numerous celesta solos in the score. And as it tends to happen with the biggest movie phenomena, the music became a part of the publicity efforts of the film not only in the form of trailer underscore but with Williams' contribution to the annual Tanglewood on Parade benefit concert on July 31, 2001, where the composer unveiled a preview of his music for the film, a performance of the full-fledged concert version of "Hedwig's Theme." [11] The Musical Tapestry of Harry Potter For such a colorful and multifaceted children’s story and fantasy film Williams had a rich source from which to draw inspiration for the music. Columbus’ colorful images, the magical atmosphere and faithful adaptation of the source material with input from the author herself created a film very much in sync with the novel, which again would provide another source for ideas. These musical ideas seemed to flow from the Maestro’s pen with as exuberant force as he professed his enthusiasm for the project to be. The music is permeated by a unique spirit. Williams says following about his approach in a USA Today interview: I wanted to capture the world of weightlessness and flight and sleight of hand and happy surprise. This caused the music to be a little more theatrical than most film scores would be. It sounds like music that you would hear in the theater rather than the film.[12] This is very much the feel of the music when wedded with the images that it fills undeniably to the brim but still retains suitable subtleties where needed. The Owl’s Flight and Sounds of the Celesta Hedwig’s theme as inadvertently as it came to be the central element of the score, captures the heart of the whole story with precision. Complementing this musical motif is the nearly ubiquitous instrumental sound of celesta which was featured already in the trailer music. This sound became emblematic of the music of Harry Potter outside the theme as well and the glowing, whirling series of notes now instantly evoke the wizarding world and wonderment even when separated from the images. This musical instrument was a deft choice since its history and connections were complementary to the theme of the film and to the genre of the music, also linking Williams’ score to a larger symphonic tradition. Whether this is just a happy conincidence born out of the composer’s personal ideas of how magic is expressed through music or by deliberate design, the choice of celesta has proven to be a stroke of genius. With the holiday season coinciding with the release of the film (even though the original release date had been in the summer of 2001) the music contains a subliminal and most likely unintended Tchaikovskian atmosphere, the style of the music recalling his famous ballet, the Nutcracker, in its tone and style that are Romantic, colorful, melodic and full of childish whimsy and heart. Especially the central Hedwig’s theme played on the aforementioned signature instrument of the score, a celesta, was compared by some to Tchaikovsky ballet music since the central and famous Dance of the Sugarplum Fairy utilized this instrument as well.[13] The bell-like tones and the instrumental usage of celesta are no doubt similar, conjuring magic and wonder, but Williams’ score remains as individual as anything he has done. In this case the celesta compositions demanded finesse and deft playing, not just magical and light soloing, while retaining the glowing clear notes which this instrument in the hands of a skilled musician could provide, linking the sound subconsciously to the ideas of flight and weightlessness. John Williams and the keyboard and celesta player Randy Kerber created a special sound for the film, the celesta timbres constructed on synthesizer to achieve a unique tone for the instrument, that was more powerful, sharper and singular than of its acoustic counterpart’s. In the score the celesta is usually complemented by the string section weaving their complex and fast figures into the music, providing a basis from which the orchestra takes flight but Williams keeps the fragile tones of the instrument in mind, never drowning its soft tread in the sea of other musical sounds. But the use of the instrument is not limited to solos and it often provide essential colouring to many key scenes in the film. An often quoted musical influence, another Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev, could be also said to loom good naturedly over the music of Harry Potter. Williams’ fondness for colorful marches, highly recognizable melodic writing and excellent, inventive orchestration has always been compared with Prokofiev’s and stylistically the score definitely shares these qualities even though it does not directly or consciously quote anything from the composer’s repertoire but this comparison rather illustrates one of Williams’ many influences as a composer. And even though the two composers above are mentioned as possible stylistic influences there is no sense of pastiche in the score, although Williams’ detractors might readily point out the contrary, but rather of musical allusion, one of Williams’ fortes, an ability to evoke a certain mood or style, classical or popular and enhance the experience of the film by suggesting something already familiar in the experience of the listener/viewer. The music seems accessible just for that reason, as it should if a film composer knows anything about the conventions of form although good composers like Williams, know how to use this allusion while creating something new. As mentioned before the ensemble of the score is fully symphonic with the London Voices choir complementing a large symphony orchesta and few selected specialty instruments adding their unique timbres into the mix. The word “magic” is the oft repeated key to what Williams was trying to and did achieve in his music, a modern counterpart to the grand operatic and ballet tradition of old, the music carrying itself with self assured grace even without the images, all the while retaining a child’s sense of awe and wonder in its notes. More Musical possibilities – The Children’s Suite Williams was so genuinely inspired by this film project that he ended up writing musical miniatures based on the story and in a most unusual style set aside time at the end of each day of the recording sessions to prepare and record what was to become a 9-movement concert work he finally dubbed Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Children’s Suite for Orchestra. He comments on the genesis of this work in the program note of the published sheet music: When I wrote the full orchestral score for Harry Potter and Sorcerer’s Stone, I hadn’t planned to write the 8 miniatures presented here. The film’s score didn’t require them, and our production schedule, usually very difficult in the film world, made no provision for their arrival. However, if I am permitted to put it a bit more colorfully, each piece seemed to insist on being “hatched” out of the larger body of the full score.[14] This was essentially a series of musical vignettes in the spirit of Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra of Benjamin Britten, that not only presented the central thematic ideas of the score but also highlighted different orchestral and instrumental sections and combinations in each movement with the final piece titled Harry’s Wondrous World drawing together several thematic threads and utilizing the entire symphonic ensemble for a grand finale. The music of the suite gathers up all the major musical ideas of the score to form self-contained pieces of music, that offer a unique take on the material, often expanding the themes or melodies, fleshing out or embellishing their orchestrations and connecting them in original ways. They showcase soloists and performers from all the orchestral sections and present the whole score itself in almost a miniature, a condensed programme of 25 minutes. Originally Williams wrote these pieces to be recorded at the film's scoring sessions but later revised them and these revisions the officially published versions available as sheet music from Hal Leonard publishing. But the suite recorded at the original scoring sessions has been made fully available for the first time on the La-La Land Records' Harry Potter: John Williams Soundtrack Collection boxed set. I will discuss the Children’s Suite in further detail after the analysis of the actual film score. The Magic made manifest: The Themes of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone The HPPS score is build in a classic Wagnerian Hollywood style upon several recurring themes for various elements of the tale. From the start the composer saw the film as an opportunity to create a whole host of themes to illustrate the story, which would then in leitmotivic fashion be developed and varied through the movie as the events unfold. It could be said that more than any of his modern peers Williams has relied on and emphasized strong themes to carry the message of the film and to help the audience to identify with the characters and the story. This very much applies to the world of Harry Potter as well: So much of successful film scoring relies on a gratifying melodic identification for the characters," Williams says. "I try to draw on something that marries very well with what I'm seeing.[15] His skill at writing clear and easily identifiable musical ideas is one of his greatest strengths and for Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone he composed no less than 7 major thematic ideas and several smaller motifs, which many interrelate with each other forming small thematic families as they share some common musical traits, another strong and typical feature in Williams’ thematic constructs. MAJOR THEMES 1. Hedwig’s Theme Despite its name this theme could be said to be a musical depiction for the whole world of Harry Potter and its magic, not just for Harry’s pet snowy owl , though it may have been in the composer’s mind the initial inspiration for the musical idea as he was particularly impressed by the image of the owls delivering the mail in the story. The celesta is the central instrument of this theme, which as much as it describes pure magic, conjures thoughts of flight. This whimsical waltz, slightly mischievous and projecting childlike wonder but also a hint of danger, receives numerous variations throughout the story, each time offering another accent to the events, the action reflected in its myriad orchestrations. And although the theme contains one elaborate long lined melody, it can be divided into two distinct sections with individual narrative purpose: The A phrase presents the main melody of the waltz (example OST CD track 19 Hedwig’s theme 0:00-0:17), lilting on celesta with an air of mystery, magic, mischief and anticipation. It works as a sort of musical trigger that announces to the audience that something extraordinary is about to happen, the scene where owls begin to bring letters from Hogwarts being a prime example of this, the music rising into a grand statement of the full Hedwig’s theme after the A phrase opening. Frank Lehman expounds on the musical idea in his thematic analysis thus: In its first guise, this theme begins on a pickup on the fifth scale degree, which moves to the tonic, and proceeds up to third scale degree, outlining a minor chord in 2nd inversion. The second guise begins with a pickup on the third, and sways between the fifth and the third of the minor tonic chord.[16] The B phrase (example OST CD track 19 Hedwig’s theme 0:18-0:36) continues the waltz idea with a rising and falling back-and-forth figure and a sense determination and closure, the phrase being regularly used e.g. for various transitional and approach shots in the film. This section finishes the melody began by the A phrase and thus completes the whole main melody of the theme. As parts of a longer theme these phrases are most frequently used in conjunction but with two-part melody Williams has provided himself with musical idea that can be quoted as a long lined melody and also in smaller sections, the theme retaining a highly recognizable persona in either guise. Frank Lehman further describes Hedwig's Theme's musical form and harmonic structure: Harmonically, Hedwig’s Theme is almost always minor, and highly chromatic. (A highly reduced version of the progression goes something like this: i – Vish – i – biii – bii – iv -bVI Fr aug6 - i. Note the extremely exotic use of the French Augmented sixth to tonic, which, in conjunction with the successive minor chords creates a very magical, off-kilter sound.[17] The way the composer assigns celesta for this theme is very apt, the instrument creating an atmosphere of magic that is at once recognizable, luminous, delicate and mysterious. The string accompaniment propels the material to flight, swirling like a flock of owls with avian sounding chattering woodwinds in tow, the theme playing in a bed of slightly off-kilter seesawing string figures, suggesting perhaps the darker or more mischievous forces at work. Most of all the music corresponds to the magic happening throughout the film, be it owl’s sudden flight, arrival at Hogwarts or the protective magic of love. This main theme of the score also has a close connection to the Flying theme. 2. The Flying Theme (Nimbus 2000) Williams has often stated that depicting flight and weightlessness, the sense of defying gravity, being one his favourite film scoring challenges. In addition and to support Hedwig’s theme he wrote another melody which is closely connected to it, so closely infact that it forms the middle portion of the concert suite of the aforementioned theme. This idea he calls Nimbus 2000 after Harry’s magical broomstick but in the film it is applied not only to flying on broom sticks and stunts of dexterity and agility (Quidditch most prominently) but also to more humorous and quirky moments of magic and wonderment. As with Hedwig's theme this leitmotif also has two distinctive sections: The A phrase (example OST CD track 19 Hedwig’s theme 1:35-2:00) presents a rhythmic playful melody which is often carried by the woodwind section and the brass. It has a sense of powerful forward motion when needed, though the string and celesta variation seems to represent again agility and flying prowess of the main characters. In woodwind setting the melody quite often takes a quirky comical stance, bubbling and skipping forward in anticipation as our protagonists are doing something exciting or magic is happening around them. At its most dramatic the whole orchestra performs it as a full bodied waltz which usually flows into The B phrase (examples OST CD track 19 Hedwig’s theme 2:46-3:01 and again at 3:25-3:45) which ascends dramatically higher and higher mimicking the aerial exploits in the film, painting images of rushing wind and forward surging motion, the excitement and possible dangers of flight which are underlined by the unsteady and threatening sounding up-and-down motion at the beginning of the phrase. Hedwig’s theme and the Flying theme are as thematic constructs very much connected, one usually following the other, allowing Williams for a fluid switch from one idea to the next, keeping the score alive and moving. The Flying theme has also the celesta in common with Hedwig’s theme which is occasionally called to perform fast and difficult passages of the A Phrase at high speed again closely associated with the owls and magic. Frank Lehman describes the connection between Hedwig’s Theme and The Flying Theme thus: As for the theme itself, its chord-progression is nearly identical to "Hedwig’s Theme," only slightly more busy (fewer non-chord tones in the melody – lotsa parallel block chords supporting the melodic line), but sharing the same reliance on biii, bii and aug6 chords. It is more malleable than Hedwig’s theme, and Williams enjoys spinning it through numerous odd modulations.[18] 3. Harry’s Theme/The Family Theme Harry Potter’s theme is a youthful melody which is frequently used for his most personal moments in the film and ranges from melancholy and sad to sweepingly optimistic (example OST CD track 2/18 Harry’s Wondrous World 2:04-2:50). It carries some of the inherent but at first subdued heroism of the protagonist and receives it’s grandest reading in the finale of the film (Leaving Hogwarts), but this music is more connected to Harry’s emotional life than overtly heroic deeds, so it very rarely reaches for flashy orchestration or fanfarish writing remaining at its most sweeping anchored to yearning romanticism. This nostalgic and warm musical idea also very importantly works as a theme for Harry’s family and is woven throughout his first year at Hogwarts reminding us of his past, his love for his lost family and the affection he feels towards his new circle of friends. 4. Harry’s Wondrous World Theme This is a thematic depiction of Harry’s new found place in the magical world he discovers at and through the School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, appearing when he starts to slowly find his courage and self-worth and triumphs over obstacles. The major mode melody (examples OST CD track 2/18 Harry’s Wondrous World 0:26-0:39, 1:20-1:46) is lyrical and expansive with a hint of yearning at its most emotional moments, the music ranging from wistful and nostalgic as the Boy Who Lived slowly starts to find his place in his new life to glowingly warm, triumphant and radiant at victory and success Harry meets during his adventures. The material is related to the principal Harry’s/Family Theme much the same way Hedwig’s Theme and the Flying Theme are linked together, often used in conjunction with each other but Harry’s Wondrous World is reserved for the most significant turns in the story, always appearing at moments of special meaning for the character and his development. Harry’s Secondary motif/Harry's Wondrous World End Cap Williams also attaches another melodic phrase to the character of Harry Potter and the Wondrous World theme, a swaying childlike rising and lilting motif which usually follows or complements the main Wondrous World Theme almost like a musical afterthough offering a comment on Harry’s situation and finishing the musical sentence Harry's Wondrous World Theme began. It (examples OST CD track 2/18 Harry’s Wondrous World 0:20-0:26, 0:40-0:53) also links with his triumphs during his school year, his determination and heroic actions all captured in the optimistic, forward questing motion of this motif. 5. Hogwarts’ Theme (The Gryffindor Theme) The School of Witchcraft and Wizardry receives its own musical identification (example OST CD track 7 Entry into the Great Hall and The Banquet 2:43-3:10), a proud scholarly hymn that still at times succeeds sounding somewhat bumbling and befuddled as it good naturedly underscores many of the school activities from the sorting ceremony to Quidditch. The theme can sound playful, solemn or fanfarish as the situation requires, being highly malleable in its relatively simple progression. This thematic idea also doubles as a theme for Gryffindor, one of the four houses into which the students are divided at the start of their schooling. The other houses do not receive themes of their own, and most likely since our heroes come from this house the composer wanted to emphasize this particular aspect, and so the warm major mode melody follows Gryffindor pupils to Quidditch matches and dormitories announcing as much their house allegiance as it does a general school pride. Frank Lehman comments on the theme's contruction in his analysis thus: In its most straightforward form, it basically consists of a lot of motion between I and IV, and during the most fanfaric rendition during the Quidditch match, with a modulation on the tritone sending it modulating into the key of the lowered mediant.[19] 6. The Philosopher’s Stone The eponymous Philosopher’s Stone at the center of the plot is characterized by a simple three note motif, an up-and-down figure that in equal measure exudes fateful mystery and foreboding (example OST CD track 5 Diagon Alley and Gringotts Vault 2:54-end). The story treats this wondrous substance in gloomy terms instead as a marvel of magic and source of longevity and Williams obviously sees the magical substance as a source of both mystery and danger, the minor mode theme announcing this clearly from the beginning. The basic phrase of the motif is 3 notes long but the composer sometimes extends it further creating a repeating but continually growing melodic row of 3, 4 and 5 notes that ends with a return to the 4 note phrase so Williams can quote an extensive range of variations on it throughout the story from short exclamation to a long melodic line. The Philosopher’s Stone motif changes very little during the story and this development is quite subtle, the magical substance being one of the main mysteries of tale, gradually growing in importance. The motif repeats numerous times with different orchestrations but fundamentally stays the same in form and message. The weight and frequency with which it is quoted as the story moves towards its resolution illustrates its importance, the renditions becoming more pronounced and nearly ever present by the end. The repetition of this motif, the three notes continuing ad infinitum also deftly depicts the obsession of some characters to possess the artefact, becoming in the finale of the film an oppressive snarl as Voldemort through Quirrel tries to steal it, emphasizing his twisted lust for the magical object that could return him to power. Musically the Stone is closely associated with Voldemort’s own musical material, the plot element being so integrally linked with the Dark Lord.[20] 7. Voldemort: For the villain of the story, albeit most of the time a dark shadow looming in the background, Williams conjured up a suitably dark and menacing thematic depiction. The music for the most powerful dark wizard of all time is a brooding melody which like Hedwig’s theme is divided into two parts even though here the parts are so distinctive that they could be called two independed motifs. I have given these two musical ideas separate names for easier recognition in the analysis. A) The first phrase Voldemort Revealed is a dark, angular and maliciously progressing melody, short, direct and nearly exclamatory in its form (example OST CD track 17 The Face of Voldemort 1:25-1:54). It accompanies his most evil deeds in the film as told by the other characters and in scenes, where he reveals his power or presence. There are certainly subtle hints to the classic monster music of old in some of the more aggressive readings of the theme as it announces the dark lord almost like a growling wicked fanfare exuding imperious malevolence. Frank Lehman analyzes it's structure:In this case, beginning o­n the first scale degree, it would proceed to the 7th below, up to a flatted 2nd, back to the seventh and so forth. Harmonically, it sometimes follows this demonic progression: i – dim v6 – i – vii – bvii – i) [21] B) The second idea Voldemort’s Evil seems to allude to the reptilian, scheming persona of the character and his evil plots (example OST CD track 17 The Face of Voldemort 1:55-2:16). The long melodic line literally slithers forward with languid malice, winding snake-like up and down a minor scale, part seductively hypnotic part ominously evil. It is at first used to describe Voldemort’s unseen presence and finally the character himself as he makes a bid for the Philosopher’s Stone at the end of the film.[22] It could be surmised that since Voldemort's Evil is more developed of the two, it is the true Voldemort’s theme although Williams uses these two melodic ideas most often in conjunction and complementing each other much like Hedwig’s theme and The Flying theme and the he utilizes both parts of Voldemort’s musical identity quite fluidly, quoting one or the other depending on the needs of the scene or moment, not strictly or clearly assigning either one as the primary motif for him. Noteworthy is that nearly always Voldemort Revealed precedes the Evil theme, the dark lord announcing his entrance in ominously grandiose manner before slithering into view in person. Moreover as it was stated above the Philosopher’s Stone motif is often linked with these two themes and woven into the orchestration and used as a counterpoint especially to the Voldemort’s Evil theme. MINOR MOTIFS Some of the elements in the story seemed to warrant singular musical set pieces and identifications of their own and thus Williams composed a few independent motifs for locations and events in the film that would be out of necessity keyed to only a few scenes. Some might argue at the validity of identifying the following material as themes but through studying the music in the film I would certainly assert that they are quite clearly musical depictions of specific places, persons, ideas or objects and thus leitmotivic themes of their own right. Diagon Alley For the wizard and witch high street and shopping district in the heart of London secreted away by magic the composer provides a unique theme and instrumental colouring (example OST CD track 5 Diagon Alley and Gringotts Vault 0:00-1:15). He envisioned a small wizards’ band with Medieval/Baroque instruments providing a suitable melodic and playful ambience for the merchant district of the Diagon Alley. Recorders, strings, woodwinds and a wizard’s fiddle propel Harry through magical marvels on display in the shop windows in this fantastical locale.[23] Quidditch Fanfare The great Quidditch game in the middle of the film offered Williams a chance for some pomp and circumstance, the scene being colorful and exciting, full of spectators with flags and the teams competing on a grand arena. To enchance the feeling of the occasion the Quidditch game receives its own heroic fanfare (example OST CD track 2/18 Harry’s Wondrous World 3:07-3:35) both announcing and closing the event and appearing in snippets throughout the underscore of the game. This musical idea complements and relates to the Hogwarts theme exuding similar proud and courageous feel. The Great Hall A small festive march ushers the characters into Hogwarts’ Great Hall for a welcoming feast as they arrive to the castle. This musical idea is then used in the underscore for the Sorting Ceremony and similarly flavoured celebratory music continues in the subsequent banquet scene. The Invisibility Cloak The enchanted artefact receives an eerie motif with suspenseful layers of sighing hollow toned synthesizer effects which follows Harry through the school, the hollow, ghostly tones of the musical idea appearing when he uses the cloak to get to the Forbidden Section of the library unseen. *** Aside from recurring themes the score for Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone is full of incidental melodies, rhythms and textures that fill not only the music but the cinema with colour and magical ambience. There is a constant flow of musical ideas alongside the major themes, Williams often juggling many of them side by side in the scenes, the individual set piece melodies giving away to the character themes at suitable moments. Not since his inarguably most ambitious and expansive fantasy score for Hook has Williams been inspired to create such a colorful and varied musical tapestry for a single film. *** Track-by-Track Analysis of the Film Score The track titles used in the analysis are gleaned from Williams’ original cue names found on the sheet music. This is followed by the soundtrack album counterpart if the music is featured on the CD. The Original soundtrack album was released 30th October 2001 in the United States and United Kingdom on Atlantic/Warner Sunset/Nonesuch Records label. This CD contained little over 73 minutes of music from the film, including nearly all major highlights of the score but, since the whole composition is so expansive, left out more than an hour of music. Finally on November 28th 2018 the La-la Land Records released the full film score as part of the Harry Potter – The John Williams Soundtrack Collection: Limited Edition containing the complete scores for the three John Williams scored Harry Potter films. Another curious aspect of the album production is that Williams included on the soundtrack CD not only music from the original score but also parts of the Children’s Suite mixed with the score cues, resulting a true concept album, but this also meant that more of the original score was left off the CD. The one difference besides the title of the movie in the European release was the placement of the track Harry’s Wondrous World as the 2nd track after Children’s Suite piece Hedwig’s Flight (retitled on the OST as Prologue) whereas it was placed to the end of the American album pressing before Hedwig’s theme where it would belong during the actual end credits. In my references to the OST I will be using the European pressing of the CD and its track numbers and the Harry Potter – The John Williams Soundtrack Collection: Limited Edition for the complete score presentation track numbers and track titles (if they deviate from the original cue titles), abbreviated HP JWSC. 1. WB Potter Logo Lead-In (Version 1) (1M2)- 0:17 (Unused, HP JWSC: CD 3 track 15 Logo) The movie opens with the Warner Bros logo and the solo celesta performs the A Phrase of Hedwig’s theme, the short segment ending in lightly tremoloing anticipatory strings that usher us to the film itself. This was the first version of the cue and was never used. In its place Williams composed another variation WB Potter Logo Lead-In (Version 2)(1M2) - 0:18 (Film Version, HP JWSC, CD 1 track 1 The Prologue and Privet Drive 0:00-0:16) In this version the Warner Bros logo appears to a swirling of string section ghosted by celesta and a determined rendition of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s theme on French horns opens the main story with a hint more darkness and mystery than the celesta solo of the first version. In the Making As might deduced from the slate number 1M2 the Warner Brothers logo was supposed to follow the Prologue in some early incarnation of the film but it was later switched to its final place at the start of the film. Perhaps it was this that necessitated the rewrite of the Hedwig’s Theme for the logo. 2. The Prologue (1M1)- 4:15 (OST track 3 The Arrival of Baby Harry 0:00-1:44, 2:44-end, HP JWSC CD 1 track 1 The Prologue and Privet Drive 0:17-end) As director Chris Columbus reverently re-creates the first chapter of the novel on-screen, presenting the opening of the book shrouded in mystery and magic, Williams had an opportunity to present his main theme in a near overture fashion in the Prologue. Steady deep double bass and celli sonorities and light, glinting (synthesized) celesta create an enigmatic atmosphere (performance marked aptly Magico on the score), the instrument stating a brief melody, not yet a theme but establishing a tone for the score as the movie opens with images of the night time Privet Drive and an owl perched on the street sign is seen flying off into the inky night. Strings and harp slide up and down in an excited manner as mark tree shimmers and oboe offers a brief solo, expanding on the just heard celesta melody when a man in red robes appears from the woods. This is professor Albus Dumbledore (Richard Harris) who steps into view and pulls out a gadget looking like a large cigarette lighter, a Deluminator, and with it extinguishes the lights of the nearby street lamps one by one while a women’s choir enters over strings and loudly glinting mark tree and twirling woodwinds and reaches a deliberately paced crescendo, each orchestral accent signifying another streetlight snuffed out (0:43-1:04). The wizard closes the Deluminator and the horn section announces the first hint of the A phrase of Hedwig’s theme in a slightly ominous manner since we do not know exactly what is happening but the theme at the same time makes note of Dumbledore’s magical feat. As the Headmaster of Hogwarts offers a few words of acknowledgement to a black and grey streaked cat who happens to be standing nearby, it transforms into a woman, professor McGonagall (Maggie Smith). Here the choir, sparkling mark tree and strings return, gradually rising on a scale capturing the transformation from a cat to a woman in their gestures, the phases of the quick metamorphosis underscored by a triangle’s clear accents. With a twirl of string section, oboe and celesta the orchestra begins a full reading of Hedwig’s theme at 1:50 as baby Harry arrives on the back of Rubeus Hagrid’s flying motorcycle, the ensemble’s slightly mischievous strings reaching the end of the A phrase of the melody that is then quickly repeated by the woodwinds as the pair lands and Hagrid (Robbie Coltrane), a half-giant keeper of keys and grounds at Hogwarts, offers the little bundle that is baby Harry to Albus Dumbledore. Strings and clarinet present here a sympathetic yet comical phrase as the giant of a man handles his tiny parcel with a gentle touch. A more slowly paced reading of Hedwig’s theme on oboe, violins and violas accompaniment and interspersed bass and celli pizzicati and accented by orchestral bells joins the deliberations of Dumbledore and McGonagall. Hagrid’s worry and sadness for leaving the baby on the door step of Muggles is expressed by the forlorn women’s choir and strings, flutes soon following their lead. Finally Harry is set down on Dursleys’ doorstep and as the headmaster of Hogwarts presses a letter addressed to Mr. and Mrs Dursley into his lap a solo celesta sings out the theme’s melody again. Hedwig’s Theme’s A phrase continues when the camera pans closer to the lightning shaped scar on the sleeping baby’s forehead and the main title appears. Here the swelling choir and orchestra take up the B phrase of Hedwig’s theme and surge upward in a grand exclamatory statement which ends with a fluttering woodwind and celesta coda and a single crystalline glint of the triangle as we now see sleeping near 11 year old Harry Potter in his cupboard room under the stairs waking up to a light turned on outside the door. Soundtrack Album VS Film Cue On the OST album Arrival of Baby Harry corresponds to the 1M1 Prologue for the most part but with one major difference. On the album some of the original music has been cut and replaced, specifically the section running from 1:49 to 2:29 and augmented with music from a completely different source. This additional material is a piece composed and recorded at the recording sessions for a Coca-Cola commercial meant to be used to promote the film and Williams named the piece Hedwig Tries a Coke or Coke Add 60s (naturally it has no cue number). This piece, approximately one minute long, is used in its entirety on the OST. It is inserted into the music at 1:44 of the OST track Arrival of Baby Harry and runs up until 2:44. Hedwig Tries a Coke contains a different celesta opening compared to the woodwinds and strings of the Prologue and opens up to a full choir and orchestra rendition of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s theme. This is followed by a descending flute figures that can be heard in Harry’s Wondrous World that lead into a statement of Harry’s/Family Theme and ends with a robust statement of A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on french horns that flows to a quick celesta coda. This is nearly seamlessly edited with the ending portion of the original Prologue. It is a curious editing choice for the sake of listening experience but illustrates the often different nature of the soundtrack album production compared to the actual film score. *** After breakfast Harry is dragged to the zoo in honor of his cousin Dudley’s birthday and before they step in the car, Harry’s uncle Vernon (Richard Griffiths) warns him against any “funny business”. He will not tolerate any strange behaviour while they are celebrating Dudley’s special day. 3. The Friendly Reptile (1M3) - 2:59 (OST track 4 Visit to the Zoo - Letters from Hogwarts 0:00-1:48, HP JWSC CD 1 track 2 Visit to the Zoo) At the zoo Harry and the Dursleys are watching a large Burmese Python in its habitat and Dudley, who finds the inanimate snake boring, is trying to make it move by tapping on the pane and shouting at it, his father quickly joining to assist him. Harry comes to the snake’s defence saying that it is asleep and that they should not bother it. He receives only sneer from his cousin for this and as the Dursleys loose interested and move on, Harry apologizes to the snake. To his surprise it seems to stir and understand what he is saying. At this moment Williams’ music stirs to life as well, small triangle opening the piece with a single sharp glint, high register strings tremoloing expectantly and oboe presenting a shy but curious melodic phrase. Celesta and string pizzicati express Harry’s further amazement, a hopeful little motif rising upwards as he asks what the snake’s home country and family are like. When the boy notices that the snake was bred in captivity and remarks that they both are orphans a somber celli section captures this realization in melancholy tones. Now Dudley spots the python moving and shoves Harry aside to oggle at the reptile, calling his parents to see. As Harry casts an angry glance at Dudley, who is now pressed nose against the glass in excitement, the orchestra animates. A sparkle of a mark tree at 0:44 announces a moment of magic when Dudley finds that the pane has miraculously vanished and he plunges head first into the snake habitat’s pool. Rhythmic string figures dance and woodwinds follow as we hear the first rendition of the A phrase of the Flying theme rearing its head to make a humorous comment on the situation, the music bubbling with mirth and mischievous magic, celestra, flutes and bassoons particularly expressive here as the snake escapes, causing a panic. Dudley who thinks it is safe to climb out of the pool now notices the the glass pane is back in place, his baffled look and the magical transformation captured in the A phrase of Hedwig’s theme performed by the horn section, the rhythmic woodwinds continuing their comical stance, underscoring aunt Petunia’s panic and Harry’s amused expression. This is counteracted by a sharp low burst from tuba and double basses when uncle Vernon gives the boy a withering look which does not promise anything good. The rhythmic quirky woodwind writing derived from the A phrase of the Flying theme continues when the family gets back home. Vernon is furious and demands to know what happened, Harry protesting, saying that it was like magic. Uncle does not believe him stating that “There is no such thing as magic!” while shoving him into his cupboard under the staircase. And as if to prove him wrong Williams’ score continues with a strings, woodwinds and celesta reading of A phrase of Hedwig’s theme which repeats twice when on the next day an owl lands on the chimney at Privet Drive and we see Harry picking up the day’s mail and finding a letter addressed to him among it. As he walks to the kitchen the string section winds down from its playful sewsawing figures to an expectant ending on celli. Soundtrack Album VS Film Cue This piece is presented heavily edited and combined with cue 1M5 Mail Delivery, on the Original soundtrack album under the title Visit to the Zoo - Letters from Hogwarts. 4. Don't Burn My Letter (1M4) - 2:04 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 3) Clear flutes open the cue as the baffled Dursley family looks at Harry’s letter with concern and first the double basses and celli perform a rhythmic motif that is again derived from the opening of the A phrase of the Flying theme, almost like an unanswered question, stopped horns then joining in and adding their weight to the matter, the flute section continuing their searching melodic line as the family seems to contemplate what this could possibly mean. And so the letters start arriving, first in ones, then in threes and then by the bundle, a muted trombone phrase and triangle transitioning into a reading of the A phrase of Hedwig’s theme on strings and celesta as we see owls and letters arriving. This is cut short by a short bassoon interlude, pizzicato section on violins, violas and celli underscoring the comical moment of uncle Vernon nailing the mail box of the front door shut so there can’t be anymore letters by that way to Harry. When owls are getting unusually numerous and near all-pervasive on the Dursleys’ front yard and too much for Vernon’s and Petunia’s liking the B section of Hedwig’s theme on french horns accompanied by the playful seesawing string and flute motif makes it plain something supernatural is happening on Privet Drive and magic is in the air. Bassoon lines once again flow from the string material and as uncle Vernon is burning Harry’s letters with certain degree of glee, a slightly ominous cold string melody is heard but the quick bassoon and oboe duet which ends the piece promises a spectacular end to Dursleys’ obstinance and Harry’s ordeal. 5. Mail Delivery (1M5)- 1:39 (OST track 4 Visit to the Zoo - Letters from Hogwarts 1:49-end. HP JWSC CD 1 track 4 Letters from Hogwarts) And what follows is one of Williams’ self professed favourite scenes from the film and a major musical moment where the main theme receives its most expansive reading thusfar. After boarding up the house completely the Dursleys and Harry sit inside on a fine Sunday, uncle Vernon gloatingly happy while he is drinking his tea when Harry answers his question, why is Sunday the best day of the week, and confirms that there is no post on Sundays. Just as Vernon happily repeats Harry’s answer a dull rumble fills the room and down the chimney and out of the fire place sails a lonely letter straight into his face. At that moment music opens slowly to an extended reading of Hedwig’s theme in its entirety, first gently on celesta, the strings and woodwinds soon joining the orchestration, weaving up-and-down patterns heard in the previous cue, the seesawing string motif playfully anticipatory. As more letters start billowing from the fire place and break through the mail slot, air filling with sealed envelopes, the music continues to build and with glissandi from harp and billowing swishes of suspended cymbal, the whole orchestra, bolstered finally with the weight of the brass section, rises to the magical waltz melody of Hedwig’s theme. In the midst of the theme Williams cleverly uses the flutes to present bird call like flourishes to subconsciously tie the music to the avians that carry the letters. And with a quick winding melodic phrase the celesta, strings and woodwinds bring the cue to a finish as Harry, still deprived of his letter is whisked away by uncle Vernon into his cupboard, the final shot of light going out underscored by a rising flute and celesta figure and a thump of single double bass pizzicato note. 6. The Beach and the Arrival of Hagrid (2M1) - 1:22 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 5 Harry's Wish and Hagrid's Entrance) A gloomy rendition of the B phrase of Hedwig’s theme on horns and high strings underscores an establishing shot of a small cabin in a raging storm on a forlorn islet somewhere on the coast of Britain. It is here that Dursley’s in their desperation have escaped the owls and their magical letters. It is midnight and the family is sound asleep but Harry, who is still awake and remembers that it’s now his birthday, draws happy wishes to himself in the dust on the floor, the wistful and sad moment underscored by the score’s first appearance of Harry’s/Family Theme on oboe and flute backed by strings clearly stating our protagonist’s wish escape his current life and his feeling of isolation. This moody rumination is interrupted by an eruption from the french horns, tuba and trombones, the brass belting out deep ponderous chords as the woodwinds scream and skitter in fright in the background when the door of the ramshackle house first shakes and creaks violently as if someone was beating it down and is then literally hoisted from it is hinges and something emerges from the lightning wreathed night. The Dursleys wake up and cower in fear, uncle Vernon waving a shotgun at the intruder. Woodwinds continue their wild flailing as horns blast staggered bursts while the piccolos deftly insert a quick quote of the B phrase of Hedwig’s theme into the chaos subtly informing us that magic might be at work. Deep and dramatic rhythmic brass exclamations continue as the towering figure steps slowly in, the music reaching a crescendo as the tall, large creature is revealed to be Hagrid. In the Making The first 25 seconds of opening transitional Hedwig’s theme material was not used in the film and the film makers let the sound effects of storm and waves usher us to the island instead. In the film the music opens with Harry’s theme as we see him forlorn on the floor drawing on the dust. *** The half giant nonchalantly apologizes for knocking down the door and starts to fix the situation. Vernon is livid and orders him to leave but Hagrid just bends the barrel of his shotgun into a twist and sits down. He then reveals to Harry that he is to attend the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the boy listening astonished. Then comes the greatest revelation as he announces 7. You're a Wizard, Harry (2M2) - 3:29 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 6) As Hagrid tells the truth a delicate but clear rendition of B phrase of Hedwig’s theme is heard on tremoloing high strings, assorted woodwinds and solo celesta, the music offering hushed astonishment at the revelation. Airy woodwinds and strings present a curious searching melody derived from Hedwig’s theme and the seesawing string material that often accompanies it. Hagrid continues his story, Dursleys protesting and Harry listening intently, and finally he hands Harry the mysterious letter that has been trailing Dursleys and him for days and Harry reads his invitation to Hogwarts. A warm melody of Hogwarts’ Theme on stately strings with woodwinds adding slightly comic effect appears to announce the school’s proud and noble heritage. As Dursleys protest and deny Harry a chance to attend this school and Harry learns that his mother and father died in an explosion and not a car crash as he was led to believe, colder and darker up and down winding woodwind and string underscore, much like the one used for Dursleys in the previous cues, appears adding tension to the dialogue. When Hogwarts’ Keeper of Grounds mentions Albus Dumbledore as the finest headmaster the school has ever had Hogwarts’ Theme echoes his statement in hymn style that once again gains a slight mock serious tone from woodwinds and double basses. Vernon Dursley then makes the mistake of insulting Dumbledore and Hagrid grows all the more irritated by the Muggles. Tremoloing strings kindle as he glares at Dursleys but suddenly he gets an idea and aims his umbrella/magic wand at Dudley who is gorging himself on the birthday cake that the half-giant had brought Harry. With a glimmer of celesta and strings Dudley sprouts a pig tail, the parents panicking and frightening the boy, starting to run around the hut, A phrase of Hedwig’s theme on strings dancing mischievously around the scene. As Hagrid looks at his watch and starts to depart, a bright and optimistic string backed oboe and flute melody rises in the orchestra and when Harry follows his gigantic guide out of the door, they are off to London, the happy turn of events and transitional shot underscored by breezy Harry’s theme on strings, celesta and brass as his life has taken a sudden turn for the better. In the Making In the film only parts of this cue are used. The opening Hedwig’s theme and the the following dialogue underscore (0:00-0:50) are in place but when Harry receives the letter a short passage of Hedwig’s theme is tracked in place of the Hogwart’s theme. The music for the subsequent dialogue (1:00-2:20) about Harry’s past is dialed out as is the second rendition of Hogwarts’ theme as Hagrid praises Dumbledore. The music then continues as written when Hagrid threatens the Dursleys and plays out all the way to the end of the cue as intended (2:21-end). 8. The Wizard's Pub (2M3) - 1:10 (HP JWSC CD 3 track 11 The Leaky Cauldron) Harry and Hagrid arrive to London and make their way through the city to find school supplies for Harry. To the boy’s puzzlement they enter an old pub which seems to be frequented only by witches and wizards. Williams presents here a short piece of diegetic source music emanating from some shadowy corner of the establishment. Mandolin, 2 part percussion (cymbal played with a brush) and accordion (or musette) form a wizardly trio that provides off-kilter entertainment in the form a folksy, sea shanty styled melody.[24] The piece ends abruptly in the middle of a phrase as the whole pub is ushered into an awed silence when Hagrid mentions Harry’s name to Tom, the proprietor of the Leaky Cauldron. To Harry’s further astonishment a number of pub patrons seem to know him by name and reputation. Williams’ cue was written to end suddenly and trail off. This is perhaps the less used practice since in general diegetic source music is written out in full and as rounded pieces and then edited to conform to the needs of the film. And in this case only the ending of the piece is used in the film. On the Harry Potter: John Williams Soundtrack Collection the ending of this piece of source music is faded out before its abrupt ending, probably with the listening experience in mind. 9. Diagon Alley (2M4) - 4:36 (OST track 5 Diagon Alley and The Gringotts Vault 1:15-end. HP JWSC CD 1 track 7 Diagon Alley and The Gringotts Vault (Extended Version)) Hagrid then takes baffled Harry to the empty back alley of the pub where they stop in front of a brick wall. The half giant taps several bricks with his umbrella and the wall parts to reveal a strange and exotic wizardly shopping district of Diagon Alley magically tucked away in the heart of London. As the wall disappears an airy rendition of A phrase of Hedwig’s theme dances on woodwinds and strings with gossamer harp glissandi adding their magic to the moment of revelation. Mark tree shimmers and strings take up a seesawing boisterous rhythm that leads suddenly into a lively recorder solo. The theme for Diagon Alley has a slightly Baroque and folk tune feel in its melody and instrumentation, the recorder, tambourine and fiddle on top of the orchestral sounds propelling Harry through the marvels of the shopping district and the throng of people all dressed in colorful wizardly garb. The score adds a whimsical, awed and a quirky comment on the surroundings and bestows a unique coloring to the scene. A flute led melody that whirls under a veil of all kinds of orchestral chimes announces their arrival to the imposing but slightly askew facade of Gringotts Bank where Hagrid has some business to attend to. As he names the bank a horn fanfare adds a touch of stately weight to his statement and the music continues rich and warm as they enter the chandeliered main hall. Soon the mood turns probing when Harry spots Goblins handling the banking, a solo oboe line in a bed of slowly paced pizzicato strings peering curiously over the scene, joined by other woodwinds. Hagrid states his business and darker colours appear in the music, a rising and falling string motif hinting at mystery, the ominous music also scoring Harry’s close encounter with the Goblin clerk whose suspicious visage frightens him. As Hagrid produces Harry’s vault key a small hint of Hedwig’s theme on chimes appears which is followed by ominous low brass and strings when the half giant hands the clerk a letter from Dumbledore. The Goblin takes a glance at it, with tremoloing strings and a clear eerie flute solo making its significance clear, and allows them entrance to the vault with the previously heard mysterious up-and-down string motif returning briefly. Down in the underground vaults a rhythmic woodwind, brass and string idea derived from the preceding mystery motif underscores the duo and the Goblin clerk opening Harry’s vault. All of a sudden a new thematic idea appears as our protagonist peers inside, baffled by how he suddenly has such a pile of money of his own. Interestingly Williams introduces here the 3-note incarnation of Philosopher’s Stone motif on flute over the glinting shimmer of a mark tree as Harry sees his fortune. Perhaps here the composer draws a connection between the gold and the power of the legendary stone to turn base substances into gold but it also works as a precursor to the music of the following scene. Horn takes over the 3-note variation of the Philosopher Stone motif as the trio arrives at vault 713 where Hagrid claims a small parcel. The 3 notes build and build and gain melodramatic weight, choir adding an icy and fateful tone and ominous significance to the small package in a very operatic way. In the Making In the film the opening of the cue remains intact until 0:16 when Diagon Alley is revealed. In the place of the specifically written thematic material for recorder, tambourine and fiddle the film makers used a festive march from a later cue Entry to the Great Hall (3M5) (0:56-end) that underscores the whole promenade through the district up until the reveal of the Gringotts Bank where the original cue with its horn fanfare returns. Further in the scene the original cue is dialed out just as Harry and Hagrid are going to go down to the vaults (2:47) and the rhythmic motif for their vault opening activities is left unheard. The score returns when Harry sees his fortune in the vault (3:22) and continues as written to the end of the scene. The opening of this cue was also revised a number of times during the recording sessions with several attempts at recording an insert for the Baroque/Medieval section and the fiddle solo but sadly in the end the whole passage was discarded in the film. Soundtrack Album VS Film Cue The OST version of the music is a curious hybrid of its own. The opening of the film cue for the disappearing wall is omitted and the Diagon Alley material at the beginning of the track (0:00-1:16) is derived from the Children’s Suite movement of the same name, not the film cue. The film cue continues at 1:17 with the last flourishes before the Gringotts horn fanfare and continues to the end as written. It could be speculated that the composer thought that the film take on the Diagon Alley material was not striking enough so he used the Suite movement instead which does contain a considerably slower and more developed statement of the material. 10. Harry Gets His Wand (2M5) - 2:04 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 8) Harry looks at his shopping list for his first year and the only thing remaining is a wand. Hagrid points him to Ollivander’s, the most famous wand seller in the world. As Hagrid goes off to settle some business Harry enters the Dickensian looking shop alone. He encounters the owner Mr. Ollivander (John Hurt) who proceeds to find him a suitable wand. After a few failed attempts that send things flying and shatter a vase he comes across one particular wand while rummaging between the shelves. As he states his musings out loud the music opens with a slight string tremolo. A delicate lilting celesta waltz full of magic and mystery, a close cousin to Hedwig’s theme melody, dances forth as Ollivander hands the magical artefact to Harry. When he grasps it a women’s choir rises and falls in waltz time celebrating the moment as the wand seems to accept Harry and he is surrounded for a brief moment by a nimbus of light. Ollivander seems impressed and dismayed at the same time, the celesta melody repeated by a solo cor anglais with a string backing as he starts to explain the history of the wand. As he mentions that it had a twin with a phoenix feather inside it and it was the one that gave Harry his scar, Voldemort Revealed sounds out for the first time in the low snarling brass and sinister woodwinds wedded now with the earlier celesta melody and the wicked sounding theme is repeated in the same malicious manner as the wand maker says that the owner of the twin wand, He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named, did also great things, great but terrible, and that he expects great things from Harry as well. But the evil Voldemort Revealed melody is dispelled almost as soon as it has appeared when Harry sees Hagrid through the window holding up a cage with a white snowy owl the music lightening up with strings, flutes and triangle climbing up to end in a joyous trill when the half-giant wishes Harry a happy birthday. 11. Hagrid's Flashback (3M1) - 2:52 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 9) With the shopping finally done Harry and Hagrid sit around a table in the Leaky Cauldron and Harry braves a question about his past from Hagrid and asks how his parents died. A somber passage for flute and strings plays out as Hagrid, a bit emotional, begins his tale, Harry’s/Family theme blossoming into a gentle oboe reading, once again reminding us of his past and his longing for a family. This warmth is short lived as a solo clarinet takes the melody to a sudden reading of Voldemort Revealed on tenebrous horns, the strings and celesta playing skittering seesawing passages underneath when Hagrid reminisces how Voldemort attacked the Potters. In this flashback a hooded figure attacks Lily Potter and baby Harry and the strings and chimes rise threateningly, clarinet crying in upper register and low menacing brass and woodwinds with a sheen of synthesized choir presenting a slow reading of Voldemort’s Evil that grows stronger, now bedecked with harp and string figures. Here Williams interestingly links Voldemort to woodwinds, the often mentioned reptilian nature of the villain connected with the composer’s most common instrumental section to depict such creatures in his scores. The Voldemort material subsides for a brief moment as celesta and flutes create sympathy for Harry but soon the deep and dark orchestrations returns when Voldemort is mentioned once more, Voldemort Revealed crawling slowly to the fore again on horns and tremoloing strings when Hagrid tells Harry that he thinks Voldemort still lives. The half-giant adds that Harry by some miracle survived when his parents did not and also defeated the Dark Lord, earning himself the lightning shaped scar in the process and the name, A Boy Who Lived, the revelation eliciting a melancholic but sympathetic reading of the B phrase of Hedwig’s theme on celesta that quietly but ominously ends in low tremoloing celli and basses, adding a hint of grim mystery and magic to Harry’s past. In the Making In the film the opening of the cue with the statement of Harry’s Theme and the first appearance of Voldemort Revealed were dialed out, the music opening at 1:18 as we see Voldemort entering the Potters’ house. 12. Platform Nine and Three Quarters (3M2)- 2:38 (OST track 6 Platform Nine-and-Three-Quarters and Journey to Hogwarts 0:00-1:10. HP JWSC CD 1 track 10) Hagrid is off to see Dumbledore and leaves Harry at King’s Cross Station and hands him a ticket that says 9 ¾. As the half-giant disappears as if by magic the boy is left to fend on his own and to find the mysterious platform. Luckily he hears talk of Muggles and follows a family of red headed children in hopes of finding the right way to the train. A bouncy little march on woodwinds and brass underscores the Weasley family arriving at the magical wall where three of them disappear while Harry looks on in amazement the music catching his unbelieving blink and shaking of the head with a triangle and woodwind trill. The same good-natured little march continues as Mrs. Weasley (Julie Walters) gently directs the boy to the wall and a rising string and chime phrase underscores him approaching the brick wall with his trolley, A phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on celesta depicting magic at work. Another gradually rising woodwind and high register string phrase plunges Harry through the wall and to the other side onto a platform hidden from Muggles, the orchestra blossoming into a grand and regal horn fanfare for the shot of Hogwarts Express train as our main character marvels yet another miracle of the wizarding world. The shot of the most unusual platform number on the sign is captured by a playful off-kilter waltz figure that quickly flows into a full string and woodwind reading of Hedwig’s theme as we see the Express on its way to Hogwarts through green meadows and forests and as Ron Weasley (Rupert Grint) appears at the cabin door and the slightly awkward waltz figure returns, the music fading slowly in deep strings while Harry invites him in. 13. Escaping Frog (3M3) - 0:44 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 11 Chocolate Frog Escapes) Williams provides a short musical interlude in the train as a chocolate frog makes its sudden escape from its wrapper and jumps out of the window. High tremoloing strings, flutes and glimmer of the mark tree capture the frogs movements. Woodwind led light and humorous orchestral underscore continues as Harry notes the collectible Dumbledore card and Ron presents his pet rat Scabbers, music ending just as Hermione (Emma Watson) appears at the compartment door. 14. Arrival at Hogwarts (3M4) - 1:57(OST track 6 Platform Nine-and-Three-Quarters and Journey to Hogwarts 1:11-end. HP JWSC CD 1 track 12 The Journey to Hogwarts) The Hogwarts Express finally arrives to its destination, tolling tubular bells and triangle heralding the train’s appearance through the night to the Hogwarts’ stop, A phrase of Hedwig’s theme playing on lonely celesta over tremoloing strings that have a hint of suspense about them but the nervous excitement is dispelled by the appearance of Hagrid who is waiting for the 1st year students on the platform and hurries them along to the tune of a warm and slightly comic orchestral passage highlighting woodwinds and tuba. At this point the film opens up to a magnificent wide shot of the 1st year students in small boats floating towards the Hogwarts castle that looms above them in the night beautifully lit and Williams allows the score to blossom into a majestic and broad statement of the B phrase of Hedwig’s theme with flutes and up-and-down surging string figures building under the dramatic wordless women’s choir, the brass section eventually adding their magnificent burnished voice to the performance as the children approach the castle. Hedwig’s Theme is soon overtaken by a small festive welcoming march for the orchestra, the clear heraldic trumpets accompanied by all kinds of sparkling instrumental colours, glockenspiel, marimba, triangles and sleigh bells among them, expressing awe and giddy anticipation in equal measure, making also a subtle connection to the festive melodies of the following cues. Suddenly the atmosphere changes as we see a shot of a hand on a balustrade, the music presenting a slight red herring as a sinuous solo violin line with subtle harp trills appears when the children encounter professor McGonagall and she proceeds to instruct them in precise and no-nonsense fashion. Here Williams presents a small nod to the idea of witch’s fiddle and scores the scene through the children’s eyes who obviously think she is a bit frightening with her frowning face and sharp stare. 15. Entry Into the Great Hall (3M5)- 1:48 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 13 Through the Doors) As McGonagall proceeds into the Great Hall to prepare it for their arrival, the children are left unsupervised for a few moments. A rather vain and proud looking boy with platinum blond hair recognizes Harry and introduces himself as Draco Malfoy and without a pause goes on to belittle Ron Weasley’s poor family. He would also like to make friends with the Boy Who Lived extending his hand to our protagonist. Deep brass and strings give a musical hint that this boy is perhaps not the best company, woodwinds sounding troubled and apprehensive, descending phrases on bass clarinets joined by a warning nasal sound of cor anglais. This brief tense moment passes as McGonagall returns to interrupt the boys and deep string tones climbing slowly up into the next passage as she leads the 1st years into the Great Hall. With anticipation the orchestra bursts into a new melodic idea, part jaunty part regal festive march (naturally marked alla marcia in the score). The Theme for the Great Hall is full of pageantry, capturing the sumptuous surroundings of the ensorcelled grand hall of the school. Chimes, sleigh bells bell tree triangles and glockenspiels join the orchestra in celebration as the mischievous march ushers Harry and his friends to the back of the hall where the Sorting Ceremony is to take place. Williams continues here the warm and luminous orchestrations of the previous arrival cues, embellishing the melodies with the sparkling sounds of the above mentioned instruments to achieve a welcoming atmosphere of awe and wonderment. In the Making The opening 20 seconds have been dialed out in the film, the music coming in as Malfoy extends his hand to Harry. 16. House Selection (3M6) - 3:28 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 14) With a twirl of flutes and pensive clarinet solo the sorting ceremony starts as McGonagall raises the Sorting Hat. Strings rise tentatively to an oboe and clarinet duet presenting a brief variation of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme as Hermione is sorted to Gryffindor, the choice earning a recorder and orchestral chimes and bells rendition of the Great Hall Theme. As Draco steps under the hat dark woodwind and lower string chords and gloomy horns announce his allegiance to Slytherin but also continue to underscore a dark stare between Harry and Severus Snape across the hall. Something is not quite right here. This moment of uneasiness is interrupted by a slightly comical little melody as Ron Weasley is sorted, his obvious nervousness captured by the light tremoloing upper strings that quickly flow to a relieved rendition of the Hogwarts Theme on the same recorder and chimes that just welcomed Hermione, here the theme representing Gryffindor for the first time. Now it is Harry’s turn to be sorted. Nervous yet light orchestrations usher him under the Sorting Hat when a rather reptilian clarinet solo, cold strings and harp appear out of the blue, illustrating both Harry’s fear of ending in Slytherin and the suspense of the important moment. Rising flute figures underline the magical artefact’s deliberations but it is finally swayed by Harry’s fervent wish and as it announces its verdict the joyous Hogwarts Theme again on recorder and all kinds of chimes rejoices with the Gryffindor house that they have received such a famous student into their ranks. 17. The Banquet (4M1) - 3:40 (OST track 7 Entry Into The Great Hall and The Banquet. HP JWSC CD 1 track 15 Entry Into The Great Hall and The Banquet) Professor Dumbledore announces “Let the feast begin!” and with these words a magnificent banquet appears on the tables of the Great Hall. Likewise the music bursts to life, Williams spinning another festive march which underscores the opulent scene with trumpet solos, warm brass, pizzicato strings and orchestral chimes of all description coloring the proceedings. Here the tone is much in line with the previous cues, offering a happy and light atmosphere to the scene and arrival at Hogwarts, but adding a hint of humour to the lighthearted discussion of the students. An orchestral flourish at 0:50 announces Nearly Headless Nick’s arrival through the table, scaring Ron, and an appropriately ghostly and ethereal women’s choir scores the arrival of the house ghosts of Hogwarts. Comedic light strings colour the conversation with Sir Nicholas and as Hermione innocently asks how he can be called Nearly-Headless, the ghost shows them, the flutes offering a quick ascending phrase as he, to the dismay of the girl, gives a view of his nearly severed neck. After the feast Hogwarts Theme on stalwart horns with woodwind punctuations ushers Gryffindors out of the Great Hall and into the Moving Stairs, the magical contraption earning an ethereal swell from the orchestra. Hogwarts Theme continues good natured and welcoming on strings as the students pass through the portrait gallery and finally to the Gryffindor House tower where Percy, Ron Weasley's older brother, a prefect student of Gryffindor, gives the password to the portrait of the Fat Lady and as the door opens the piece ends with a slight flourish from flutes and strings. In the Making In the film this cue appears in slightly edited form, removing a darker section at 1:31-1:54 which was to underscore Harry feeling a sudden burning sensation on his scar as Severus Snape gives him a dark look. In the cue as recorded and on soundtrack album the piece can be heard in its full form. 18. Lonely First Night (4M2) – 1:05 (Unused, HP JWSC CD 1 track 16) Next we see Harry in the night time settled on a window sill of the Gryffindor dormitory with Hedwig at his side, looking contently out of the window. Williams weaves a graceful and thoughtful clarinet and harp duet supported by delicate chimes for this calm moment that melts gently to a flute and oboe rendition of Harry’s Theme, expressing his quiet joy. For the following transitional shot of Hogwarts Castle in the morning light the composer offers a rich and noble brass and string reading of Hogwarts Theme, here further augmented by the majestic sound of tubular bells as Harry and Ron are seen hurrying to class. In the Making In the film this piece went unused, replaced by tracked music from 9M2 Leaving Hogwarts. Interestingly the film makers still used a cue that utilized Harry’s Theme for the scene although they were obviously going for a more openly emotional rendition of it than what is presented in the original cue. This material from the opening of Leaving Hogwarts is edited into the last few seconds of the original piece in the film as Harry and Ron arrive to McGonagall’s class. 19. Mail Drop (4M3) - 1:32 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 17 The Daily Prophet) The next morning as the trio of new friends is eating breakfast the mail arrives, carried by owls of every description. Trilling flutes, celesta, swirling harp and triangle accompany their descent from the windows, with muted trumpets and clarinet offering support underneath, performing Hedwig’s Theme, conjuring a light whimsical mood. The orchestrations here provide a subtle connection to the previous owl scenes in the film, the fluttering flutes especially similar in their portrayal of these avians. Strings join the proceedings as part of Hedwig’s Theme and the same light and positive orchestrations for the whole ensemble continue as Ron receives a news paper, the Daily Prophet, which Harry opens and begins to read. A solo clarinet performs a short melodic line which ends in a sudden trill as he finds out that there has been a break in at Gringotts last night. The B phrase of Hedwig’s Theme rises uneasily on muted trumpets and queasy rising and falling high strings when the trio expresses their suspicions about it. Harry mentions that he had just been there with Hagrid and a low croak of woodwinds and the final deep note of the double basses transitions to the next scene with a sense of foreboding. 20. Mr. Longbottom Flies (4M4) - 3:32 (OST track 8 Mr. Longbottom Flies. HP JWSC CD 1 track 18 Mr. Longbottom Flies) The first lesson of the day is flying under the tutelage of Madam Hooch. The pupils are just practicing the control of their broomsticks when Neville Longbottom looses control and is whisked off to the sky. The cue starts as the boy begins to rise alarmingly higher from the ground, tremoloing strings and harp subtly building tension, cor anglais, oboes and trumpets opening into an almost formal statement of the A Phrase of the Flying Theme, strings and celesta joining them as the boy takes to the air. Swirling orchestrations speed up alarmingly, muted horns, pinched and panicked trumpets and cymbal crashes follow his unfortunate flight through the training grounds, the fall from the broom and getting caught on a spear of a roof top statue and finally toppling down to the ground via a torch bracket that catches his cloak in midway and partially dampens his fall. A downward surge of violins, lower strings and harp catch this last plunge, tense timpani pounding a steady rhythm quietly adding a sense of danger to the moment. As Madam Hooch inspects the boy, a relieved but a subdued reading of Hogwarts Theme lets us know that Neville will survive, clarinets ghosted by other woodwinds, the celli and basses underscoring Hooch’s last stern instructions before she departs to escort Neville to the hospital wing. There is to be no flying before she gets back. At 1:40 a new section starts as Malfoy, who found Neville’s Remebral, a magical bauble, on the ground where he had dropped it in the commotion, steps on his broom and decides to play a cruel trick on the Gryffindor student by hiding the ball somewhere high up in the castle. Harry comes to the defense of his fellow Gryffindor and demands the sphere back. A chase ensues and rapidly tremoloing strings backed by deep trombones presage a dramatic horn reading of the A Phrase of the Flying Theme as the two boys take to the sky. The theme flows into a tension filled full orchestra reading of the B Phrase of the Flying Theme that underscores their exchange in the air, the strings swirling majestically underneath. Malfoy refuses to give in, and instead of giving the remebral to Harry, throws it away with a sneer. The tension mounts as Harry speeds after it, the surging string lines of the B Phrase, like the wind swirling around Harry, culminating in a blazing brass led reading of the A Phrase of the Flying Theme as our protagonist saves the ball just before they both hit the castle wall, right under McGonagall's window. As he descends in triumph to meet a cheering group of Gryffindors the magnificent reading of the B Phrase of the Flying Theme celebrates his success by ascending higher and higher in poignant lyricism but is suddenly silenced by the approaching dour looking McGonagall, the moment underscored by deep brass notes from tuba and horns. She bids Harry to follow her much to the amusement of the Slytherins but the musical air clears as they walk through the corridors, clarinet with woodwind and string accompaniment quoting briefly but reassuringly the Hogwarts Theme as McGonagall and Harry arrive at the door of Professor Quirrel’s class room. In the Making The Hogwarts Theme that underscored Madam Hooch inspecting Neville was dialed out of the film, the music continuing as Malfoy and Harry begin their aerial chase. Also the second rendition of Hogwarts Theme as McGonagall and Harry walk through the school was left unscored and the music ends at 3:05 in the film. This was probably done to give the audience a few moments of trepidation for Harry’s fate which the Hogwarts Theme might have dispelled with its generally optimistic tone. *** McGonagall to Harry’s relief takes him only to meet Oliver Wood who is the captain of the Gryffindor Quidditch team and announces that she has found him a Seeker. It appears Harry’s flying skills earn him the place of a Seeker, a player in the Gryffindor house team for Quidditch, a peculiar wizard ball game played while flying on broomsticks. And soon everyone knows that the Boy Who Lived will be on the team, the youngest player in a century. 21. The Moving Stairs (4M5) - 1:57 (OST track 9 Hogwarts Forever! and the Moving Stairs 1:55-end. HP JWSC CD 1 track 19) As Ron still marvels Harry’s flying skills and acceptance to the team Hermione in know-it-all fashion announces that it is in his blood and takes the pair to an old awards cabinet where on a shield stands proudly James Potter, Seeker, meaning that Harry’s father was also a Quidditch player. Harry’s proud and amazed look at the gilded award plaque earns a warm horn reading of the Hogwarts Theme with synth celestra backing, expressing both house pride and personal connection Harry feels to the school and even more importantly a connection to the past and his parents. Celli and basses transition our trio to the stairwell of the Moving Stairs, ghostly women’s choir, ascending flute phrases and harp creating an eerie magical atmosphere with a hint of danger. Suddenly our heroes realize that they are lost, stairs having deposited them in a wrong corridor which is bleak and black, the score taking a dark turn as the Philosopher’s Stone motif on flutes and edgy violins materializes to greet them, offering a quiet hint of their location. Hermione soon puzzles it out and exclaims in horror that they are on the forbidden 3rd floor and cold synthetic choir effects, tam tam scraped with metal stick and skittering strings enhance the gloomy revelation, bassoons and bass clarinets joining in and repeating the Philosopher’s Stone motif ever more ponderously. At 0:54 quick piano notes and tremoloing high strings cut the ruminations of the three friends short as Filch’s cat, Ms. Norris appears, announcing that the ill-tempered and malevolent caretaker of the castle can’t be far behind, inducing panic and as the children run through the dark hall in fear of getting caught in the forbidden area of the school rhythmic strings and muted snarling horns and trombones propel them forward as much as express their anxiety. Finally they arrive at a door which is locked, Harry trying desperately to open it to no avail but suddenly Hermione steps forward decisively and casts an opening spell and the woodwinds flow into a bell tree enhanced statement of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme to comment on the magic happening on-screen. Just as the trio has closed the door behind them the A Phrase is repeated, now cold and uninviting on low brass and high whining strings as Filch arrives to inspect the now empty corridor but as he departs empty handed the piece winds down with tense brass and string chords. Soundtrack Album VS Film Cue On the soundtrack album Williams presents the whole Moving Stairs sequence but combines the cue with music from the Children’s Suite, a piece called Hogwarts Forever, scored for French horns, basically a long development of the Hogwarts Theme, which is heard on the OST in its entirety as well. This is another example of how music is moulded into the soundtrack experience the composer wants to create for the listeners. *** The encounter with the three headed dog behind the door is left unscored and the children escape at the last minute after waking the gigantic canine, shutting the door just in time before it can get out. 22 . It's Guarding Something 4M6 (Rev.) - 0:34 (Unused, HP JWSC CD 2 track 11 Neville Stiffens 0:19-end) Harry, Ron and Hermione get back to the Gryffindor tower after meeting a three headed dog behind the locked door, all three shaken by the experience but Hermione worrying more about expulsion from the school than the life danger they were just in. She also points out to Ron that the creature was obviously guarding something. Here rising and falling low string harmonies quickly flow into a woodwind and horn rendition of A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme that is subtly ghosted by synth celesta, the music posing a question which is left ominously unanswered. In the Making This cue went completely unused in the film, Hermione’s pondering left unscored entirely. Williams apparently wrote two versions of the short cue of which there is the evidence in the sheet music as the title on cue sheet is marked Rev. (= revised). The Harry Potter: John Williams Soundtrack Collection combines this short piece with another unused cue Troll in the Dungeon! into a single piece titled Neville Stiffens, which also happens to be the scene this unused piece of music was partially tracked to in the finished film. 23. Introduction to Quidditch (4M7) - 1:29 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 20) Next Harry tries to get his bearings on Quidditch with Oliver Wood and the older boy explains the different equipment and rules involved in the game. When he releases one of the Bludgers, a small magically self propelling ball, that try to harass the players during the game, and it flies off into the air solemn horns and trombones underscore Harry’s attentive gaze. Ascending women’s voices, ethereal alto flutes, fast violin figures and celesta underscore the upward flight of the ball and the orchestration is further enhanced by busy low woodwinds and assorted brass for Harry’s succesful hit of the Bludger with a club as it hurtles back down towards him through the air. Celesta and bell tree introduce him to the Golden Snitch, a ball that Harry as the Seeker is supposed to catch, Williams creating with flutes and trilling high strings an atmosphere of light and airy marvel as the golden bauble unravels its wings in his hand and jumps into the air. 24. Hermione's Feather (5M1) - 0:40 ( HP JWSC CD 1 track 21) This short cue underscores a lesson under Professor Flitwick as Hermione succesfully levitates a feather. Williams’ music catches the movements of the feather with high register ghostly violins, mark tree twinkle and celesta as it rises into the air. As unfortunate Seamus Finnigan in his usual style makes the feather explode rueful horns, celesta and harp humorously comment on the situation and the smoldering feather. 25. Troll in the Dungeon (5M1X) - 0:22 (Unused, HP JWSC CD 2 track 11 0:00-0:18) It is time for the Halloween party and all the students have gathered in the Great Hall (the shot of the hall featuring tracked statement of Hedwig’s Theme from 3M4 Arrival at Hogwarts) when Professor Quirrel suddenly bursts in to interup the feast, shouting for help as a troll is on the loose in the dungeons. After delivering this piece of news he promptly faints. String section provides rising menacing chords underpinned by low brass and woodwind colours, the piece abruptly ending in metallic rumble of deep notes from contrabassoons and clarinets, grand piano and cong rubbed with a mallet to enchance the of meaning Quirrel’s alarming message. In the Making This piece went entirely unused in the film and might have lent the scene a bit too heavy cast if it had been used. 26. Fighting the Troll (5M2) - 3:22 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 22) Ron and Harry notice that Hermione is not in the Great Hall and soon find out that she was last seen in the girls’ toilets, where she had hidden upset as Ron had inadvertendly insulted her the previous morning. As the boys remember that the toilets are close to the dungeons, they hurry to rescue Hermione who they suspect is in danger. For their premonition tension filled contraclarinets and -bassoons, celli and double basses present a slow winding menacing melody which is joined by violins spinning a faster fateful sounding figure amidst the low end sounds, horns augmenting the suspense with determined blasts. The pair flits through the corridors to rhythmic and agitated sounds of the woodwinds and nervous strings until at 0:36 ponderous chords blast from tuba, trombones and horns, scraped tam-tam adding its sizzling voice to this texture while violins and violas buzz in higher register and celli and basses augment the brass with sul ponticello effects, all underscoring the troll arriving to the toilets where Hermione is hiding. Now timpani and bass drum echo the brass blasts that capture the heavy set movement and terror of the creature and after a couple moments of tense near silence of subtly tremoloing strings the monster notices the girl who has hidden in one of the stalls. The club wielding mountain troll swings his weapon and the heavy plodding writing continues. Harry and Ron arrive at the scene and see Hermione scurrying for cover under the waterfountains as Williams’ sizzling music topples the toilet stalls in rhythmic bursts from different sections of the orchestra. At 1:30 a new melodic action motif begins as Harry and Ron try to attract the attention of the enormous creature so that Hermione could get away. Despite its brassy orchestrations this motif is reminiscent of Williams Home Alone scores in its balletic dance-like charm. Brass section continues to perform this frantic and busy musical idea, containing a hint of Voldemort's Evil in its contours and thus subtly revealing the true source of the evil behind the scenes, as the boys do battle, all orchestral layers contributing to the mayhem, timpani setting a relentless drive. Williams gradually injects heroic brass into this rhythm, trumpets singing victoriously with crashing cymbals as Harry finally ends up on top of the creature and it tries to shake him off. Harp, chimes and celesta underscore with tense and luminous strings the moment when Ron succeeds in his levitation spell and saves Harry in the nick of time from ending up squashed by the troll’s club, sending the weapon floating into the air. Mark tree, high tremolo strings and solo piccolo color this moment of weightlessness, the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on celesta celebrating a succesful magical feat but soon the ungainly and frantic string figures drop the club on the head of the troll and the same dramatic brass blasts that announced its arrival now topple the monstrosity and send it out cold on the floor, string figures and clarinets taking their lurching notes from the brass and slowly fade into a relieved silence. 27. Nimbus 2000 (5M3) - 1:13 (HP JWSC CD 1 track 23 Owl Delivers Nimbus 2000) It has come time for the first Quidditch match of the season and Harry sits with his friends at the breakfeast table feeling anxious and with lost appetite. Severus Snape the potions teacher who seems to hated Harry for some reason from day one passes by to offer a few scathing remarks, limping away oddly. Harry notices this and deduces that Snape set the troll loose in the dungeons as a diversion to get to the trap door guarded by the three headed dog and got bitten. His suspicions are enhanced by the fateful and menace of Philosopher’s Stone motif which is heard on eerie flutes, celli, violins and ghost-like synthesized voices as the trio ponders the meaning of these events. But they don’t have time to concentrate on this puzzle because an owl appears carrying a parcel and drops it in Harry’s hand, Hedwig’s Theme sounding in its most traditional guise on celesta and strings, their seesawing michievousness intact. Our young hero is a bit perplexed as he never receives mail and when the three friends quickly unwrap the package it reveals a broomstick. Williams spins a new playful coda to Hedwig’s Theme extending the melodic line, mark tree sparkle and woodwinds leading to a brief but graceful oboe solo underscoring the revelation of broomstick’s name, Nimbus 2000, before elated string chords close the piece on a positive note, catching McGonagall’s reassuring smile to Harry from the teacher’s table, suggesting she must have a hand in supplying Harry with his broom. This leads immediately to 28. The Quidditch Match (5M4 Parts I-IV) (OST track 11 The Quidditch Match. HP JWSC CD 1 track 24) This elaborate action sequence in the middle of the film runs for exciting and fast paced 8 and half minutes which is all punctuated by Williams colorful and energetic music. As per usual film scoring practice the whole scene was divided by Williams into smaller sections and recorded as separate cues at the recording sessions and then assembled editorially later into a full finished piece, which can be heard on the OST album as one unbroken track. This is common way to deal with long, complex and fast paced pieces of music which have to be recorded by the orchestra with very little preparation and rehearsal time. This is done to minimize the effects of possible mistakes and flubs made during the recording and this way a few imperfections in the performance do not mar the whole long sequence that would have been otherwise perfectly played. This recording practice also facilitates the whole process for the scoring crew in general. Williams divided the Quidditch Match into four consecutive sections which will be analyzed separately here: a) Let the Games Begin (5M4 (Pt I)) – 2:12 A march on double basses and celli accompanied by a field drum evokes an atmosphere of determination, excitement and ceremony in almost military fashion as it ushers the Gryffindor team into their stall before the match. A woodwind led melody of equally militaristic nature colours Harry’s and Oliver Wood’s brief exchange before the gates are opened and the teams, Gryffindor and Slytherin, fly into the arena accompanied by glorious burst of pomp and circumstance, a bright and regal Quidditch Fanfare sounding on heraldic brass, trumpets first and foremost displaying their burnished splendour, all kinds of orchestral chimes, tambourine and cymbals creating a feel of grand spectacle. The rest of the orchestra joins in as the fanfare is taken over by the Hogwarts Theme, now triumphant and noble, dazzling with the Quidditch Fanfare’s orchestrations, Williams adding tremoloing strings and trilling woodwinds to inject the music with anticipation as the match is about to begin. Deep lean chords from celli and basses sound expectant as Madam Hooch throws the Quaffle into the air, the aforementioned woodwinds and strings rising to catch the movement of the Golden Snitch flying off into the air, the orchestra gathering strength and with a cymbal crash the game starts. b) The Scoring Begins (5M4 (Pt II)) - 1:37 The match kicks open with a determined and energetic rendition of the A Phrase of the Flying Theme, strings performing similar figures that are found in the B Phrase of the theme underneath, cymbals crashing and woodwinds bubbling to support the action. Muscular and rhythmic brass section drives the daring flight and aerial exploits, complemented by the A Phrase of the Flying Theme that captures the wickedly fast game as opponents circle each other and fight for the ball, trying to score goals. Soon the score celebrates as the Gryffindor scores the first goal of the game, the Hogwarts Theme again performing its double duty as the Gryffindor Theme here, returning to the triumphant tones of the opening of the sequence as Angelina Johnson lands a goal. But soon the intense strings and brass drive the game forward and another cymbal crash transports the music to the third phase of the game. c) Slytherin Scores (5M4 (Pt III)) - 2:26 Trumpets, crashing of cymbals and swirling harp glissandi continue fast and furious, steady string and brass rhythms propelling the teams, the Slytherin now gaining the upper hand, woodwinds adding panicky tones to the happenings. The pace of the music turns relentless as desperate Harry witnesses how his team mates are mauled one by one by the ruthless opponents, Williams’ orchestrations favouring high register woodwinds and strings in dazzlingly swirling and kinetic series of runs as brass and gradually growing percussion add constant weight and drive to the furious match taking place in mid-air. Harry spots the Golden Snitch and begins to pursue it but suddenly shaky, sharp and nervous strings and percussion intervene, his broomstick getting suddenly out of control, shrill woodwinds, manic harp glissandi and alarmed horns all describing panic and trouble as Harry hangs on to his broom for dear life, the orchestra accenting the queasy movements of Nimbus 2000. Hermione with her binoculars spots Snape on the other side of the arena, obviously casting a spell and keeping his eyes on Harry. She acts without delay and hurries to stop him before Harry gets hurt. Here from the erratic movement of the shrieking woodwinds, strings, harp and horns emerges suddenly a chilling musical motif, the theme of Voldemort’s Evil, which is performed by imperious brass, followed by flutes and clarinets over rhythmic pattern of double basses and eerily rising women’s choir, cymbals adding further weight and drama to the rendition. The composer hints at the true source of Harry’s troubles even though the Dark Lord is nowhere to be seen and at the same time the score offers a red herring about Snape and his allegiance. The theme is repeated twice while nervous and fast string figures speed Hermione to the spectator stand where Snape is apparently jinxing the broom, woodwinds performing a subtle variation of B Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme as she casts a fire charm on his cloak and sets in ablaze. d) Harry's Great Victory (5M4 (Pt IV)) - 2:24 Trilling piccolos, alarmed brass and tubular bells evoke the panic that is started by the fire in the stand, Snape toppling a good number of people, Professor Quirrel among them, as he tries to stamp the fire out. Rising brass harmonies announce that Harry has gotten the control of his broom back and as he continues to battle the Slytherin Seeker and his pursuit of the Golden Snitch, the Quidditch Fanfare sounds heroically on trumpets again, fast paced string runs, forward hurtling brass fanfares and intensifying percussion add tension and momentum to his flight as he tries to outfly the Slytherin boy. As Harry in his final attempt rises to stand on his broom the trumpets supported by the rest of the brass reach a gloriously triumphant yet tense climax and with cymbal crash he topples off his broomstick and leaps towards the Snitch, the music coming to a sudden halt at this point, the flutes giving out a surprised yelp. A quick searching and curious phrase from the celli as if asking a question rises up to a flick of a triangle as our hero rises up and seems to be feeling ill, holding his stomach and with a swirling flute gesture spits the Golden Snitch from his mouth into his hands, the bauble depicted by a the glittering sounds of the mark tree and ethereal flute rendition of the B Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme. Madam Hooch announces the Gryffindor as the winner and the orchestra erupts into an elated variation on the Quidditch Fanfare when Gryffindors celebrate their victory. As camera circles happily grinning Harry we hear for the first time Harry’s Wondrous World Theme on warm sweeping strings, the Boy Who Lived feeling pride and sense of fullfilment for the first time, the character coming to his own, trumpets and swirling chimes performing the optimistic and childlike Harry’s Secondary Motif in support,bringing the exciting action sequence to a satisfying,jubilant conclusion. 29. Hagrid's Christmas Tree (6M1) - 0:55 (OST track 12 Christmas at Hogwarts, 0:00-0:22. HP JWSC CD 2 track 1) Hagrid and our three heroes are walking outside the castle and the children confide their suspicions about Snape to the half-giant. Deliberately ponderous statement of the Philosopher’s Stone motif rises on horns, woodwinds and lower strings to announce mystery, hint at the artefact as the three headed dog, Fluffy, is mentioned and illustrating the children’s concern. Hagrid lets slip that a person called Nicholas Flamel is also somehow tangled up in this strange business, the score giving a clear clue to his connection to the magical substance as well. A quick cut takes us to Christmas time and as sleighbells ring flutes with orchestral backing sing out a happy festive jule tide melody as Hagrid is seen pulling a large Christmas tree through the snow covered castle grounds. 30. Christmas Music Box (6M1A) – 1:06 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 2 Cast A Christmas Spell 1:28-end) For the subsequent Christmas scenes when we see Hermione leaving for holidays and Harry and Ron playing wizard’s chess in the school hall and spending their holidays at Hogwarts Williams composed two alternate pices of music. The first take on the scene is a Christmassy melody on music box, performed on synths (marked in sound and style as 19th century music box in the sheet music) which creates warm background music for holiday season of Hogwarts. Cast a Christmas Spell (6M1A Alt.) 1:18 (OST track 12 Christmas at Hogwarts, 0:22-1:33. HP JWSC CD 2 track 2 Cast A Christmas Spell 0:00-1:27) This alternate take on the same scene is a piece of ghostly diegetic music, a Christmas carol sung by the group of Hogwarts ghost carolers floating around in the corridors. The melody is the same as for the music box music but this time Williams himself penned lyrics for it as he told to Richard Dyer in a Boston Globe Interview in 2001 as a result of being unsatisfied by the original idea of using Deck the Halls as source music for the Christmas scene, wanting to give the world of Harry Potter authentic holiday ambience of its own (WILLIAMS CASTS SPELL FOR ‘POTTER’ SCORE By Richard Dyer – The Boston Globe, published November 15, 2001). The music is written for alto, baritone and bass singer, ghosts each performing a brief solo section. This music was originally written unaccompanied but the eerie electronic sheen (similar to that of the Invisibility Cloak) was later added and the voices of the singers, who are already singing in a spooky ghostly fashion, were manipulated achieving a suitably ethereal effect. This version ended up used in the film and on the original soundtrack album. Cast a Christmas Spell Merry Christmas, merry Christmas, ring the Hogwarts bell, Merry Christmas, merry Christmas, cast a Christmas spell. Have a Wondrous Wizard Christmas, have a Merry Christmas day, Move around the sparkling fire, have a Merry Christmas day. Find a broomstick in your stocking, see the magic on display, Join the owls joyous flocking on this Merry Christmas day. Ding dong, ding dong, ring the Hogwarts bell, ding dong, ding dong, cast a Christmas spell. Ding dong, ding dong, make the Christmas morning bright, Fly high across the sky, light the Christmas night. Merry Christmas, merry Christmas, ring the Hogwarts bell, Merry Christmas, merry Christmas, cast a Christmas spell. It is unclear whether it was the original intention of the film makers to use both or just one of the pieces in the scene but in the end both versions of this Christmas music were used in the film, the ghost carolers heard briefly in the corridor and the music box music playing shortly after in an equally short statement as Hermione steps into the Great Hall to say goodbye to Harry and Ron before leaving for the holidays. On the Harry Potter: John Williams Soundtrack Collection both version of this piece are combined into a single track titled Cast A Christmas Spell which begins with the caroling ghosts followed by the music box material. 31. Christmas Morning (6M2) 2:08 (OST track 12 Christmas at Hogwarts 1:27-end. HP JWSC CD 2 track 3 Christmas Morning and The Invisibility Cloak 0:00-2:08) Glittering piano and all kinds of chimes and sleighbells along with string section opens to a musical depiction of giddy surprise as on Christmas morning Harry to his delight finds that he too has gotten presents, a merry and excited melody soon joined by the woodwinds as the boys open their packages. Strings perform long expectant chords as Harry pulls out a cape from one of the parcels but also a note that came with it, the mood quickly turning suspenseful and over tremoloing high strings oboe and harp appear to perform a question of their own as Harry dons the cape. All of a sudden these organic musical devices fall silent (at 1:23) as ethereal and cold sounding synthesizer effects take hold, wafting through the soundscape mysteriously (the synthesizer effects marked on the score as like a hovering presence and ghostly wind effect and their performance direction airy) creating a musical depiction for the Invisibility Cloak as Ron recognizes the artefact and Harry disappears under the garment except for his head, which floats comically through the air. Williams makes here a clever departure from highly melodic style of his leitmotifs for Harry Potter and presents one of pure sound design which is no less effective in portraying in its hollow, unsettling tones the magical artefact Harry has received as a present from an anonymous benefactor. Now the heroes have their means of entering the Restricted Section of the library where Hermione hinted they might find more information on Nicholas Flamel. As we cut to the library soft high strings and harp return to the score, double bass figure taking us without a pause to the next cue. Soundtrack Album VS Film cue Williams combines the Christmas music from the film into a suite on the OST. This consists of the Christmassy music of 6M1 Hagrid’s Christmas Tree (0:33-end), 6M1A Cast a Christmas Spell and edited down version of the 6M2 Christmas Morning which omits the Invisibility Cloak music (the music running from 0:00 to 1:22 of the film cue)and contains different ending chords, editorially inserted to finish the piece on a resolved note. 32. The Library Scene (6M2A) - 5:15 (OST track 13 Invisibility Cloak and the Library Scene, edited and truncated. HP JWSC CD 2 track 3 Christmas Morning and The Invisibility Cloak 2:08-end) Harry sneaks to the Restricted Section of the library to search for information on Nicholas Flamel and so the music for the Invisibility Cloak continues, floating eerily in the darkness, the score enhancing both Harry’s invisibility and the suspense of the moment. Harry proceeds to read the names of the volumes on the shelves and subtle flutes, cold sliding violins and harp intone the Philosopher’s Stone motif, again indicating indirectly that Nicholas Flamel is clearly connected to the magical stone. A silvery shimmer of mark tree underscores Harry flicking the cape off his back to more easily peruse a book, the Philosopher’s Stone motif sounds once more on flutes coloured now with a hint of danger by the muted horns. As an ensorcerelled book suddenly lets out a scream rattling percussion rings out alarmingly and Harry drops his lantern. Argus Filch appears to the sound of sharp orchestral jab and and the music reverts back to the hollow toned whispering Invisibility Cloak motif as Filch walks through the library and Harry hides under his magical vestment, a brief quote of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme appearing on celesta to inform him that the coast is clear and Filch gone for the moment. But soon the gradually quickening pace of celesta, vibraphone and strings illustrates Harry’s escape from Ms. Norris when he encounters the cat in the corridor and quickly backs away and the slight crescendo on suspended cymbal indicates his sudden and accidental brush with the teachers. The music halts here for a moment as Harry witnesses a brief tense exchange of Professor Quirrel and Snape in the nightime corridor, the latter threatening the former. Filch arrives to announce that someone is running about in the Restricted Section at night, sending both teachers to investigate. Meanwhile Harry slips through a door and down a corridor and the music resumes, the Invisibility Cloak’s eerie accompaniment following his steps and at the other side of the door he arrives to a deserted hall. Mysterious expectantly alluring strains of B phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on strings with mark tree dazzling in the background appear to greet him and with celesta and harp performance of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme the Mirror of Erised is revealed. When Harry gazes into the mirror, glint of sorrowful harp and forlorn women’s choir, heartbreakingly lonely and echoing oboe and clarinet phrases express the boy’s longing as he sees himself surrounded by his parents in the silvery surface. Wistful and warm harp, celesta and chimes reading of Harry’s/Family Theme above string harmonies dances forth in gentle waltz time, a musical portrait of nostalgic yearning the boy feels for his family in this moment. But sudden jolt of rhythmic scurrying figures from the whole string section lead us back with Harry to the Gryffindor common room where he tells of his find to Ron, the nervous music capturing his excitement as he drags Ron in front of the magical mirror. In the Making In the film the quick vibraphone, celesta and string motif after Harry has evaded Ms. Norris (at 2:35 of the cue) is followed by rumbling ominous basses, celli and brass, which is tracked from elsewhere in the score as sneaking invisible Harry witnesses the exchange of professors Quirrel and Snape. This celesta, vibraphone and string idea that underscored the previous ethereal escape appears again when Snape senses something intruding on his discussion and makes a suspicious grope in the dark but the rendition is tracked from that previous section of this same cue. More tracked music follows (among it dramatic tubular bells from 8M1 The Chess Board) as Filch appears to alert the teachers and they go off to find the student in the library. The cue as written would have proceeded with the ghostly synthesized music for the Invisibility Cloak at 2:35 after the teachers and Filch left. Harry's/Family Theme in front of the Mirror of Erised is also shortened slightly in the film to conform to the cut. Soundtrack Album VS Film cue On the soundtrack album Williams has truncated this cue considerably. This version omits the opening renditions of the Invisibility Cloak and Philosopher’s Stone motifs and begins at 1:19 into the cue. There is a small edit in the middle section which cuts out the brief Hedwig’s Theme rendition of celesta and the choral interlude for the Mirror of Erised is edited out as well (3:39-4:15 of the cue), the music returning with the Harry’s/Family Theme and plays to the end as written. 33. Dumbledore's Advice (6M3) - 2:28 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 4 Mirror of Erised and A Change of Season 0:00-2:23) Harry takes Ron to the mirror in which he sees a great future for himself. As he hopefully asks if the mirror is showing the future a small snippet of Hedwig’s Theme on oboe and a harp flourish seem to evoke optimism the red haired boy feels but a darker melancholy turn in the melody underscores Harry’s mournfully doubtful answer. The mirror can’t be showing the future since his parents are dead. Next Harry is seen sitting in front of the mirror alone, staring into its depths, delicate and yearning harp and chimes singing out his longing for his mother and father. A gentle harp trill and flute gesture reveals Dumbledore who has been watching the boy and proceeds now to tell him of the mirror’s powers and a luminous oboe and string passage flows from the orchestra, lyrically supporting the wisdom the old wizard imparts, Hedwig’s Theme once again appearing fleetingly, a comforting musical message. And finally as he warns Harry of the mirror's empty promises, grim deep chords in string and brass sections underline the importance of his message. In the Making The opening seconds with the subtle quote of the first notes of Hedwig's Theme on oboe for Ron's amazed question and the following brief grim passage for Harry's sorrow are dialed out of the film, the music coming in as we see Harry in front of Mirror of Erised again. 34. Owl's Flight (6M4)- 1:10 (Unused, HP JWSC CD 3 track 16 Owl's Flight) Next Harry is seen in the wintery castle courtyard holding Hedwig on his arm and releasing her into the sky. Tubular bells ghosted trumpet melody with harp interjections provides a gentle yet slightly sad tone as he walks through the snow before flutes carry the melody into a full rendition of the A Phrase of the Flying Theme on solo celesta as we see the owl take wing, strings picking up the theme nimbly and weaving a quick variation on it before the piece closes with a single glint of triangle, transitioning us from winter to spring. This version of the music was never used for the scene and Williams wrote a new version with different approach. Hedwig's Time Transition (6M4 Alt.) - 1:13 (OST track 10 The Norwegian Ridgeback and The Change of Season 1:35-end. HP JWSC CD 2 track 4 Mirror of Erised and A Change of Season 2:23-end) This is Williams’ second take on the scene and the one used in the film and the version that ended up on the OST album as well. It begins straightaway with Harry’s Wondrous World Theme and Harry’s Secondary Theme sprightly accompanying it and finally rising to a gradually building flowing rendition of Harry’s/Family Theme as Hedwig rises to the sky, the theme developing to its grandest reading yet as winter turns to spring. The piece has a sort of romantic yearning quality that suggests melancholy but also contentment, perhaps telling that Harry is gradually finding his place and identity in this wondrous world of his. In the Making It can be deduced that the first version of the music for the scene might have been considered too lively and whimsical by the film makers, the A Phrase of the Flying Theme indeed quite suitable to underscore Hedwig’s flight but somewhat too light and playful for the tone of the scene. Williams’ second version captures the heart and emotion, the warmth and sense of lyricism inherent in the images on screen, focusing purely on Harry’s character and emotional content rather than the magic and whimsy. 35. Hermione's Reading (6M5 (rev 2)) - 1:06 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 5) Hermione has finally found the answer to the question of Nicholas Flamel’s identity when she was doing a bit of “light” reading, producing a hefty tome eliciting Ron’s bafflement at her definition of “light”. Flamel is the only known maker of the Philosopher’s Stone and as the girl begins her explanation Williams produces a gloomy reading of the said Stone’s motif on woodwinds ghosted by synthesizers and harp and accompanied by cold strings and as the trio hurries to Hagrid’s hut to warn him, a bit of repurposed music from the Prologue, a whimsical melodic line and up and down rising and falling string figures (1M1 Prologue 0:19-0:30) usher them to his door and are greeted by bassclarinets as the half-giant reluctantly lets them in only when they reveal they know all about the Philosopher’s Stone. In the Making Williams’ original intention is unknown since the sheet music is unavailable but the sheet music for the revisions indicate that he has written at least two further versions of this cue after the original, the film version being the 2nd rewrite. The latter half of the revised cue is quite clearly repurposed almost directly from the Prologue so most likely Williams replaced the ending with this material but the opening with the Philosopher’s Stone motif might be the one he originally conceived for the scene. 36. The Norwegian Ridgeback (6M6)- 1:37 (OST track The Norwegian Ridgeback and The Change of Season 0:00-1:35. HP JWSC CD 2 track 6) Bubbling bassclarinet solo and resounding thump of pizzicato violins opens the piece as Hagrid’s secret, a dragon egg, is about to hatch and a small dragon stumbles out of the shell, the score capturing the comical uncertainty of the creature’s movements with a solo melody for cor anglais accompanied by jaunty bassclarinets and bassoons. Rhythmic tug of string section further enhances the clumsiness of the tiny creature whom the enamoured Hagrid quickly names Norbert before it sets his beard on fire, triangle and horns accenting the event. But quickly the mood turns ominous as someone is seen in the window, the children briefly spotting Draco Malfoy before he disappears and the music presages trouble in worried high and low string harmonies. As the trio returns to the school they are apprehended in the hall by Ms. McGonagall and smirking Draco who obviously is glad to see them in trouble and deep woodwinds colour his moment of triumph and victorious expression with malice. 37. Filch's Fond Remembrance (7M1) - 1:30 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 7) McGonagall reprimands the three Gryffindors for being out of bed at night time, takes 150 points from their house and sends them to detention. To his dismay Draco is also punished and sent with them. Celli perform deep and ominous chords as McGonagall announces her verdict and with alto flute and bassoon bubbling underneath we transition outside Hogwarts where Filch is accompanying the four children in the night on their way to Hagrid’s hut where they are to serve their detention. Williams provides travelling music and atmosphere as a faux medieval sounding melody on harp, synth instruments (marked antique plucked sound and cymbalom on the sheet music) plays when Filch reminisces the good old days, recorders duetting briefly and the rhythm of the medieval melody continues underneath until they arrive at the hut and discuss Norbert's fate with Hagrid. In the Making The duet of the recorders has been removed from the film, the cue edited so that it cuts just before the solo starts and jumps right to the ending. 38. The Blue Forest (7M2)- 5:14 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 8 The Dark Forest) Hagrid takes the four children with his guard dog Fang into the Dark Forest (Williams’ cue name is either a slip up on his part or he might have intuitively named the forest blue because of the bluish lighting of the scene) to look for something. A searching, mysterious and eerie melody for the Dark Forest in lower strings and woodwinds wafts slowly forward, the group making their way deeper into the woods full of shadows. At 0:36 woodwinds and glistening sounds of a bell tree underscore Hagrid’s discovery of unicorn blood, silvery substance with magical powers. He explains that someone has wounded a unicorn in the forest and that they are there to find it and the Dark Forest motif continues to develop but subtly a rendition of Voldemort’s Evil on bassoons and bassclarinets with a sheen of whining high strings slithers forward, informing us of the horror of wounding a unicorn and heralding the menace which is to be revealed in the following scene. Hagrid continues his explanation which prompts the appearance of a sad waltz melody, somewhere between the Dark Forest material and Voldemort’s music that grows to a deep horn statement as the half-giant splits the group to search a wider area, Hagrid, Hermione and Ron forming the other group, Draco, Harry and Fang taking another path. Shimmering harp follows the transitional shot as we now follow Harry, Draco and the dog, the ebbing and flowing musical depiction of the Dark Forest receiving more pronounced variations, high and low strings performing counterlines, harp and woodwinds bubbling below them. After a while the trio spots something moving amidst the tree roots in the pitch black bowels of the forest. Malfoy and Harry, whose scar suddenly starts to hurt intensely, are almost transfixed by an eerie sight of a dark figure in a hooded cloak bending over a dead unicorn, silvery blood of the creature colouring its mouth as it turns to face them. Orchestra bursts gradually to a relentless crescendo, brass screaming, flutes chirping in terror, clarinets keening in high register, timpani pounding aggressively while Draco and Fang flee in panic and as the terrible creature faces the boys Voldemort Revealed growls forth with thunderous might, ascending voices of wordless women’s choir augmenting the terse brass and blood curdling cold strings. Harry stumbles on tree roots as he backs away while the cloaked figure approaches, the trumpets belting out an operatic and majestically cruel variation of Voldemort’s Evil in the midst of an ever ascending choral wail as the Boy Who Lived comes face to face with his nemesis for the first time. But in the midst of the thematic phrase the progression is suddenly cut short, heroically blazing and determined brass fanfares deposing of the cruel instrumental tones as a centaur comes to Harry’s defense and drives the dark figure into the shadows. The valiant creature, Firenze, explains to Harry that he is in danger in the forest and should go but as he describes how terrible crime it is to kill a unicorn and how its blood will prolong and sustain life an ennobling string elegy appears capturing both the mythical creature’s wisdom and sanctity of the unicorns in its soothing, beatific notes. As the centaur asks, does the boy know who would want to use unicorn’s blood for evil purposes, Voldemort’s Evil returns ominously on tenebrous tuba underpinned by cold strings and ghostly thrumming of a suspended gong to answer the question and it is repeated again on croaking lower woodwinds as Firenze hints that Voldemort wants the Philosopher’s Stone for himself. Lighter and relieved string chords rise as Hagrid and the rest of the group arrives and as Firenze departs and the camera shifts to a close up of the dead unicorn gloomy orchestral strains fade to an uncomfortable silence with a shimmer of a mark tree. In the Making In the film a section of the Dark Forest search music and the first rendition of Voldemort’s Evil are dialed out as Hagrid discovers the unicorn blood (0:43-1:40). The music continues as written when the scene transitions to follow Harry and Draco through the blue tinted forest and continues throughout the rest of the sequence. Perhaps Voldemort’s Evil was thought to come in too early with the first rendtion, the film makers wanting to save the appearance of the theme for the actual encounter and not giving away the following scene in the music. 39. Three Note Loop (7M3) - 3:39 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 9 The Stone) Back in the Gryffindor dormitory the trio of friends discusses the meaning of the events in the Dark Forest, Harry quite certain now that Voldemort is alive and was feeding on the unicorn blood and is trying to steal the Philosopher’s Stone through Snape. The children decide that they have to warn the teachers and Hagrid. The music continues as next morning the heroes walk through the school, Harry’s scar again hurting strangely. Suddenly the boy realizes how Voldemort might get into the school. The children rush without delay to Hagrid’s hut to warn him. Williams spins an extended variation on the Philosopher’s Stone motif (to which the title of the cue Three Note Loop refers to) passing the entire melodic line through different sections of the orchestra augmenting it with both women’s and synthetic choir, the theme growing steadily into a cruel and dramatic crescendo around 2 minute mark after which more hushed variations on the motif slink slowly to silence of dark and doom-laden double bass chords. In the Making The music starts at the end of the discussion between Harry, Ron and Hermione in the Gryffindor tower (2:27 into the cue) and continues up until they are seen outside the castle next day and as Harry realizes that the half-giant might have accidentally given their enemy information they race towards Hagrid’s hut. Interesting detail here is that the cue is much longer than the scene itself and the tone of the ever expanding orchestration and building melodramatic rendition of the Philosopher’s Stone motif is far too powerful to underscore these moments of dialogue. Could be that Williams composed this concert version styled piece so that any passage could be used for this particular scene (or possibly other scenes) as needed, the piece containing enough variants for nearly every level of dynamics. In the end the passage approximately from 2:27 until the end of the piece was used (but again with some editing and truncation involved), leaving a lion’s share of the cue unused. 40. Hagrid Plays the Flute (7M3A) - 0:41 (HP JWSC CD 3 track Hagrid's Flute) Another piece of diegetic music plays as the children approach Hagrid’s hut, the half-giant sitting on the steps and playing a recorder, performing Hedwig’s Theme which abruptly cuts off when the trio arrives and asks Hagrid, what did he know about the mysterious stranger who sold him the dragon egg. Williams again refrains from the more common practice of recording diegetic music and has the recorder player actually cut his performance abruptly in the middle of the theme instead of recording a complete piece and then editing it afterwards as need be, which would be a more common way to deal with source music. This way the music retains a more natural and realistic feel in the performance and on-screen. The version released on the Harry Potter: John Williams Soundtrack Collection is a slightly different take that is both a longer and a complete reading of the Hedwig's theme melody (running 0:55) without the abrupt ending and has been recorded with noticeably more reverb that gives the performance a clearly echoing spacious sound. 41. Running to McGonagall (7M4) - 2:12 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 10 As Hagrid lets slip that music can calm Fluffy the children run off to warn Dumbledore, running to McGonagall’s class room and ask to see the headmaster. The foreboding realization at Hagrid’s hut is score with horns and bassoons voicing concern before agitated, rhythmic strings hasten the children to McGonagall. As she informs that Dumbledore has been called off to London to the Ministry of Magic clarinets and other woodwinds colour the children’s frustration and the feeling of danger. When Harry reveals that they know about the Philosopher’s Stone, a clarinet reading of the Philosopher’s Stone motif ghosted by cor anglais in a bed of icy cold strings speak of McGonagall’s surprised alarm and underlying fear when she assures that Snape nor anyone else is going to steal the stone nor is it in any danger, being under strong guard. The trio walks away thwarted, celli first annoucing their momentary defeat in a dour little melody, a variation of the Philsopher’s Stone motif appearing again as they bump into Snape in the hall, dark and throaty woodwinds colouring the rest of their encounter, the teacher suspecting that the children are up to something. These darker orchestral musings spring suddenly forward to a transitional shot of the Hogwart’s castle when Harry announces that they return to the trap door that night, the B Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on majestic horns providing dramatic momentum, celli and bass lines taking us to the Gryffindor tower rooms where our heroes are preparing to go out and stop Snape’s and Voldemort’s plans. 42. Petrified Neville - 0:38 (Tracked music. HP JWSC CD 2 track 11 Neville Stiffens) As the trio is sneaking out of the dormitory to stop Snape from stealing the stone Neville Longbottom tries to stop them so they do not get the Gryffindor house into more trouble or make them lose more points. As a last resort Hermione uses a petrification charm and Neville freezes in place and hits the floor with a bump. An orchestral thump and somewhat grim reading of the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme is heard underscoring this moment as our heroes reluctantly subdue their friend. No sheet music available indicate if original music was ever intended for this scene. In the final film the music has been tracked with most of the material taken from 4M6 (Rev.) It’s Guarding Something and Troll in the Dungeon which went unused in the film for the scenes they were supposed to underscore. So this way a piece of unused music found its way back to the film through another scene. 43. Fluffy’s Harp (7M6) - 2:29 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 12 Fluffy's Harp Lullaby) The heroes arrive to the 3rd floor corridor at night and hear peculiar ethereal and soothing music wafting through the air. When they come to the trap door they find Fluffy dozing off to the sweet sounds of an enchanted harp, standing in the corner playing all by itself a delicate and peaceful lullaby to keep the dog docile. Someone has obviously been here before them and has passed the guardian dog. When the group ponders this and tries to move the dog’s gigantic paw from the trap door, they suddenly become aware that the harp has stopped playing. Williams composed a self contained piece for solo harp as source music for this moment. Unlike other source music this piece was recorded in full. In the film only a portion of it was used and then subtly faded away. The same piece worked as a template for Fluffy and His Harp, a movement in the Children’s Suite. *** Here begins the last segment of the film where Williams provides varied, inventive and colorful underscore for each of the trials the children have to go through to reach the Philosopher’s Stone. The composer creates unique set piece themes and motifs for each challenge and ties them together with the main thematic material as opportunities to highlight magic and heroism present themselves. 44. In the Vinesnakes (7M7) - 2:29 (OST track 15 In the Devil's Snare and The Flying Keys 0:00-0:56. HP JWSC CD 2 track 13 In the Devil's Snare) At that instant the three headed hound awakens, contrabassoons and bassclarinets along with dire growling low brass announce trouble. Alarmed jittery ascending strings and brass moans prompt the trio to a head long jump through the trap door and into the darkness below and they land in a bed of thick vines. Ron is glad of the dampening effect but as soon as they start to move the wriggling roots begin to wind around them tighter and tighter. Hermione realizes that the plant is called Devil’s Snare (Williams calling the obstacle vinesnakes in the sheet music, an equally apt description) and will only strangle you faster if you move. A new motif for Devil’s Snare takes hold of the score as the vines start to animate further, stopped horns and muted trombones and trumpets performing cyclical snarling motifs on top of each other, whining repeating string figures wrapping the protagonists further into the dark folds of the deadly plant. Hermione offers the survival advice to the boys just before she herself drops out of sight, released by the carnivorous plant. Harry controls himself as well, stops moving and soon falls under the plant roof but Ron panics in his nervousness and gets more and more enfolded in the vines, the music continuing threatening, repetetive and suffocatingly obsessive. Hermione tries desperately to remember how to defeat the writhing monstrosity. Equally desperate and nervous oboe solo in a bed of criss crossing low string figures accentuates the perilous moment until she remembers that the plant is afraid of light and quickly sends a light spell from her wand, sparkling orchestrations surrounding a brass exclamation, freeing Ron from the predicament, a relieved flute solo and tentative strings bringing the cue to its conclusion as the trio heads toward another challenge. In the Making The cue runs as written up until 1:56 after which the relieved flute solo for Ron’s rescue and his comical boast of not panicking is dialed out along with the rest of the cue. 45. The Flying Keys (7M8) - 1:57 (OST track 15 In the Devil's Snare and The Flying Keys 0:56-end. HP JWSC CD 2 track 14) Harry and company approach a lofty hall where a flock of odd looking winged creatures float languidly through the air. Hermione wonders at the strange looking birds to which Harry answers that they are not avians but keys with wings, ensorcerelled to fly. As the children step into the open space they find a broomstick standing in mid-air, the magical atmosphere earning the sounds of fluttering strings, harp and a wordless treble female choir expressing airy wonder. Harry figures out that they have to catch the key fitting on the lock in the door on the other side of the room. Suspenseful woodwinds and strings weave slow apprehensive and doubtful phrases, piccolo and string trills catching Harry’s observation of a key with slightly bent wings, the boy guessing that to be their mark. Bassclarinet, contrabassoons and brass finally underline his resolve as he jumps on the broomstick and flies to catch the key. At this moment the orchestra bursts into chaotic chase, the keys starting to swerve and whirl and flock around Harry, sizzling string figures, glinting percussive hits, mark tree sparkles and sharp brass battling to catch him while he approaches the key. Ever quickening pace and busy buzz of the lofty orchestrations follow the boy as he first tosses the key to Hermione and then flies like the wind to lead the pursuing keys away and then himself flits through the door, just in time for his friends slam it shut before the keys reach them, the score catching the winding twists and turns with music similar to the most frenetic passages of the Quidditch match to illustrate this feat of masterful and exciting flight. Soundtrack Album VS Film Cue Williams combines music from In the Vinesnakes and The Flying Keys on OST track In the Devil's Snare and The Flying Keys but both cues are presented in highly edited form on the album, omitting about half of each cue. *** What follows is the last challenge, the friends coming upon a giant chessboard. Williams scores this long scene with one continuous piece of music but it is written in three parts and recorded separately but again assembled for the film into one long musical sequence. 46. The Chess Board (8M1) – 1:58 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 15 The Chess Game (Extended Version) 0:00-1:58) This cue is full of earthy, dusky and atmospheric orchestral tones as the young heroes face the final challenge. Rumbling and churning low brass, grand piano, double basses and celli usher the children to another dark cavernous hall, Williams subtly introducing squirming, jittery solo woodwinds above the dark timbres and higher string tones emerge from the gloom as light increases and the group proceeds through the eerie funereal atmosphere where towering figures, gigantic chess pieces, slowly appear from the darkness. Ron’s realization that this chamber is a giant chess board elicits a clangorous brass fanfare bolstered by fateful knell of orchestral chimes. Nervous orchestral writing continues when Ron, Harry and Hermione all wonder what they should do and try to cross the board only to be barred by the line of soldier pawns statues, whose scimitars appear from their sheaths to bar their way, low tam-tam burst, rising staccato trumpets and orchestral bells catching the moment but also the implied danger of continuing across the chess board. There appears to be no other option but to play wizard’s chess. Ron devices a strategy and deep strings and brass, rumble from timpani with determined, paced clarinet solo underscore the preparations, anticipatory subtly heroic brass phrases and steady double bass rhythm accompanied by counterpoint of tense high strings announce that 47. The Game Begins (8M2) - 3:45 (OST track 16 The Chess Game. HP JWSC CD 2 track 15 The Chess Game (Extended Version) 1:59-5:29) Williams fashions brutal sounding and mechanically paced musical battle of wits and brawn on the chess board where the gigantic metallic chess pieces go at each other. Steady snare drum beat opens the chess montage, snarling, threatening low horns and high militaristic trumpets exchanging phrases as the game begins and battle is joined. Slowly rising tense high strings lead to rhythmic motif for bassoons interspersed with low thumping from grand piano, snare drums and brass returning ever more aggressive to highten the excitement. Rhythm from the percussion of all description, among them xylophones, bass drum, antique drums, anvils and snares and the brass section exchanging militaristic phrases push the piece forward with relentless drive as the game progresses and we see various pieces from both sides destroyed brutally by the enchanted statues, barrages from the percussion underscoring the heated confrontation. At 1:38 suspenseful sustained high strings lead to a ghostly and ominous flute solo. As the game is almost at an end with few moves left, various woodwinds, violins and violas lend an air of tragedy to the moment when Ron announces, against the protests of his friends, that he has to sacrifice himself so that Harry can checkmate the opponent’s king. Horns and trombones rise nobly and full of emotion, trumpets, supported by strings finally emerging on top of them, their heroic timbres honoring his decision to selflessly aid his friends. A fateful staccato march rhythm on strings and snare drum takes over as Ron makes his final move, the chess piece gliding silently across the board to the music, muted horns performing a grim and determined variation on the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme. The rhythm keeps intensifying,racheting up the tension, as gradually the woodwinds and the brass section join in the performance with high, pinched trumpet sounds climbing atop of the soundscape as the march reaches in a climax of suspended cymbal and bass drum rumble. Out of this crescendo blooms a brief intense double bass and celli tremolo as the chess piece stops in front the the enemy queen. As it suddenly lifts its weapon and mercilessly plunges it into the horse on which Ron was sitting and topples him down on the chess board apparently unconscious, a sharp, fateful trumpet led brass blast fades to an ominous grim cadence on horns. 48. Checkmate (8M3) – 1:58 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 15 The Chess Game (Extended Version) 5:29-end) Worried Hermione is about to run to Ron’s aid but Harry reminds her that the game is not over yet and proceeds to make his move to checkmate the king. Suspended cymbal rumble and intense, pained brass blasts flow into the staccato rhythm of the previous cue as Harry approaches the king, the relentless grave brass and string orchestration now bedecked with ethereal women’s choir as a moment of decision is reached. Expectant high violins and violas give away to a resigned fanfare as Harry announces “Checkmate” to the king, horns, sharp flute figures, aggressive brass and choir underscoring the falling of the sword from the chess piece’s hands, a moment of bittersweet victory. Rhythmic celli figures underscore Hermione’s concern as she and Harry rush to Ron to see if he is alright. As she says that she will take care of Ron but Harry has to continue alone as he is the one meant to stop Snape, a lovely, warm and tender reading of Harry’s/Family Theme plays first on flutes and is then passed to oboe and strings, the music illustrating both the bonds of close friendship that Harry has formed with Ron and Hermione and also celebrating the simple courage and determination which makes him the unlikely hero. The theme gives way to a suspenseful probing and rhythmic clarinet, celli and bass strings motif as Harry is now seen descending a shadowy flight of stairs, towards the resting place of the Philosopher’s Stone. Slight harp flourish reveals the Mirror of Erised, accenting Harry's surprise when he sees Professor Quirrel in front of it. 49. The Mirror Scene (8M4) – 6:11 (OST track 17 The Face of Voldemort. HP JWSC CD 2 track 16 The Face of Voldemort) A short moment of dialogue follows, Harry puzzling out Quirrel’s involvement in all the strange events during the school year. But as the professor with pained expressions announces that he is never truly alone a quick flourish on piano, tremoloing strings and stopped horns flows to cool tones of oboe, cor anglais and flute lines as he faces the mirror giving a hint of revelation to come, synth voices, harp and flutes intoning the Philosopher’s Stone motif in ethereal, cold tones, the 3- and 4-note variations alternating. Double bass rumble as Voldemort’s ghostly voice is heard leads to the Philosopher’s Stone motif repeated more forcefully on horns, swirling oboe and cor anglais lines, vibraphone and chimes, Quirrel commanding Harry to approach the mirror. As he gazes into the steely grey surface glinting of harp, piano, bell tree and orchestral bells spell out paced version of the Stone motif, almost half way becoming a variation on Voldemort’s music but is interrupted by A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on the signature instrument, celesta, when Harry sees his mirror counterpart producing the Philosopher’s Stone from his pocket and then placing it back there with a wink, slight crescendo of woodwinds underscoring Harry’s realization that it is now actually in his pocket as the music comes to a brief halt. Throaty, slow and ominous reading of the Philosopher’s Stone motif by the whole woodwind section underscores Harry’s lie as Quirrel demands to know what he saw in the mirror but the whispered advice from Voldemort’s immaterial voice earns an appearance of Voldemort Revealed on dark horns which is repeated more elaborately as Quirrel peels away his turban, the revelation of Voldemort’s face at the back of his head eliciting a cruel imperious fanfare from the whole brass section based on the first phrase of the theme. As the dark lord has been revealed Voldemort’s Evil slithers to the fore on languid and evil brass, exuding malice and imperious confidence, the strings in counterpoint, the theme winding up and down as the villain pontificates. As he suddenly demands the Philosopher’s Stone which Harry has in his pocket the boy tries to run but a nervous burst of strings and brass evokes magical flames that spring in front of him, blocking his way out. Funereal arrangement of the Philosopher’s Stone motif on fateful brass, ethereal women’s choir and tolling tubular bells underscores Voldemort’s attempt to threaten and beguile Harry to his side, Williams weaving the focusedly repeated Philosopher’s Stone motif together with Voldemort’s Evil which winds up and down snake like on solo clarinet, seductive and evil. As he promises to bring Harry’s parents back from the dead in exchange for the Philospher’s Stone, a lost and lonely sounding variation on Harry’s/Family Theme appears amidst of tremoloing string layers, colouring this moment of hesitation while Voldemort’s Evil on reptilian clarinet continues its seduction, cold strings adding even firmer sense of falsehood to these empty promises. Rising, hesitant string chords underscore Harry’s refusal which explodes into a blazing inferno of panicky woodwinds, raging harp glissandi and brass growls as Voldemort commands Quirrel to kill the boy and take the artefact, the Philosopher’s Stone motif achieving supremely oppressive and obsessive force, the whole orchestra and choir joining in performing variations on it as the mad wizard leaps on Harry in rage. Thunderous orchestral battle ensues, Williams depicting the conflict in the brass, timpani and operatic strings as Harry finds out that Quirrel can’t abide his touch, his hand first crumbling to dust as he tries to assault the boy. Intensifying momentum of the orchestra and chorus illustrates both the horror of the events on-screen and Voldemort’s obsession and desperation to get his hand on the Philosopher’s Stone as he again commands Quirrel to get the stone, quick and subtle variations on Voldemort’s Evil appearing fleetingly in the middle of the performances of the Philospher’s Stone motif. Harry steps between Quirrel and the magical stone and lifts his hand on Quirrel’s face causing it to burn and crumble, the repetition of Philosopher’s Stone motif ending in mounting brass and string phrases that reach a tumultuous and operatic conclusion as Quirrel disintegrates and falls to dust, downward swirling orchestral gestures following his demise, the final shot of the empty robes and ashes underscored by fateful and ominous rendition of Voldemort Revealed. The villain is vanquished. Harry then looks for the Philosopher’s Stone, the close-up of the artefact accented by the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on celesta, the delicate magical sound of the instrument reaffirming after such an ordeal. First strings and then the rest of the orchestral sections begin a sudden climbing phrase, celli and double bass arpeggios leading to a violent and swirling moment of horror as we see the ashes behind Harry rising into the air and coalescing, a choir backed but suitably incomplete rendition of Voldemort’s Evil on brass howling his rage as his spirit flees the dungeons, knocking Harry over in the process as it passes through him, another downward slanting string run following the boy's fall. As we see him lying unconscious next to the Philosopher’s Stone the A Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on sympathetic woodwinds is heard to confirm his success but the final word is left for the Philosopher’s Stone motif, a 3-note variation on synth celesta and orchestral bells with triangle accents repeating 3 times, full of closure but also eternal foreboding inherent in the musical idea. 50. Love, Harry (8M5) – 1:41 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 17) Harry wakes up in the hospital wing of Hogwarts and Professor Dumbledore is there to greet him and assures him that the Philosopher’s Stone is safely destroyed. When the headmaster informs the boy that even though the artefact was destroyed Voldemort might find ways to return the B Phrase of Hedwig’s Theme on gentle solo oboe appears, the professor proceeding to explain that the reason Quirrel could not bear to touch the boy was because of Harry’s mother had sacrificed herself to protect him. This is the greatest magic, love, he says and warm and comforting strains of Harry’s/Family Theme on flutes further affirm this notion before a comical and befuddled recorder melody underscores Dumbledore’s bad luck with Bertie Bott’s Every Flavor Beans. Later when the Boy Who Lived is released from the infirmary and he meets Ron and Hermione in the stairs, the reunion of friends is scored by a reassuring and glowing reading of Harry's Wondrous World Theme, their friendship reaffirmed. 51. Gryffindor Wins (9M1) – 2:38 (HP JWSC CD 2 track 18 Gryffindor Wins the House Cup) During the end of term feast the House Cup is awarded and the Gryffindors listen sullen and disappointed as Dumbledore tallies the score, their house coming last, Slytherin earning the highest points. But the headmaster to everybody’s surprise starts awarding extra points, celesta singing out an expectant new melody when Hermione earns more points for Gryffindor, the tone of the music now turning positive and excited. Oboe solo and lilting, playful celesta celebrate Ron’s success and when Harry is mentioned flutes support the oboes in a warm and gentle reading of Harry’s Wondrous World Theme, honoring his deeds and heroism. Here Williams refrains from using the obvious Hogwarts Theme that such a scholarly and formal situation might beg for but instead focuses entirely on the emotional content and meaning of the scene as rising, poignant and lyrical string phrases grow as Neville is awarded enough points for the Gryffindors to win the House Cup and as the headmaster with a clap of his hand changes the decorations of the Great Hall the noble string harmonies swell, trumpet led joyous reading of Harry’s Wondrous World Theme bursting forth glowing, heroic and noble, celebrating the triumph of Gryffindors but most of all of our hero, Harry’s Secondary motif accompanying the look of happiness and joy as the boy exchanges glance with smiling Hagrid, bringing the cue to a content and happy conclusion. 52. Leaving Hogwarts (9M2)- 2:14 (OST track 18 Leaving Hogwarts. HP JWSC CD 2 track 19) Tentative harp and warm strings open the final cue as Harry is on the train platform on Hogwarts station saying goodbye to Hagrid. As the two say emotional farewell Family Theme plays full of inherent nostalgia and yearning as the half-giant presents Harry with a gift, a family album with a picture the baby Harry with his parents, the music expressing deepest affection, woodwinds giving away to poignant strings and flutes eventually take the lead, singing a gently humorous version of Hedwig’s Theme with airy strings accompanying them as Hagrid gives some advice for dealing with Dursleys if they give trouble during the summer. After the pair says goodbye and Harry walks to the train door, Hermione remarks how strange it feels to leave, to which he replies gently that he is not truly leaving, Harry’s/Family Theme rising to a final heartwarming, noble and wistful statement on the whole orchestra, the music saying that part of him will now forever stay in this wondrous world, magically sparkling Hedwig’s Theme promising that Harry will return some day and drawing this score to an emotional close. 53. End Credits Pt. 1 - 5:26 (OST track 2 Harry’s Wondrous World. HP JWSC CD 2 track 20 Harry's Wondrous World (Extended Version)) For End Credits Williams composed one of his prototypical suites which draws together most of the positive central themes of the film, providing lengthy development and unique variation on the material. Making appearances through the suite are Hedwig’s Theme, Harry’s Wondrous World Theme, Harry’s Secondary Motif, Harry’s/Family Theme, The Quidditch Fanfare and Hogwarts Theme. This piece also forms the finale of the Children’s Suite so I will analyze it in further detail below. 54. End Credits Pt. 2 – Hedwig’s Theme (with Inserts) – 5:10 (OST track 19 Hedwig’s Theme. HP JWSC CD 2 track 21 Hedwig's Theme) The second part of the credits sequence is the concert arrangement of Hedwig’s Theme in which Williams provides the most complete and fully formed version of this musical motif but weds it with the Flying Theme (Nimbus 2000) to form an extended suite of material. The music opens with a formal introduction of Hedwig’s Theme, both A and B phrases of the melody repeated, orchestrations familiar from the score itself, celestra, woodwinds and strings all propelling the thematic idea to flight but the renditions soon expand to encompass the full orchestra. The Flying Theme grows out of Hedwig’s Theme, its A Phrase first bubbling on woodwinds and brass, shortly after performed on celesta and strings, again performed in waltz time by the full ensemble and quickly climbing to the dangerous and thrilling B Phrase of the theme, surging ever higher and higher on strings and exhilarating brass. After quieting down for a moment the music gathers speed anew and comes to a dazzling finale with some energetic and inventive variations on Hedwig’s Theme, electrifying brass phrases and glorious full ensemble crescendo, sustained string figures finally bursting to brassy finishing chords and bring the magical score of Harry Potter and Philosopher’s Stone to a breathtaking and satisfying conclusion. An interesting detail about this piece is that it contains a unique finale for Hedwig’s Theme, material which did infact make its debut already in the first teaser trailer but appears nowhere in the score proper. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone – Children’s Suite for Orchestra As mentioned at the start of the analysis Williams created 8 musical miniatures that each represent one or more of the thematic ideas from the score and orchestrated them for a unique mixtures of instruments and created the 9th piece, Harry’s Wondrous World, to round out the suite and draw various thematic threads together. This analysis relates only to the versions of the miniatures recorded at the sessions and does not delve into the later changes made to the music for the concert suite published by Hal Leonard corporation. Here is a brief analysis of the Children’s Suite with commentary on the themes and how do these pieces relate to the soundtrack album since Williams included some pieces of the suite on the OST CD. And since November 2018 the entirety of the suite in the form it was recorded at the original recording sessions has been made available as part of the La-la Land Records' Harry Potter: The John Williams Soundtrack Collection. I Hedwig’s Flight – 2:12 (OST track 1 Prologue. HP JWSC CD 3 track 1 Prologue) Originally titled in sheet music as Hedwig’s Theme (Children’s Suite). A solo celesta, woodwinds and string section exhibit their magical flying prowess in this development of both Hedwig’s Theme and A Phrase of the Flying Theme with the nimble and quick celesta solos taking center stage. Williams describes the piece in following words: Hedwig, the beautiful owl who magically and mysteriously delivers mail to Harry Potter at Hogwarts School, is musically portrayed in the first miniature by the celesta, a luminous little instrument which is capable of producing pearly, crystalline tones at dazzling speeds.[25] This piece is included on the OST album but retitled Prologue for some reason and it opens the soundtrack, working as a kind of overture, introducing Hedwig’s Theme in formal fashion at the start of the album. II Hogwarts Forever – 1:53 (OST track 9 Hogwarts Forever! and The Moving Stairs 0:00-1:53. HP JWSC CD 3 track 2 Hogwarts Forever) French horn section is spotlighted in this movement, composer developing Hogwarts’ good natured scholarly theme further, the slightly humorous but noble and dignified sounds of the horns ideally suited for such a task, lending an air of refinement to the proceedings. As Williams says: No other instrument seems so perfectly suited to capturing the scholarly atmosphere of Hogwarts than the noble and stately french horn.[26] As mentioned in the analysis of the score itself the composer paired this piece with music from the 4M5 The Moving Stairs on the OST album. III Voldemort – 2:18 (HP JWSC CD 3 track 3 Voldemort) In this movement Williams introduces to the listener a trio of bassoons which perform the “evil” themes of the score, The Philosopher’s Stone motif and the two musical ideas associated with Voldemort. Again he weds the material seamlessly together and explores new avenues with the melodies, counterpoints and combinations, the earthy timbres of the bassoon quite ideally suited for this character study, giving the music a bit less threatning edge yet retaining somewhat gloomy disposition of the themes intact. IV Nimbus 2000 – 2:25 (HP JWSC CD 3 track 4 Nimbus 2000) The woodwind section, oboes, clarinets, flutes and bassoons, offers a dexterous, quick and sprightly reading of the Flying Theme material in this miniature, Williams associating their agility and skill with Harry’s magical broomstick and flying exploits as he often does in the film. There is a delightful sense of glee and mischievousness in the music as the composer colours and decorates the melodic line as the theme is passed quickly from one instrument to the next, leaping deftly about the ensemble. V Fluffy and his Harp – 2:41 (OST track 14 Fluffy’s Harp. HP JWSC CD 3 track 5 Fluffy's Harp) The magical and ethereal harp solo which sent Fluffy, the three headed dog, to sleep in the film is coupled here with contrabassoon’s deep and drowsy sounds, the duo of instruments painting a vivid and humorous picture of snoring canine under the spell of music. The harp material is exactly the same as on the source music track from the film but the contrabassoon line has been written in, flitting in and out of the main melody to comical effect. This piece ended up on the soundtrack album, Williams obviously feeling that the contrabassoon part would better contrast with the harp and bring the scene musically to life as a fully formed piece in its own right. VI Quidditch – 1:48 (HP JWSC CD 3 track 6 Quidditch) Quidditch Fanfare and Hogwarts Theme alternate through the entire brass section in this fast paced and celebratory portrait of the wizards’ favourite sport. Athletic bright brass exchange phrases of the themes full of pomp and circumstance here, a depiction of the excitement and splendour of the Quidditch match, each brass instrument group passing the the ideas through them and finishing in a triumphant trumpet flourish. VII Family Portrait – 3:23 (HP JWSC CD 3 track 7 Family Portrait) Gentle, autumnal and wistful sounds of solo clarinet accompanied by the sonorous singing of the celli forms a lovely meditation on both the sweeping lyricism of Harry Wondrous World Theme and yearning innocence of Harry’s/Family Theme showing both sides of Harry Potter’s world and personality in warm and nostalgic tones. Not only does this suite show the close connection of the two ideas, almost like two phrases of the same but also embellishes both ideas, the solo clarinet taking new and unique paths through the melodic ideas. The movement also highlights the instrumental combination of clarinet and celli, exhibiting Williams’ skill in combining sounds that complement each other truly well. VIII Diagon Alley – 2:52 (OST track 5 Diagon Alley and The Gringotts Vault 0:00-1:15. HP JWSC CD 3 track 8 Diagon Alley) The orchestrations of this festive march theme for the Diagon Alley consist of strings, assorted percussion and recorders performing the musical depiction of the unique atmosphere of the wizards' shopping center with quirky glee. Violin is cast in the role of a witch’s fiddle, scratching its way through a sparkling string and percussion landscape accompanied by recorders, the melody of the theme both curious, playful and slightly Baroque/faux Medieval. Once again every instrumental grouping is allowed a moment to shine. This music ended partially on the OST album (0:00-1:15) as Williams curiously replaced the original film cue of the theme, which ran at much faster pace, with the opening of the miniature, editing it together with the film cue as it is mentioned in the analysis above. Almost half of the piece is left unheard on the album, including further development of the thematic idea, a glittering percussion interlude and the wickedly humorous finale for strings and recorders. IX Harry’s Wondrous World - 5:06 (OST track 2 Harry’s Wondrous World. HP JWSC CD 3 track 9 Harry's Wonderous World) In this grand finale Williams allows many of the previously heard themes to shine in full orchestra guise, bringing finally the entire ensemble together to celebrate Harry’s Wondrous World. A sweeping string quote of Hedwig’s Theme (B Phrase) opens the music in wistful manner, Harry’s Wondrous World melody following in the same style, brass and woodwinds performing the Harry’s Secondary Motif which usually follows the theme. A new extension of the Wondrous World Theme interspersed with subtle flute quotes of Hedwig’s Theme passes through the orchestra, lyrical, positive and joyous, burnished, triumphant brass colours rising again to the Harry’s Secondary motif in celebratory crescendo. Then a new musical idea, descending flute figures, takes hold as Harry’s/Family Theme on strings is presented, the melody expanding and dancing in the orchestra in the grandest reading of the material in the score until the triumphant and thrilling Quidditch Fanfares burst through the string colours on splendid brass, quickly transitioning to Hogwarts Theme, reminiscent of the orchestrations of the Quidditch match in the film. And to draw the piece of a close Williams brings the Wondrous World Theme back on full orchestra accompanied by Harry’s Secondary Motif, sweeping and joyous, climbing to a gradual crescendo after which the gently lilting strains of Harry’s Secondary Motif, passed through the woodwinds finally takes us to a calm finish with feeling of accomplishment. *** The Children’s Suite is another example of Williams’ ability to see wider musical and artistic possibilities in film music. He obviously understands that in film there is a chance for true musical creativity despite what nay-sayers and critics might claim and has often spoken of the wide global reach the film medium. The music will be heard by millions and as part of the phenomenon carries a large responsibility to be the best it can be. The Children’s Suite transports this music into the concert hall where new generations of young movie and concert going audience will experience the symphony orchestra perhaps for the first time since they are interested to hear the music from the well loved movie based on a universally adored novel. In part Williams’ music helps to keep the modern audience interested in classical orchestral tradition and at the same time winning over great number of new fans. This of course is a part of Williams continuing avid promotion of film music as a serious art form which could be said to be the unspoken agenda he has worked on ever since he was chosen as the conductor of Boston Pops Orchestra and continues strong today. *** The score of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone is in all a magnificent feat of film scoring but also of art and artistry, one that I hope my analysis has illuminated to the readers. It has been truly fascinating to take an intense and careful look at the music which has only increased my respect for it and again it is my hope that this essay would do so for others as well. I would like to express my thanks to the fine people of JWFan who have contributed to this analysis either directly or indirectly with their discussion. Special thanks to Jason LeBlanc (@Jay), GoodMusician and Datameister and all the people in the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (Philosopher's Stone) thread on the JWFan.com messageboard. As always for your meticulous work in parsing this music has been an invaluable aid. Thank you. © Mikko Ojala Notes [1] http://en.wikipedia....tone_%28film%29 [2] http://en.wikipedia....tone_%28film%29 [3] http://en.wikipedia....ne#Translations [4] http://en.wikipedia....the_Philosopher % 27s_Stone_%28film%29 [5] Williams adds musical magic to 'Harry Potter' By Andy Seiler USA TODAY 11/13/2001 http://www.usatoday....hn-williams.htm [6] http://www.angelfire...a/williams.html [7] http://uk.movies.ign...4/034115p1.html [8] Scoring log would indicate that the music for the teaser trailer was recorded on the 18th of November 2000. [9] Again scoring log indicates the date 11th of June 2001 for the recording session for the full length trailer. [10] http://www.johnwilli...arrypotter.html [11] http://www.johnwilli...arrypotter.html [12] Williams adds musical magic to 'Harry Potter' By Andy Seiler USA TODAY 11/13/2001 [13] http://en.wikipedia....The_Nutcracker: Tchaikovsky's Sources and Influences. In Tchaikovsky’s time celesta was a new invention and the story goes that the instrument was actually brought from France in secrecy to the premiere of the ballet so its novelty would remain a surprise to the audience and no other composer could use it before him. [14] John Williams, Harry Potter and the Sorceror’s Stone – Children’s Suite for Orchestra, (Hal Leonard Corporation®). [15] Andy Seiler, Williams adds musical magic to 'Harry Potter', USA TODAY 11/13/2001. [16] Frank Lehman, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone/Chamber of Secrets - Thematic Analysis (2003) [17] Frank Lehman, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone/Chamber of Secrets - Thematic Analysis (2003) [18] Frank Lehman, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone/Chamber of Secrets - Thematic Analysis (2003) [19] Frank Lehman, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone/Chamber of Secrets - Thematic Analysis (2003) [20] This connection seems to be in Williams’ mind so strong that the motif gains a secondary purpose as a general villain and mystery theme. It will infact become the theme’s primary usage in the sequel film Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. [21] Frank Lehman, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone/Chamber of Secrets - Thematic Analysis (2003) [22] Frank Lehman, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone/Chamber of Secrets - Thematic Analysis (2003): ...in a minor scale, melodically, it climbs thusly: 5-#4-1-3-#4-5-b6…etc.; rhythmically, it has a similar structure to the second theme in its construction by dotted eighth to sixteenth note figures; and harmonically, its pretty simple, little more than i all the way through, with a bass line shifting between i and V. [23] This musical idea makes a brief return in the second film so it certainly in his interpretation was meant to be a recurring theme of its own. [24] Bill Wrobel mentions in his analysis Harry Potter Music by John Williams (found at http://www.filmscorerundowns.net/williams/harrypotter.pdf) that the instrumentation consists of mandolin, accordion and 2 percussion instruments. Unfortunately no sheet music for this piece has been made available. [25] John Williams, Harry Potter and the Sorceror’s Stone – Children’s Suite for Orchestra, (Hal Leonard Corporation®). [26] John Williams, Harry Potter and the Sorceror’s Stone – Children’s Suite for Orchestra, (Hal Leonard Corporation®).
  7. Here is my analysis of the soundtrack album that appears on the main page as well and in addition a thematic breakdown with track times. Comments, observations and corrections are as welcome as always: War Horse A review and an analysis of the Original Soundtrack Album By Mikko Ojala (Incanus) The upcoming film War Horse is the 28th collaboration between director Steven Spielberg and composer John Williams. The movie is based on a popular children’s novel by author, poet and playwright Michael Morpurgo and tells of a young English boy Albert and his extraordinary friendship with his horse Joey, set in the times of WW I. It is a story of courage, loyalty and friendship told through the eyes of a horse. John Williams’ score for the film is a beautiful and powerful achievement and as Steven Spielberg himself in the liner notes of the album says, Williams seems indeed be blessed by earth and heaven both with continuing inspiration and talent. And if this CD is anything to go by we can still be the beneficiaries of this inspiration through the War Horse soundtrack album. Williams has once again created a beautiful tapestry of music, diverse yet feeling like it forms a coherent whole, thematic ideas sharing often common musical base. And because of this the score feels like an world unto itself. The composer’s self professed love for English music is very evident in this score and indeed the first stylistic influence that came to my mind when hearing this music was Ralph Vaughan Williams, maestro who is almost synonymous with English music and whose musical style Williams seems to channel through his own sensibilities very strongly, never resorting to pastiché but rather evocation and allusion. English folk music seems another inspiration, much as it was to Vaughan Williams, the lilting melodies and progressions dancing from Williams’ pen with fluid ease. And then there are the somewhat maligned Celtic music influences, the detractors indignant that such musical ideas should be present in music that should depict Englishness, since Celtic music apparently shares very few commonalities with English music but in the score, to the layman’s ears, this Celtic sound enhances the time and place quite strongly, lending the music further lyricism and warmth. So all the above Williams mixes with his own unmistakable voice resulting in a score full of powerful emotional music that has also quiet majesty and scope, conjuring up the natural world, English countryside and rustic life style in a sweeping lyrical way. And working as a counterweight to this is the often intense music for the war, unrelenting rhythms and harsh orchestral writing driving home the ugliness of battle. The elegaic writing of the war scenes is yet again classic Williams, somber yet moving, subtle nuances often carrying a lot of emotional weight, even the most rousing battle material tinged always with mournful tones of the tragedies of war. An interesting phenomenon with this score is that it feels extremely familiar, the traits and stylings of Williams’ writing very evident and I could cite several scores from his oeuvre this score might bring to mind yet somehow there is a strong emotional charge to every aspect of it, the string elegies, the dramatic war music, the pastoral writing, humourous music, intimate dramatic writing and folk melodies so that they feel fresh and new, ready to be discovered yet again. It sounds like there was true inspiration at work in the score for War Horse. The recording is as excellent as in his previous score The Adventures of Tintin, bringing out the orchestral depth and colour, nuances and the soloists with equal wonderful vibrancy. As with many of Williams’ dramatic scores instrumental solos carry an important role in the music. Highlighted are in particular the flute and trumpet that reflect the different sides of the story, the flute usually speaking to the bucolic country life and peace, the trumpet to the war, both the nobility and the sorrow. Oboe and cor anglais lend themselves also to the reflections of the natural world and English countryside and French horns’ tones give a sheen of afternoon sun and familial warmth but also nobility to the story. The Themes As I have not seen the film yet my thematic speculation is exactly that, more of my own impression of what these musical ideas seem to represent dramatically to me on the album. Also similarly all guesses concerning the dramaturgy of the music are my own based on what I have heard about the film and the music. War Horse contains a whole plethora of thematic ideas, reflecting quite clearly Williams’ own reported enthusiasm for the film. The English countryside and Narracott family, Joey and Albert among others all receive their own themes in this score. 1. War Horse Main Theme (Bonding Theme): A warm, majestic, rising and falling melody representing the bond between Albert and Joey that carries a strong emotional charge. Initially Williams uses this theme as the boy and the horse form their bond as they work and live together on the Narracott farm but by the end of the score it becomes a noble and poignant expression of their mutual affection, a heart warming theme for true friendship. The warm, rising Bonding theme receives a complementary melodic phrase later in the story and on the album which could be called 2. Friendship Theme: This theme sounds like a natural continuation of the Bonding Theme, almost like it is completing the melodic phrase started the Bonding Theme. A noble, directly emotional, hymn like piece that speaks perhaps to the deepened friendship Joey has with Albert but also to friendships the horse has formed during his journeys. Williams conjures a homely feel of safety and love with this theme although there is a subtle undercurrent of yearning in it as well. 3. Discovery Theme : An ethereal, mysterious Celtic flavoured melody which perhaps depicts the first encounter between Albert and Joey and appears again towards the end of the album. 4. Dartmoor Theme: An English sounding melody for the locale of Dartmoor of full lush orchestral writing, evoking all at once green rolling hills and other pastoral landscapes bathed by perpetual sunlight. Closest cousin to this music in Williams’ own repertoire would be the Irish evocations in Far and Away and his expansive sounding Americana writing for numerous movies. 5. Nature Theme: This is a Celtic tinged melody also infused with the spirit of Vaughan Williams and is often performed by solo flute and reverent strings. The theme seems to speak of the natural world and its beauty, its progressions stately, slow and majestic. 6. Narracotts Theme (Farm Work): A jauntier folk song melody full of lilting English stylings that accompanies the Narracotts and their work on the farm. Reaches its most powerful rendition during the track called Plowing. 7. Playful Horse: Another English folk music evocation, a playful and almost jig-like theme for the humour and lighter moments of the story. 8. War Theme: A lonely trumpet call, reminiscent of Williams’ similar work in JFK, Born on the Fourth of July and Amistad, this theme represents what I think is the actual war horse aspect of the main character, echoing like a bugle on the field of battle over a snare drum cadence, fateful,denoting also the central element of the story, war, noble and mournful at the same time. 9. Joey’s New Friends Theme: Another lyrical thematic idea for friends Joey meets during his journeys. A peaceful, innocent and haunting, this idea appears only twice on the album. Track-by-track analysis: 1. Dartmoor, 1912 The score opens on clear solo flute intoning the Nature Theme joined by warm and stately strings, full of Celtic lilt evoking majesty of the land itself. The flute continues developing the theme, clear and pure sound speaking to the serene country landscapes and natural world’s strength. An accordion appears to offer some rustic commentary establishing the time and place perhaps but soon the sprightly rhythmic tugging of double basses and celli surges forward and the folk song-like Narracotts Theme is heard on flutes with woodwind doubling. Trumpet section supports the melody with delightfully busy staccato motif while the strings continue their own rhythmic idea, Williams providing what sounds like travel music until at 2:10 the Dartmoor Theme bursts into view with full ensemble presenting this sunny lyrical idea in all its glory. After a brief interlude of Vaughan Williamsian string work the traveling variation of Narracotts Theme continues and for the second time climbs into a statement of the Dartmoor theme. This piece is like an excellent overture, giving us a taste of things to come and I love how Williams conjures the feel and colours of English countryside so strongly in his music, the score truly evocative here. Closest equivalent in WIlliams’ catalogue but only with strong Americana feel would be the opening music from Patriot. 2. The Auction A swaying expectant string figure is soon joined by a 7-note thematic idea, an early version of the Playful Horse Theme, on clarinet, bassoon and flutes that dances forth almost mischievously. Williams adds more instruments in and passes the melody around the orchestra, providing steady development of the motif along the way. The whole piece has a feel of growing anticipation as it is underscoring an auction and orchestrations finally grow heavier as some moment of decision is reached. Maestro is building up suspense but does it with great humour and distinctive orchestration and melodies which I think he does better than anyone, raising the piece from being a bit of underscore to being an active part of the storytelling, the music not even needing the images to let you know different little twists and turns that take place in the story. At 1:56 a new swaying harp figure and a melody on clarinets, flutes and horns appears obviously denoting that something significant is again happening. The strings take up the swaying idea subtly raising their voice until at 2:52 a variation on the Nature Theme is heard, the lilting theme further elaborated by horns, a sense of probing and curiosity on high strings and flutes entering just before harp finishes the piece tentatively. 3. Bringing Joey Home, and Bonding Rhythmic low strings, celli and doublebasses, present a jaunty little march that is accented by woodwinds, creating at once a sense of determination and comedy, the little melody developed in the low strings as it progresses forward with stops and starts until at 1 minute mark solo flute appears, performing the Dartmoor Theme in dreamy rendition. This section is repeated, the jaunty theme and the Dartmoor Themeworking in almost question and answer fashion, the little march getting weightier now joined by violins but then over a bass pedal sound another new theme appears, the Discovery Theme on solo flute, rising ethereally, beautifully lyrical and haunting, underscoring most likely the first close encounter of the boy and the horse. Oboe answers the theme with a warm melody of its own, the writing classic Williams. This has to be despite scant few appearances one of my favourite themes of this score so full of wonderful thematic ideas. There is youth, fragility and vulnerability but also dreamy ethereal quality to the music that is enchanting. It could well describe a child’s fascination with an animal. After the oboe solo a nostalgic clarinet follows suite and flows into the first statement of the Bonding Theme on warm harp, strings and horns speaking of the importance of the moment, the first bond between the two, and clarinet returns to soothingly end the theme. At 3:52 a rather skittish and bumbling oboe line appears, followed around by woodwinds, pizzicati strings and basses making rhythmic tugs, clarinet wandering into a humorous finish. This short piece sounds like Williams in his trademark style scoring the young horse’s clumsy movements with light good natured humour. 4. Learning the Call Pastoral strings and harp and dreamy clarinet offer a brief moment of bucolic colour until another swaying string idea jumps into a reading of the Bonding Theme on warm horns with a delightful swirling string counterpoint. Rhythmic excited tugging in the string section and bubbling woodwinds lead the orchestra into a development of the Playful Horse Theme previously heard on track 2, which dances forth like an English folk song, the orchestrations passing the melody around the different instrumental groupings, the double basses providing lively momentum to the music. Vertical rhythmic string figures that were heard on the opening track and the same busy trumpet accompaniment are also reprised here as the Narracotts Theme appears, Williams combining it here with Playful Horse Theme, both themes dancing briefly around each other. 5. Seeding, and Horse vs. Car Serene strings, clarinet and harp rise and fall in peaceful luminous setting, the string section finally performing the Nature Theme full of warmth, majesty and reverence. Clarinet and solo oboe over celli sings out a pastoral melody of Celtic flavour that sounds like it is build on theNature Theme’s contours, both instruments ruminating peacefully in almost nostalgic fashion, flute and horns sounding for a brief interlude. Another oboe solo which to me sounds very close to Williams’ nature and tree inspired concert compositions melts suddenly into the string section taking up again the boisterous rhythmic motif from track 1 and 4 that lifts the orchestra into a joyous burst of the Dartmoor Theme, the galloping of a horse most vividly illustrated by the music, the exhilaration of race now reflected first in the Playful Horse Theme and then in theNarracotts Theme underscoring both Joey and Albert, the orchestra dashing into a brilliant finale that recalls Williams classic horse riding scherzos from the Cowboys and The Reivers Suite. 6. Plowing Despite the rather rustic title this track is truly a standout piece. The Narracotts Theme on clarinets over a deep contrabassoon and doublebass rhythm starts a long development of the thematic idea, the insistent motion of the strings conjuring up the steady, determined nature of the farm work. Williams starts to embellish the melody and the rhythm with different instruments and slowly but surely it grows, ebbing and flowing until 1:20 when a new noble theme appears, seemingly celebrating the honest work and country life that builds into a grand statement of the Bonding Theme, flute over the up-and-down swaying strings, Narracotts Theme appearing again now mingled with the snatches of the Bonding Theme, the Dartmoor Theme fleetingly passing under the two themes until the rhythmic motif of the basses returns with strong readings of the Narracotts Theme on woodwinds and horns that opens up into the most powerful and majestic reading of theBonding Theme on the album at 3:33 the melody rising on proud resounding horns with the accompanying string figures reaching higher and higher and finally united with the Dartmoor Theme in a pure and unabashed celebration of countryside and simple life and the bond that is forming between the boy and his horse. After the majesty of the thematic statements has faded into near silence solo flute’s crystal clear voice playing what sounds like a ruminating variation on the Nature Theme and warm horn and string textures brings this orchestral set piece to a truly satisfying conclusion. This is without a doubt one of the most satisfying tracks on the entire album. Williams’ build-up throughout the piece is masterful, the expansive sound he conjures truly a celebration of nature in musical form. The full statement of the Bonding Theme (this version is the one heard also in the trailers) is a truly classic Williams moment of spine tingling grandeur and warm humanity, showing once again how he knows how to capture the human heart and aspirations in his music. 7. Ruined Crop, and Going to War Mournful duet for oboe and bassoon seems to depict quiet loss and resignation, almost elegaic strings adding to the emotionality of the piece. The duet and the string theme is reprised but soon taken over by a fateful sounding figure in the string section that mounts in strength with murmuring brass appearing underneath, underscoring the direness of the situation. A new section begins with a nostalgic and emotional reading of the Bonding Theme but is soon supplanted by a new theme for Joey, as he goes to war, Williams presenting almost formally a solo trumpet idea of the War Theme that seems to speak both for the war and men in it but also for Joey himself. The tones are noble and clear but the melody carries with it a mournful fatality and somberness as it echoes over a snare drum cadence. As said above in the thematic overview the theme is one in a long tradition of Williams’ trumpet themes for war and military, a dichotomy of heroism and loss. 8. The Charge and Capture The previous track segues to this one without pause. High strings support a clear trumpet call reminiscent of the War Theme in its style almost like a bugle before the battle, carrying with it a steely resolve. Snare drum and whirring, buzzing string patterns emerge and start a wild nervous gallop, deep dark brass making exclamations undernearth, rhythmic strings growing insistenly louder with dissonant brass choirs from both sides of the orchestra screaming, promising carnage. This is war at its most brutal. The orchestral chaos grows and grows, finally stripped down to the galloping rhythm and then only to sorrowful strings, the War Theme echoing over the bleak soundscape on solo trumpet. Reverently sad brass and string elegy slowly starts in the orchestra, the melody trying to continue but soon subsides exhausted. 9. The Desertion Similarly gloomy high strings and low woodwinds that accompanied the previous track open this one, the disheartening tragedy of war clear in their tones until a fast rhythmic figure kindles in the string section and begins a breathless race through the orchestra, a repeating angular motif emerging through the writing, augmented by growing brass providing rapid staccato figures, cymbals making tight bursts. This is not joyous music for a gallop in the sun, this is a head long flight full of terror and panic, Joey trying to escape the war. And slowly the escape music dies down but encounters the grieving sounds of strings, elegaic once more full of deep sadness. You can’t run away from war. It is everywhere. Noteworthy here is that Williams creates the kinetic pull of the piece through the use of string section and brass alone, percussion, so common in most modern scores as the providers of momentum playing a minimal part which is a wonderful change of pace and a smart move from Williams. 10. Joey’s New Friends A calm, ethereal flute solo comes to offer brief solace from the horrors of war, joined by a second flute, dueting quietly, strings accompanying subtly the melody representing Joey’s New Friends, warm and comforting. Humorously optimistic and determined horn melody with a clarinet bubbling in the background seems to indicate a positive turn in the events. Soon another new melody dances forth on woodwinds, harp and happy strings, quick, dexterous and light, alternating with rather comedic interludes for brass and woodwinds, painting a light and bright hued picture of momentary respite from fear and toil. An excellent piece of music offering some needed humour and lightness to the proceedings in the middle of the heavier and dramatic war tracks. Reminds me of some of the lyrical lighter moment in Terminal score and curiously enough Heartbeeps. 11. Pulling the Cannon Heavy rhythm on double basses indicates danger, toil, hardship and struggle, the music continually growing around the rhythm, pacing slowly but inexorably forward, the tugging of the menacing strings leading into a noble reading of the War Theme again on the signature sound of the theme, a solo trumpet. From this grows a dramatic, tragic piece for the whole orchestra, different sections creating a sense of mounting struggle. Fatal brass, strings and percussion and low end piano do battle with each other, snare drum providing military pacing amidst the orchestral war. At 2:37 the battle subsides leaving in its wake a touching string elegy where glowing strings perform with grace and subtlety, even their smallest gestures heartbreaking. 12. The Death of Topthorn The tone of the previous cue continues here, the tragedy and gentle sorrow mixing into one in another string led piece. Solo clarinet comes in midway through, subtly poignant, the strings taking up its notes and rising slowly into a full orchestra crescendo of heart breaking proportions. 13. No Man’s Land Cold high string tones screetch and unsettle, harp wandering ghostly amidst their dissonant textures for a good while like over fields of the dead. At 1:52 the orchestra bursts into action with a resounding piano and double bass crash, snare drum and racing string figures providing pace for another race, this time perhaps for freedom. Woodwinds and brass join the performance, this time the percussion adding their weight to the escape, the brass tones heroic, victorious and rousing, the War Theme appearing in the middle of the charge that builds towards a dramatic crescendo of furiously fast orchestral forces. The momentum is finally stopped by deeply violent string figures and pouding rumbles of a grand piano that slowly die down into silence. 14. The Reunion The music opens with the Discovery theme as ethereal as we heard for the first time on track 3, but here played delicately on piano and then the strings take up the Bonding Theme in a wonderfully gentle fashion the melody extended here by Maestro with a poignant passage for strings, flute subtly appearing under the theme’s texture. Solo oboe and warm dreamy horns propel us to another reading of the Bonding Theme rich with noble brass writing, string jumping higher with their accompanying figures, truly emotional in their restrained performance, Williams infusing them with feeling of much grander reading of the thematic material. The Friendship Theme, a perfect continuation of theBonding Theme, appears if to announce us that all is well, the soothing, yearning tones here fully at peace. This is for me the best piece of the entire score, summing up the emotional strength of the main thematic ideas and bringing them around a full circle. The restrained yet highly powerful performance has an air of serene peace and fulfillment without the music becoming too saccharine or maudlin. A perfect balance. 15. Remembering Emilie, and Finale The Bonding Theme is heard on flutes this time, the sound warm and peaceful, continuing the tone of the previous track. Soothing strings and horns create a homely and comforting mood when at 1:19 solo flute appears from that texture, playing the Joey’s New Friends theme, tender and delicate. Harp and strings continue, horns quoting the Bonding Theme’s opening before solo piano gives a lyrical and emotionally direct statement of the Friendship Theme, the instrument all at once nostalgic and homely, poignancy of the story fully captured in the melody’s contours. This is further enhanced as the strings take up the Friendship Theme next rising into an emotional peak of the piece, repeating theBonding Theme on horns with the rising strings infused with the sense of fulfillment. And as the piece draws to a close Williams makes a wonderful dramatic gesture by having the War Theme appear on clear solo trumpet with flutes quoting the Bonding Theme’s rising and falling figures quietly underneath, both aspects of Joey coming together in the end. 16. The Homecoming For the film’s end credits Williams has written one of his classic extended suites, gathering up all the major themes of the score and developing them in different ways. Featured are The Playful Horse Theme, The Nature Theme, Dartmoor Theme, The Narracotts Theme and finally the Bonding and Friendship Theme. The music opens with the Narracotts Theme on solo flute, which is featured throughout the suite and then the music quickly dances forward to a variation of the Playful Horse Theme with its rhythmic double bass figure, the composer developing the theme beyond what we have just heard on the album, the idea becoming almost a sprightly jig for a symphony orchestra. At 2:21 solo returnsflute to perform the Celtic flavouredNature’s Theme which is then taken up by the strings, the orchestra exploring the majestic slow theme until it joins aptly to The Dartmoor theme that is intoned on lovely solo flute over warm strings, alternating with the Narracotts Theme. A brief boisterous strings interlude with shades of the Playful Horse Theme then flows into a lovely combination of the Bonding Theme and the Friendship Theme, now singing beautifully with the help of the entire string section, making a final truly emotional statement of Albert’s and Joey’s friendship. But quite fitting the music ends where it started, the Nature Theme, solo flute carrying in its ancient and revenrent tones the piece into a beautiful, serene finish. The soundtrack album feels like a well paced journey, a coherent dramatic arc from the bucolic country life to the horrors of war and back again, the final few tracks embracing friendship, peace and sense of closure. All the large and small instrumental touches reflecting the story, its majesty, humanity, playfulness, the brutal futility of war, friendship, the beauty of earth itself come together to form a beautiful whole, unfolding in just 65 minutes, a perfect length presentation of the music. For me this score represents all that is best in John Williams’ music: the thematic brilliance, the mastery of orchestral colours and orchestration and the inherent emotionality of his music. Thematic breakdown The Main Theme (Bonding Theme): Track 3: 3:18-3:49 Track 4: 0:29-0:42 Track 6: 2:02-2:12 3:33-3:56 Track 7: 2:08-2:30 Track 14: 0:37-1:07 2:18-3:04 Track 15: 0:10-0:45 1:58-2:07 3:46-4:24 Track 16: 5:28-6:17 The Friendship Theme: Track 14: 3:05-end Track 15: 2:08-3:45 Track 16: 6:17-7:19 The Discovery Theme: Track 3: 2:16-2:40 Track 14: 0:00-0:34 Nature Theme: Track 1: 0:00-0:54 Track 2: 2:52-3:07 Track 5: 0:32-0:58 Track 6: 4:31-end Track 16: 2:20-3:35 Dartmoor Theme: Track 1: 2:08-2:29 3:15-end Track 3: 1:01-1:19 1:43-1:56 Track 5: 2:21-2:34 Track 6: 2:28-2:39 3:56-4:25 Track 16 3:35-3:59 4:21-4:46 Narracotts Theme (Farm Work): Track 1: 1:34-1:59 2:57-3:06 Track 4: 2:05-2:28 2:50-3:10 Track 5: 2:54-3:18 Track 6: 0:00-1:29 2:12-2:28 2:41-3:31 Track 16: 0:00-0:18 4:00-4:21 Playful Horse: Track 2: 0:00-1:35 Track 4: 0:43-1:56 Track 16: 0:19-2:20 War Theme: Track 7: 2:30-end Track 8: 0:03-0:28 1:51-2:08 Track 11: 1:01-1:16 Track 13: 2:43-3:06 Track 15: 4:25-end Joey’s New Friends Theme: Track 10: 0:00-0:51 Track 15: 1:19-1:58 © -Mikko Ojala-
  8. I was wondering whether anyone has looked into the the key relationships, if any, between successive cues or maybe a predominant key or tonal center across an entire score by JW. Do you think this is an important consideration when JW writes a score?
  9. Hey everyone! My name is Brad Frey, and I'm a composer who also happens to be a huge fan of John Williams, and of this forum. It's good to be here! I started a YouTube channel awhile ago called "FilmScoreAnalysis," where I took full film score cues, reduced them down to a few staves, analyzed them, and put the film on screen with the reduced and analyzed score. Some of these cues so far come from films like Jurassic Park, Jaws, and Harry Potter, and I'm working on several more from Star Wars, Catch Me If You Can, Raiders - you get the idea. You can visit the channel here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCk_jzTmW2Fmfnm70c2kZHpQ There aren't many videos there yet, but it should give you a general idea of what I'm doing. Hope you enjoy, and let me know if you have any suggestions! Thanks, Brad
  10. Here is a revised version of the analysis I wrote, gosh, nearly 10 years ago. Again feedback and comments are more than welcome, especially on the technical side. ANALYSIS UPDATED IN 2016 to take into account the LaLa-Land Records complete release of the score. A.I. - Artificial Intelligence A Complete Score Analysis by Mikko Ojala http://www.jw-collection.de/images/ai.jpg Introduction A.I. Artificial Intelligence was a project long nurtured (the idea was produced as early as 1980's) by the late director Stanley Kubrick but eventually he chose only to produce the film as he was busy with other projects and let his friend and fellow film maker Steven Spielberg step in the director's seat. The two further developed the material in collaboration over several years until the sudden demise of the great auteuristic director in 1999, certainly a setback for the production, but with Spielberg firmly at the helm the film went into production in spite of it. Before this film was a close collaboration but now it became a dedication of respect and in part an homage from Spielberg to Kubrick (it is indeed dedicated to Kubrick's memory). The origin of A.I. - Artificial Intelligence lies with two short stories by a British author Brian Aldiss (especially the other, Supertoys Last All Summer Long), whom Kubrick encouraged to expand his ideas but subsequently they were adapted by Ian Watson into a screen story and finally by Spielberg and Kubrick into script form. It is a tale of a robot boy named David, who was the first of its kind, built to feel affection and love for his owners, and his odyssey to try to become human and thus earn the acceptance and love of his human mother. Although set in the future, the film is essentially a fairy story with clear parallels to the classic tale of Pinocchio written by Carlo Collodi as the protagonist of that children's story also strove to become a real boy to win his father's love. The film follows the book’s plot only in the broadest sense however as both include a fantastical quest through various adventures and hardships . The moulding of the final story was a gradual process during the 1990’s when Spielberg and Kubrick presented ideas to each other via fax and phone and the outline and script for the film evolved over the period of several years. Kubrick had also had the screen story partially story boarded so the world of the film was quite extensively visually defined well in advance of the shooting, which meant that even after the director's death, Spielberg was left with a clear idea of what Kubrick had wanted to achieve visually with the piece. By November 1999, Spielberg was writing the screenplay based on Watson's original 90-page story treatment, which made it his first solo screenplay credit since Close Encounters of the Third Kind. The movie began shooting in August 2000 and finished post production in the spring of 2001 ready to open in the United States on June 29, 2001. Upon its initial release the film garnered generally positive reviews from critics and grossed approximately $235 million worldwide during its theatrical run, which made it a modest hit. But perhaps most importantly it yielded one of the most significant scores of the year (and could be said of the decade) that was composed by John Williams. A.I. - Artificial Intelligence is the 17th collaboration between director Steven Spielberg and composer John Williams. Their working relationship is nowadays very mature one and Spielberg has perhaps served Williams music over the years better than any other filmmaker and inspired the composer to write some of the most memorable and iconic film music in the history of cinema. As Williams himself puts it, Steven Spielberg loves music and likes to use as much as possible of it in his movies. The composer has remarked on several occasions that the director always feels that music adds something to a film instead of taking away from the experience and his films seem to lend themselves very easily to and embrace and accommodate the use of music and it often becomes an important storytelling element, almost like another character. Spielberg, who unlike many directors is in very close contact with Williams throughout the whole period of the compositional process, likes to hear the musical ideas early on and have constant dialogue about the music with the composer. Spielberg is described by Williams as a very supportive and musically knowledgeable director, who allows him a lot of creative freedom. The composer has often remarked how Spielberg discusses mainly about the pacing of the scenes, the rhythmic and kinetic aspects of the music, leaving the thematic material, ambience and emotion to Williams' expertise. This working method and their close friendship and camaraderie has yielded many memorable and intricate film scores in the past and their working relationship seems to grow stronger with each new score. This music is no different and shows the composer's understanding of the film and its message and how the music can aid in bring out the various subtexts of the story. There is of course a flipside to this coin, this love of music. Because Steven Spielberg loves film music so much and directs movies almost with the composer and his dramatic input in mind, Williams is often called upon to write large amounts of music for his films. A.I. contains by the composer's own estimate well over two hours of score that went through a very extensive period of development evinced by the amount of alternate and revised material. While it is part and parcel of a film composer's job this is an admirable feat considering that Williams had another big project slated in 2001, the franchise starting fantasy film Harry Potter and the Philosopher Stone based on the immensely succesful fantasy novel by J.K. Rowling. For Harry Potter he wrote also over a 2 hour score, not taking into account the Harry Potter and Philosopher Stone Children’s Suite for Orchestra which is an “Introduction to the Orchestra for Young People”-styled 9-movement suite based on the themes of Harry Potter, which was also recorded during the recording sessions of the film. And this hard work earned him 2 Academy Award nominations in 2002, for both of these scores but they lost to Howard Shore's The Lord of the Rings - The Fellowship of the Ring, which inarguably was a worthy contender alongside Williams' modern magna opera. The film was certainly to some extent a departure from the usual Spielberg style, perhaps Kubrick's influence still hovering over the project after all, which might have contributed to the wide range of musical styles explored in the music. Williams' score orchestrated by Miriam A. Mayer, John Neufeld and Conrad Pope uses quite extensively the 20th century art music styles and techniques like minimalism in the spirit of Steve Reich and John Adams and atonalism and avant garde techniques of the Hungarian composer György Ligeti and his school, especially in the choral writing. The score was performed by the Los Angeles Recording Arts Orchestra, which is in its majority made up of the film scoring musicians of the L.A. area. The composer has recorded several other projects with this ensemble since, including selections for the 2002 Call of the Champions Olympics album and the Yo-Yo Ma Plays the Music of John Williams disc featuring Williams' concert works. The L.A. Master Chorale under the direction of Paul Salamunovich provided the varied choral work for the score and the composer sought out the operatic soprano Barbara Bonney to lend her considerable vocal talent to the project. The score was recorded by Shawn Murphy at Sony Pictures Scoring Stage, Culver City, CA and at UCLA's Royce Hall in February 12, 13, 15, 16 and March 6, 7 and 15, 2001. The music also quite surprisingly flirts with modern popular music with integrated techno beats and synthesizers at some instances, a rare occurrence in Spielberg/Williams scores in the past. Here the composer readily admitted that he leaned on the expertise of his son Joseph, who is an accomplished musician, singer and a music producer in his own right (having been e.g. the lead singer in Toto) with whom the composer has collaborated on several projects over his career including e.g. The Fury (1978), Return of the Jedi (1983) and most recently on the first two Star Wars Prequels Episode I The Phantom Menace (1999) and Episode II The Attack of the Clones (2002). Joseph Williams' job in all these instances was to provide pieces of diegetic music for these films, i.e. music heard from an on-screen sound source such as songs heard on the radio, played by on-screen musicians or from other sound sources. For A.I. Artificial Intelligence he composed several source pieces that range from funky saxophone passages to propulsive techno-beats for the Rouge City locale and most importantly he contributed a techno-industrial action music woven into his father's score for a Mecha hunting sequence in the second act of the film. Despite the eclectic collection of stylistic influences at the heart of the score is the melodic and symphonic ingenuity of John Williams as he creates the varied soundscapes for the world of the film and captures the spirit, heart and subtextual meanings of the story with his central thematic ideas and orchestral moods. The composer has said that in his mind this score stands apart from his other works with perhaps the exception of Close Encounters of the Third Kind in it's timbral qualities and this is certainly true. In creating the often unsettling and haunting soundscapes he taps into not only the same avant garde but also the same human warmth as he did with the Close Encounters when expressing the slow transformation of fear into awe and wonder and tried to capture something profoundly spiritual about David's journey to gain his mother's love and so to attain some measure of humanity. The Themes of A.I. - Artificial Intelligence Several major themes and accompanying motifs capture the world and characters of A.I. and illustrate the journey, both physical and spiritual, that David the robot boy goes through in his search for his humanity. While Monica's Theme is the most significant of the major thematic ideas, it is noteworthy that the composer never assigns an overarching theme for the whole story but rather treats his musical ideas as an ensemble where each comes to the fore and receives development in different acts of the film. Most of the themes also relate to the main character of David in one way or the other, either by clearly attaching to him or being themes related to him through other characters in some way. This makes them less leitmotific as they do not seem to be connected to specific people, objects or places but rather to abstractions and are thus often more psychological in nature. David David's Theme David, the main protagonist of the film, has two thematic identifications to describe his dual nature. The first theme is used to describe the more human side of him and his wish to be and become human. It is a wistful, playful melody full of tender innocence and it is in close connection with Monica's theme but also illustrates certain childish simplicity and wonder in its progression, linking mother and child. Williams uses it sparingly but effectively through the movie and it receives its final full rendition in the last scene of the film coupled with Monica’s theme, finally weaving together the two melodies as the characters are finally reunited. NOTE: Jeff Bond calls this musical idea "The Parenting Theme" on the LLL set liner notes. While it does apply to some of the scenes where the theme appears, it usually has a much more direct connection to David himself, his journey and inner self than purely to his interaction with his parents and Dr. Hobby although it appears in scenes with both. The Mecha Motif The second theme/motif associated with David is a simple and clear 7-note synthesized piano motif to represent his robotic side, which cleverly resembles the first phrase of David’s Theme. It is stated often when David's Mecha origin is implied and creates a sort of minimalistic repeating inorganic robotic effect to remind the audience he is originally a machine, further enhanced by its use of synthesizers. This is the theme that is heard underscoring his first appearance and it creates a sense of curious wonder of the robotic child as it has a repeating searching quality to it, restated in an almost mechanic fashion over and over as David studies his parents and the world. A Child Lost Theme: Theme for both Monica's and Professor Hobby's longing for a lost child, in Monica's instance for Martin and in Professor Hobby's David (his dead son who was the model for this first Mecha child). This is a nostalgic melancholy melody most often voiced by a piano and appears throughout the first and second acts of the movie, tied dramatically firmly to the two aforementioned characters. The style of the theme is always wistful and slightly pensive, a delicate and warm reminder of a lost child with shades of loss colouring its contour. In addition this melodic idea seem to represent an idealised and nostalgic image of a lost child and changes very little in mood as the emotion it illustrates is always the same. The musical theme drifts off into silence in the second act of the story as the character of Monica leaves the film until the finale and Dr. Hobby's longing for his child is not emphasized. Although we see him later in the film as he is actively trying to use the little robot boy for his own scientific and commercial ends, as good as they might seem, that are from the point of view of the boy highly questionable. A Child Lost Theme is also the only major theme to be left out of the original soundtrack album but can now be heard on the La-La Land Record's complete release in all its haunting delicate beauty. NOTE: Jeff Bond on the La-La Land Records release liner notes identifies this actually to be David's Theme. While it does represent the boy to Monica and professor Hobby especially, I would argue that the music is almost in all instances more linked to the longing and memory of a child than the actual character of David as the robot boy evokes various feeling in these two characters that relate to their flesh and blood children, not always the Mecha David. Monica's Theme: This melody is associated with Monica and David, David's love for his mother and Monica's feelings toward David. A warm tenderly lilting theme with a touch of lullaby to it is the real centerpiece of the score and the thematic core (alongside with the Blue Fairy's theme) of the last third of the movie. Williams and Spielberg mention in a DVD documentary interview how they searched a long time for the correct melody for the last scene with Monica and David and Williams wrote 6 or 7 melodies and played them to the film to find one that would be just right. Eventually this one piece seemed to feel right and it became the cantilena-like Monica's theme. The theme itself is a long melody with multiple sections that is applied to the mother/child relationship as soon as Monica imprints David to herself and thus it has the character of a love theme, not of romantic love but of child's love for his mother and vice versa. The theme begins more as a love theme from David's perspective as he is imprinted to Monica but in the end it can be seen as an expression of mutual love and affection between the two. Williams’ orchestrations for this theme range from delicate chimes and string readings to the lullaby waltz on piano for the film’s finale and a solo soprano interpretation for the end credits. Abandonment/Lost This theme comes represent the fear and apprehension humans feel toward Mechas, which is also then tied to the jealousy and malice that Martin, the son of Swinton family, feels toward David. To him David is a rival for his mother’s affections and as he is artificial, Martin regards him more as a strange and curious toy than a person. All the animosity will eventually lead to David's expulsion from the family as Martin's attempts to oust the robot boy finally succeed and Williams presents the theme full-fledged in the abandonment sequence where it describes David's horror, shock and desperation of being abandoned by his mother and Monica’s inner turmoil since she has genuinely become emotionally attached to this robot child. There is subtly ominous malevolence in this music, which goes from the uncomfortable foreboding in the early dinner scene between Monica, Henry and David (Williams' unused original version) to the tracked statement during Martin's return to operatic heights in the abandonment scene but its message is always that of impending sense of dread and tragedy. The Blue Fairy/Humanity: The second central cantilena-like theme Williams composed for the movie is for the character taken directly from the story of Pinocchio and she is the person who first breathes life into the wooden puppet, when Gepetto the carpenter wishes to have a son and finally transforms the puppet into a real boy after his long adventure-filled journey. In the film Monica reads the story of Pinocchio to David and Martin and it is then that David gets his childish idea of the Blue Fairy being a key to his salvation. The theme portrays gentleness and awe of the character of the Blue Fairy from David's perspective but also on a deeper level David's wish to become a real boy and the hope of reuniting with his mother but most importantly it is connected with his hope of achieving humanity. The Blue Fairy's theme has a gentle fairy tale-like quality and like Monica's theme it resembles a lullaby, being a broad, slow and song-like in its melodic contour and full of warmth but also sorrow, for it implies that David’s hopes are ultimately impossible through the Blue Fairy, who is not real. It is one of the most touching themes Williams wrote for the movie and has a spiritual depth which is further enhanced by the use of solo soprano voice during its pivotal appearance. The soprano soloist Barbara Bonney’s voice seems to be keyed to the Blue Fairy in the music as she gently hums and sings in the scenes involving the character. Cryogenics This minor thematic idea is performed solely on strings and connects subtextually with the Cryogenics Institute and the unchanging and unending cryogenic suspension it provides for the terminally ill. This minor mode melody minimalistically repeats and alternates around a core of constantly rising and falling series of six and seven note patterns. This creates a very uneasy, emotionally detached, mechanized and unchanging atmosphere, very like the containment where Martin, the Swinton family's real boy, is kept. Interestingly there seems to be a faint echo of Williams' music in The Empire of the Sun here, where he responded with similarly Aram Khachaturian-styled despondency to another broken family and feelings of isolation. The motif is later reprised for uneasy effect when the score draws parallels between Monica's bedtime stories at the Cryogenics and when she reads them to both David and Martin. The Mecha World/Travelling Theme This is a collection of minimalistic and orchestrational devices representing the futuristic modes of travel in the world of A.I. The musical ideas for both major travelling montages in the film consist of repeating motifs on percussion, most pronouncedly marimba, and strings augmented by ostinati from the whole orchestra.The composer uses these figures to represent the high-tech mechanized age of the future and these ideas are used whenever David is seen travelling in the various vehicles (namely in the cues The Journey to Rouge City and To Manhattan) on his journey. Williams varies this musical idea in the travelling sequences and the minimalistic repetition of these musical cells in the style of Steve Reich and John Adams adds to the feeling of movement and busy atmosphere that drive the travelling sequences. These ostinati patterns would also become prevalent in several scores of the composer in the new millennium as Williams answered the new film scoring challenges with a touch of minimalism. *** The original soundtrack album containing 60 minutes of Williams' score and two different versions of the song For Always was released in conjunction with the film in 2001. Shortly after in 2002 a For Your Consideration Oscar promotional 2 disc set compiled from the score (still incomplete) surfaced and started making rounds in the collector circles. This apparently was created in error as the composer had not authorized such extensive promotional release for the awards season and subsequently also a single disc promotional CD appeared (with content matching the soundtrack album). Finally the full score was released by the La-La Land Records in 2015 on a lavish 3 disc set providing the fans of the composer and this score the complete release of the film's music on first two discs and another disc's worth of alternate material from the lengthy score making it one of the most extensive John Williams releases in history with more than three hours of music. The actual cue titles in the below analysis are available on the 2015 La-La Land Records 3 disc release of the score and they are provided along with the slate numbers for each cue. Similarly I provide information where this music can be found on the previous existing releases. TRACK-BY-TRACK ANALYSIS OF THE FILM SCORE The movie opens with silence and the gradually emerging sounds of crashing waves as Ben Kingsley's narrator voice presents a prologue describing the world of the future, where polar ice caps have melted and seas have swallowed up the coastal cities, causing displacement of millions. The richest nations soon developed laws to control birthrate of their people to conserve the now limited and contested resources. In the wealthier countries robotics have advanced to a whole new level and people now employ human-like robots called Mechas as menial labour and servants to make up for the lack of a larger work force mainly due to the fact that they do not consume resources beyond their original manufacture. The scene shifts to a meeting between professor Allen Hobby and his colleagues at Cybertronics robotics company where they discuss the nature of Mechas, their capabilities and defects and finally Hobby's proposition to build a robot child that is capable of love, one trait a Mechas have lacked in the past. His colleagues express skepticism at his idealistic proposition, which also presents the moral dilemma of what would be the human responsibility to these robot children who would become imprinted on their parents. As the question is left hanging in the air, the score begins as a cue called Cryogenics opens with cold dispassionate strings, that are used in conjunction with the image of a Mecha woman detachedly applying make-up despite being stabbed in the hand by professor Hobby earlier in his demonstration and after just being an unconcerned witness to this debate concerning her kind. The film then cuts to Monica (Frances O'Connor) and her husband Henry (Sam Robards) driving out to visit their son Martin (Jake Thomas), who is terminally ill and is therefore in cryogenic suspension in the Cryogenics company's facilities. Here we hear first a snippet from Waltz from Sleeping Beauty by Pyotr Tchaikovsky as a source cue when Monica approaches her son's suspension pod and starts to read the story of Robin Hood to Martin though the music is cut around Williams' first cue: 1. Cryogenics (1mA) (3:30) (OST track Cybertronics, LLL set D 1, Track 1, D 3 Track 2 (Alternate). OST track Cybertronics, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 2😞 This piece is in essence a long nearly concertized development of the Cryogenics Theme. As mentioned above it is played solely on strings and features a continuous slow ostinato figure of 7-notes and a series of 6- and 7-note fragments ascending and descending to create a clinical cold and mechanized atmosphere. It seems like music without passion, repeating slowly, difficult to read emotionally yet slightly thredonic, even a bit sinister but ever calm. This is the scene where Dr. Frazier of the Cryogenic institute suggests to Henry the horrible possibility that Martin may be never healed and the composer hones in on the emotional strain of both Monica and Henry, whose son has been in cryo-suspension for five years because of his incurable illness. Around 1:47 a central searching 6-note melodic fragment appears to create the sense of unending cryogenic sleep, the mood cold and full of unease but the scene soon intercuts with professor Hobby and his assistants, who are with nearly equal dispassion selecting a candidate for the parent of the first robotic child with an imprinting protocol among the workers of Cybertronics employees and Henry's name has come up. With this cue Williams establishes minimalism as one of the main musical elements of the score, gives a nod Stanley Kubrick's musical tastes with the use of Aram Khachaturian-like musical approach (Gayane Suite to be exact) and adds a subtle layer of uncomfortable mood and psychological meaning to the scene. The score is almost asking a question when desperate Henry ponders on his family's possibilities. In the Making John Williams named this composition Cryogenics on the cue sheets but Cybertronics on the original soundtrack album. Beyond a simple oversight in the naming the reason for it might simply be that this piece of music actually plays during scenes taking place in the cryogenics facility and at the Cybertronics where professor Hobby is selecting the parents for the new child Mecha. The composer wrote also an alternate variant of this piece that can be heard on the LLL set (D 3 Track 2), which basically has some sections of the cue shortened and runs for about half a minute less than the film version, which itself is edited around the Sleeping Beauty snippet so this cue is never heard in its full intended form in the film. 2. Henry Is Chosen (1m2) (1:54) (LLL set D 1, Track 2) (Music for a deleted scene?) A cor anglais solo opens the piece as the music subtly hints at David's Theme in the extensive searching woodwind line, presenting fleeting snatches of the melody as it proceeds in enigmatic tones and suddenly ends in forebodingly ebbing and flowing high string idea accompanied by a harp and contrasted by slowly rising low woodwinds. This short piece of atmosphere setting scoring went entirely unused as the scene for which it was composed was most likely cut from the final film. One can suspect it was a scene involving professor Hobby interviewing Henry just as he requested at the end of the previous scene. 3. David’s Arrival (1m3/4)(3:50) (LLL D 1, Track 3, LLL D 3 Track 3 (Alternate), Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 3 (Alternate)) Off-screen Henry makes the decision to bring the Mecha child home and to surprise Monica despite the risk of her reacting badly to the situation. The film version of the music is created editorially by using the original version of the piece and tracked music from a later scene 2m1 Reading the Words. The cue begins quietly with austere hollow glassy electronic sounds and high strings, creating an understated uneasy underpinning to the moment when Henry brings the Mecha boy in and David (Haley Joel Osment) steps into the room. A Child Lost Theme is heard for the first time but in a halting fragmented form on celesta as Monica gazes at the boy in amazement and slight disbelief which is followed by a reflective cor anglais melody to underscore her sadness and emotional confusion when Henry tries to calm her down by saying he can always take the robot back to Cybertronics is she doesn't want to keep it. From now on cor anglais becomes Monica's musical voice in many of the subsequent scenes as Williams doesn't unveil her own theme until the imprinting of David as it relates as much to him as it does to her in the musical narrative. As she claims that the boy is not real, Henry concurs saying that he is a Mecha child and we hear David's Mecha Motif for the first time informing us of his robotic nature as it appears curiously out of the orchestral texture on synthesizer. A Child Lost returns and this time in a more developed guise on solo piano with a little more warmth to it as the couple notices David watching the family pictures of Monica, Henry and Martin, the music drawing a connection to their real son and the open wound of his absence and Monica's longing for her boy. This cue continues to the next one without pause. In the Making Williams wrote at least two different versions of the cue, neither of which were used in their entirety in the film: David's Arrival (1m3/4) (2:44) Original Version (LLL D 1 Track 3) The original take begins the same as the film edit but we hear first Mecha Motif on the synthesizers interspersed with a short rendition of David's Theme on oboe to announce his arrival. The music continues warmer and inviting on strings with the cor anglais presenting a long melodic line as Monica meets David, but the Mecha Motif repeats as if to remind that this real looking child is a robot and suddenly as she acutely recalls her own child A Child Lost Theme sounds on the piano that ends the cue with delicate sense of sorrow. This version of the cue found its way to the Oscar Promo as well. David's Arrival (1m3/4) (3:10) Alternate Version (LLL D 3 Track 3) Similar cold synthesizer sounds which sustain the apprehensive mood open the alternate version before Mecha Motif appears, just like in the original version but in this take the oboe solo of David's Theme interwoven with it is lengthier and emphasized in the mix, presenting the entire melodic line before the yearning delicate strings from the original version come in and the piece proceeds to the cor anglais solo voice which represents Monica in several scenes. This version creates slightly more sympathy for David on Monica's behalf although it also ends with the Mecha Motif and A Child Lost Theme on solo piano to remind of how torn Monica is of this turn of events and the halting theme suddenly just ends mid-phrase. This is an alternate beginning of the piece which Williams wrote after the original version (marked on the score 1m3 New start) which segues to the original version at bar 21 but they ended up using the original composition's opening in the film. 4. Of Course I’m Not Sure (1m5) (2:41) (LLL set D 1, Track 4) Another cor anglais melody and soothing strings reflect Monica's initial apprehension of taking David in and cold electronics describe her discomfort and doubt as Henry tells her of the imprinting protocol which supposedly will make the robot to identify to a person like to a real parent, simulating love and affection in their programming. He also emphasizes that if they are ever going to return an imprinted Mecha to Cybertronics it will be destroyed as it cannot be resold. Strings and woodwinds continue creating an airy atmosphere where the tone shifts from familial warmth to hesitant uneasiness as David asks Monica to dress him in pajamas when it is his bedtime and she declines and flees outside the bed room leaving his husband to take care of the boy. In the Making The film version dials out the middle portion of the cue from 1:01 to 2:01 and continues to the end as written. The LaLa-Land release contains the complete cue. 5. Hide and Seek (1m6) (3:23) (LLL set D 1 Track 5. OST track Hide and Seek (3:03), Oscar Promo Disc 1 Track 3) Monica spends a day with David and as she does the household chores the curious robot follows her silently everywhere observing her constantly in silence which makes her uncomfortable. This starts Monica's bonding with David after feeling reluctant to be a mother to a robot boy and this awkwardness creates many humorous situations for both of them and Williams' cue captures the light-hearted and tenderly playful nature of the scene perfectly. The composer continues to illustrate the dichotomy of David by counterpointing the Mecha Motif with David’s Theme. He creates a duet of synthesized piano playing Mecha Motif which forms the ostinato that drives the scene and real piano and orchestra playing David's humane theme, harp and light woodwinds and strings twirling about airy figures to depict the gradual disappearance of Monica’s apprehension towards David and the relationship that is slowly forming between the two while the piano and synthesizers bring the cue to a calm close with the mischievous Mecha Motif ostinato twinkling in the background. Soundtrack Album VS the Film Version The version of this piece found on the soundtrack album has been slightly truncated, omitting about 20 seconds of material from the full cue. 6. David Studies Monica (1m7) (2:01) (Unused in the scene, LLL set D 1, Track 6, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 5): Lengthy and ominous introduction of the Abandonment Theme on strings, subtle synthesizers, woodwinds and harp underscores a quiet dinner scene with Henry, Monica and David, who starts to observe and imitate his foster mother as she eats. This provokes some unintentional humour with spaghetti and also a mechanical bout of laughter from David, which in turn provokes nervous giggles from the parents at the absurdity of the scene. Williams originally coloured the uncomfortable atmosphere of the scene with the Abandonment Theme, delving again into the psychology of the moment, forming a link to the family that was and how the parents still feel uneasy with the robotic boy who after all is mechanical. His tone for the scene is ominous and while the strings momentarily present soothing chords in the end they swell chillingly and an almost sinister rendition of the theme on celesta, harp and oboe ends up underscoring the laughter which leaves the listener subtly perturbed at the event, hinting at the unnaturalness of David as a Mecha, the still lingering apprehensions Henry and Monica have although the image might at first glance tell otherwise. This cue went unused in this scene as it was left entirely unscored in the finished films, letting the awkward and uncomfortable feel come from the silence and actors' performances rather than enforcing it with music. 7. Reading the Words (2m1) (3:34) (LLL D 1 Track 7 (original version 5:58 of which 0:00-1:15, 2:50-end is used, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 4 (4:00) (Edit): The film version is a shorter edit of the full lengthy composition, which removes a good portion from the middle of the cue. The below analysis refers to the complete version Williams originally wrote. This cue starts of with the harp playing gently the A Child Lost Theme to express Monica's longing for her son and need to have a child in her life as she tucks David in his bed at night. English horn solo with harp, bells and string backing is heard expressing warmth and affection Monica is gradually starting to feel for the Mecha child. Suddenly the cue receives hollow and glassy synthesizer colourings as Monica's conviction wavers when her thoughts turn to her real son and she feels like she is betraying him. After this we are presented with some unused material as a fragment of A Child Lost Theme sounds again on ghostly celesta as we see how torn she is between her need for a child and the thoughts of Martin. Eerie electronic effects and glinting of celesta chords continue to hint at the A Child Lost Theme and another motherly cor anglais solo and a wash of synthesized voices create a quiet sense of conflict and suspense to the scene. The music is reminiscent of the dramatic underscoring of the previous cues, reflecting apprehension and longing in equal measure, organic acoustic instruments and the synthesizers providing musical dichotomy, but went unused in the film. The score in the film continues with hushed coolly detached synthesizer chords, piano, oboe and pensive harp all performing slow deliberate progressions to further suspensefully underscore the sequence and finally as the moment when Monica imprints David is reached the melody of Monica's Theme kindles for the first time on light tender piano backed by synth celesta to imply David's awakened love and affection for her as he looks at her for the first time as his mother. It is in essence a love theme, dreamy and innocent, depiction of child’s love for his mother. And it is at this moment that Williams begins the thematic development of the most central idea of the entire score, which is initially very sparsely used but will grow to dominate the last third of the film. In the Making Williams' original version of this cue can now be heard on the LLL release which runs for nearly 6 minutes. The opening 1:15 is used in the film before a long part lyrical part haunting segment is left entirely unused (1:16-2:50). In the movie the 1:15 opening section is edited into the extended atmospheric middle section (2:50-4:48) of the piece and this atmospheric music for the imprinting then flows into Monica's Theme at the end as it does in the film. This lengthier version would indicate that the composer originally wrote his music to a longer cut of the scene or that the music 1:16-2:50 might be some sort of alternate for the imprinting sequence which later got replaced with the largely atmospheric material. The Oscar Promo contains an alternate edit of this cue which uses the first 2:50 of the composition and then goes to the Monica's Theme which starts at 4:49. 8. Wearing Perfume (2m3) (4:13) (LLL D 1 Track 8, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 8): The Swintons are leaving for a party one night and David is left home alone for the evening. The robot boy observes Monica applying some perfume and as Henry complements her for it, David decides to imitate to win his parents' approval. Synth celesta glistens with ethereal crystalline tones as he pours the whole bottle on himself and we hear an oboe soliloquy alternating with the Mecha Motif, the music reminding us of his naiveté and robotic way of thinking, and as Monica notices this, celesta, xylophone and lyrical cor anglais representing Monica interplays with Mecha Motif on glockenspiel, strings and harp accompanying tenderly until David suddenly inquires from her mother ”Will you die?” As Monica answers Williams presents here the lengthiest development of the A Child Lost Theme on piano full of melancholic yearning (marked gently in the score) as Monica explains to him that she will live for many many years, but yes, she will eventually die. The music offers heartfelt commentary on the notion of mortality but very much tinged in sorrowful longing, the score drawing again the memories of Martin to the fore, the lost child, David's sudden understanding of the possibility of losing his mother and Monica's underlying guilt which still battles with her sense of loss and yearning to have a child. And so to comfort the now somewhat shocked boy Monica produces Martin's old toy bear, a super toy named Teddy, from the closet to keep him company and oboe introduces a new playful element, a lilting little melody full of childish whimsy, the piano, strings and harp taking over the music and carrying it to a delicate finish. 9. Martin is Alive (2m4) (0:50) (Film Edit): David’s life changes rapidly when out of the blue Swinton's real son Martin is suddenly cured and brought home. And as Martin returns, he immediately feels jealous towards this new family member. Gradually the boys begin to compete for their mother's affection and even Monica is at a loss to how to deal with this. The film version of the music starts as Henry in frantic haste calls Monica and she hears that Martin has awoken and cured. This scene underscored by subtle up-and-down moving piano motif which has an ever so slightly ominous edge to it and as the Martin is brought home in a wheelchair accompanied by nurses cor anglais introduces the Abandonment Theme after which the music turns dark as the glittering rambling cold piano notes describe the threat David now suddenly feels. This film version of the cue was created editorially, a composite of two different segments edited together, taken from the cues Monica's Plan (3m6) and the original Martin Is Alive (2m2) composition. Martin Is Alive (2m4) (1:27) (LLL D 1 Track 9, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 7): The original version of this cue does not use Abandonment Theme at all and runs without themes as moody underscore. Bubbling clarinets under a wash of strings evoke the threat David feels, the echoing moaning synthesizer motif enhancing the fear and uncertainty for David. Chimes and a lone cold violin line and sparse piano and celesta notes try to announce a melody as Martin arrives but cannot and end the piece with a sense of unease. All will not be well in the Swinton family. The last 27 seconds of this cue made it to the film. In the film most of the scene is underscored by the statements of Abandonment Theme tracked from the above mentioned cues, creating in the process a stronger melodic connection with Martin and his plan to oust David from the family, his arrival spelling foreboding from the start. This is a good example of how editorial process can affect the score as a whole and how music can be shaped to form narrative paths not initially intended by the composer. 10. David and Martin (2m5) (2:18) (LLL D 1 Track 10, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 8): Martin and David spend time together and Martin asks where David came from and who made him, obviously trying to belittle the robot boy. David answers that the first thing he remembers is a bird. Martin urges him to draw it. Music is very light and ethereal using oboe, flute, celesta, strings and electronics to create a suitably mysterious and airy atmosphere to complement the somewhat existential discussion of the two boys. The music builds to a small crescendo with a bubbling clarinet line supported by the strings and a synthesized choir (1:33) that is cut off when Martin remarks on David’s origins making the robot boy ever more insecure about his status in the family. While the music is dialled out after this in the film the complete composition featured sinister high strings and celesta creating further enhancement to Martin's cruelty as we see him bringing Pinocchio to Monica to read to him and David. This means that the next cue would have continued without pause from the end of this one. 11. Canoeing with Pinocchio (3m1) (1:37) (LLL D 1 Track 11 and LLL D 3 Track 4 (Alternate), Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 9): Martin, knowing how desperately David wants his mother to love him brings a book to Monica to read, knowing full well how hurtful it can be to the robot. It is Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi. The mother looks worriedly at the cover of the book and as Martin with a smirk announces "He'll love it." Cryogenics is restated as if to remind of the time when Monica used to read to Martin in the Cryogenics lab but here it is also used to imply Martin's evil intent, where the innocent act of storytelling becomes another way of undermining David. The picture here is totally opposite of the music to suggest something is wrong as we see Monica reading to the boys in a boat bobbing on a pond on a sunny afternoon and yet we hear the coldness of the score. Soon it subsides however as we see Monica reading by Martin's bedside and David listening on the floor. A soft and dreamily hopeful piano rendition of Monica's Theme full of emotion subtly supported by harp and calm strings expresses here David's awakened wish to become a real boy as she reads the segment where Pinocchio pleads the Blue Fairy for the same thing. And it is here that David’s first idea or dream of becoming real is formed through which he hopes will achieve his mother’s complete love. In the Making There exists an alternate take on this scene (LLL D 3 Track 4), where the musical content is mostly the same except that it uses an oboe and piano duet of David's Theme instead of Monica's at the end, shifting the focus of David's awakened wish to become human from Monica to the boy, emphasizing the David himself instead of his mother as the driving force of the whole notion. 12. David and the Spinach (3m1) (1:02) (LLL D 1 Track 12, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 10): The Swintons are having a dinner and Martin goads David into an eating contest with him. As the Mecha wants so very much to act like a real human child and possibly best his adversary, David gives in to Martin’s bullying. First the ever level-headed Teddy and then both parents try to stop it but David wants to show his mother he can eat like a real boy, so he in a moment of determined anger shoves a spoon full of spinach into his mouth. Suddenly he malfunctions and his face slackens and looks like it is melting down as he is not supposed to eat. This short cue is played mainly by the strings rising to a slow alarmed crescendo and develops a sense of urgency, shock and dismay as it swells while David's face prolongs horribly. 13. The Operating Scene (3m3) (2:07) (Unused in the film. LLL D 1 Track 12, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 11): Similar uncomfortable dark mood continues in this next piece as David is being cleaned after the dinner incident and the family has gathered around the operating table with two mechanics in nonchalant fashion chatting around the robot's opened machinery and chide him playfully for making a mess. Ethereal frosty synthesizer sheen heard in previous cues to give a sense of alienness between humans and Mechas and subtle ghostly synth choir evoke the discomforting mood of the scene, sizzling of percussion, deep rumbling piano chords and growls from tuba all fashion a sense of apprehension and subtle horror, strings sliding slowly in high register, a cool and dispassionate portrait of this imagery of David with his chest cavity open on the table, technicians treating him like any piece of machinery. The cue went unused in the movie as again Spielberg lets the scene again speak for itself without underscore. But yet again the film maker found another placement for this music, the cue appearing late in the middle part of the film as Gigolo Joe explains to David in Rouge City how humans hate the Mechas. It appears in the film tracked into this scene after the cue To Manhattan (5m8). On the LLL release this and the previous short cue are combined. 14. The Scissor Scene (3m4) (3:46) (LLL D 1 Track 13, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 12): This dark, ambient cue underscores the scene where David out of the suggestion from Martin sneaks up to her sleeping mother at night and tries to cut a lock of her hair. This is because according to Martin she would love him for it, just like it happened in a story about the princess who loved the prince whose lock of hair she possessed. Martin also promises to tell Monica that he loves David so she'll love him even more. With ominous orchestral rumble and very atmospheric orchestrations this music conveys perfectly the mood of the scene as David sneaks through the dark house towards his parents' bedroom. Skittering strings, halting echoing celesta and small chimes, rumbling piano, bass flutes all enhance the feel of something wrong in this whole scene. Music turns more busy toward the end of the cue as Monica wakes up just as David cuts her hair and she gets a small cut near her eye from the frightened David’s scissors and panicking Henry shakes him angrily demanding an explanation. As Henry had already become suspicious earlier that David was trying to hurt them out of jealousy, he sees his fears confirmed. Monica still has doubts. Piano rises among the low strings and rubbed tam tam. Oboe, harp and chimes play a sympathetic yet disheartened line that suddenly ends in an ominous rumble. The music here tells the story from both sides, the distress and confusion of David and the shock of his parents. Teddy who is accompanying David on his nightly mission saves the now forgotten lock of Monica's hair from the floor. 15. The Pool Rescue (3m5) (1:41) (LLL D 1 Track 14, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 13): It's Martin's birthday and he and his friends are playing beside the pool in the garden. He is showing his robotic brother to his curious guests and because Davisd seems so human-like they want to see if he has DAS a Damage Avoidance System like other Mechas by stabbing him in the arm. Frightened David cowers behind Martin and grabbing him by the hand repeats: "Keep me safe Martin, keep me safe!" as the boys close on him with a sharp cake cutter. Martin tries to pull himself free from David’s grasp but stumbles right into the pool with David still firmly holding him. The metallic body of the robot boy pulls Martin underwater and David ceases to function. The cue starts with slowly growing uneasiness in low strings joined by a skittering sounds of a tam tam as the boys plunge into the pool and alarmed high strings combine with deeper brass notes from horns as they fall to the bottom of the pool and watery dripping synthesizer sounds play as we see David still pulling Martin down and unsettling chorus of synthesized voices and ticking echoing synthetic piano effects play as David has fallen alone to the bottom of the pool and Martin is rescued by frantic Henry who is now sure that the Mecha boy tried to kill Martin. 16. Monica's Plan (3m6) (3:30)(LLL D 1 Track 15, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 14): Monica and Henry are now both certain that David poses a threat to their son and the whole family, so Henry proposes for him to be demolished at Cybertronics. But Monica has developed feelings for the boy and is hard pressed to carry out this plan. Torn between love and fear she finally comes to David and says they are going for a drive in the country. This cue begins with a new, peaceful yet ominous piano motif that creates a sense of quiet unease as we see Monica persuading David to take a drive with her the next day. Then in the next shot Monica sees some writings and drawings David has made for her that almost break her resolve and A Child Lost Theme receives a yearningly tragic reading on solo piano with delicate harp accompaniment figures as Monica's inner conflict is conveyed musically, the theme transformed into a motif of Monica's awakened affection for David, and the strings swell ever so slightly in warmth but in the end she decides to go through with the plan. Next morning the family car is speeding through the woods towards Cybertronics and Williams answers with a pinched oboe variation of the Abandonment Theme ghosted by the celesta and soon the composer speeds it up with the accompanying arpeggio figures rolling on piano and synthesizers to emulate the visuals of the spinning wheels of the futuristic car. Monica’s emotional conflict reaches its apex and in the end she decides to abandon the boy instead of taking him to be destroyed. Abandonment Theme begins on the synthesized piano, the melody finding new contours along the way but then the music steadies as does Monica’s resolve and grows to full force on lower strings that presage tempest as if to show that this was in the end Martin’s doing and to enhance the desperation she is feeling. She stops the car and drives to a different direction and as they stop in the woods, a segment of Abandonment Theme arpeggio up-and-down accompaniment figures is uncomfortably repeated on the piano and double basses until the cue ends abruptly. 17. Abandoned in the Woods (3m7) (3:57) (LLL D 1 Track 16, D 3 Track 5 (Alternate), OST track 10 Rouge City 0:00-2:00 and track 2 Abandoned in the Woods (Alternate), Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 5 0:00-2:00 and Disc 2 track 1 Abandoned in the Woods (Alternate)): The music starts off with a subtle sonic alert of a threat as contrabassoons murmur ominously together with the double basses to warn of danger to come. Williams then presents heartbroken and despondent musical portrait as the strings in high register play a new tragic and searching melodic fragment somewhere between the A Child Lost Theme and Abandonment Theme as Monica leads the unsuspecting David into the woods. The music is generating a sorrowful sense of foreboding as an emotional version of the Abandonment Theme sounds vulnerable and touching on solo piano and strings as she struggle's to leave him and David pleads her not to. The theme conveys here both desperation and horror as suddenly the music gains a threatening and forceful edge when the terse high string tremolos lead the orchestra to a full reading of the theme and David finally understands what is happening as the swelling ebbing and flowing arpeggios gain more strength. The strings section churns in minimalistic style reminiscent of Philip Glass, the woodwinds and brass presenting the Abandonment/Lost Theme on top of them, growing in intensity with each new iteration of the thematic line, the strings rising and falling mercilessly with the arpeggio figures like an oncoming storm. Horns makes subtle groaning utterances that add to the tension and tragic desperation of the moment. Finally as the melody rises to its peak of the it is joined by the rest of the orchestral brass and a synthetic choir. Struggling to get free from David's grip Monica pulls and tugs and the music grows louder showing both her inner conflict and the child’s confusion as she frantically gets to her car and drives away sobbing. And when camera pulls away and shows us David’s horrified expression through the rear view mirror of the departing vehicle the music reaches a shocking climax with hammered violent and cold piano notes. On the LLL release the complete version contains a previously unreleased and unused coda that contains frantic high string lines churning furiously as celesta and flutes inject quick cries, the piece coming to rest on pulsing low piano chords. Soundtrack Album VS the Film Version This cue is one of the few centerpieces of the score not released in it's original form prior to the LLL 3 disc set. All other versions are shorter and are missing the 0:00-1:51 portion from beginning half of the scene. The latter half of the film version of this cue is on the original soundtrack album and on the Oscar Promo, coupled on the OST track Rouge City with the music from that later travelling scene. In the Making There exists an alternate version of this cue that can be heard on the LLL set (D 3 Track 5), where the beginning of the piece is scored solely with ominous double bass figures with chilling high strings exchanging phrases with them instead of the double bass/contrabassoon material found in the film take. This take also also contains subtle performance differences in the various variations of the Abandonment Theme and a new dramatic desperate sounding string swell before the pounding piano chords for the moment Monica drives away. And thus the film moves to its second act. 18. City source cue(1:29) (Unreleased) There is a short saxophone lead techno/disco piece in the scene where Gigolo Joe (Jude Law) is introduced and it is continued further in the subsequent street scenes. This and other techno source music is composed by John Williams' singer/song writer/composer son Joseph. He is credited for three unnamed source cues on his resume on the Schwatz-Gorfaine agency’s site. 19. The Moon Rising (4m5) & The Biker Hounds Extensions (Joseph Williams' source music) (4M6) & The Biker Hounds (4m7) (7:48) (LLL D 1 Track 17 (4m5 & 4m7, 5:10) & D 3 Track 6 (4m6, 2:38), OST track 7 Moon Rising, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 10): The only all-action cue of the movie Moon Rising is actually divided into three separate cues, 4m5, 4m6 and 4m7. The sequence begins when the audience encounters David in the forest alone and wandering through the dark woods. He sees a garbage vehicle dumping something on the ground near him and suddenly he sees dozen of abandoned Mechas scavenging for parts from what seems to be a dumpsite for broken robots, a fate David has unbeknownst to him just barely avoided. The Moon Rising (4m5) (3:25) The music opens with dark slowly rising orchestral and synthesizer effects and a very low male choir expresses David's shock and amazement and the piece gradually builds into a booming choral, string and brass laden fulgurant crescendo that seems to express sheer horrific panic and violence when the lord Johnson Johnson's (Brendan Gleeson), a Mecha hating showman’s, Moonballoon rises over the edge of the hill at 1:50 and the hunt for the Mechas begins. Percussion, forceful brass and churning chaotic strings bark out rhythmic figures and roaring angry chords full of ruthless menace, followed by rambling low piano coda and a woodwind and brass finale accompanied by a steady metallic and threatening synthesizer staccato pulse before the score slows into... The Biker Hounds Extensions (Joseph Williams' source music) (4M6) (2:38) At 3:26 the Mechas escape through the woods, scored with whirling techno effects and driving beats, aggressive electric guitar and a lone male voice chanting in the distance. This section is the cue 4m6 and was co-written with the composer's son Joseph Williams who lent this project his expertise on a few modern touches and source pieces. In the following chase most of the Mechas are captured by the Wolfbikers (men with motorbikes and Mecha hunting weaponry) and while others try to hide in abandoned buildings amidst the trees they are soon captured. The piece as written is longer than this brief action scene and only a portion of the music is used, inserted editorially between John Williams' cues for the sequence. The Biker Hounds (4m7) (1:43) The orchestra returns with violent brass outcries, steely percussion and fervent strings playing rolling churning ostinati figures as bikers rip off the wall of the shack and net the helpless Mechas hiding inside, including David. The desperation and panic of the Mechas and the terrible efficiency of the hunters is depicted in the music that is full of sharp angles, growling percussion, churning string patterns and relentless angry brass sounds. At around 4:25 mark groaning double basses play repeatedly a 4-note motif which is then taken up by the lowest brass to create a threatening merciless drive as the Mechas are hauled into the Moonballoon of Lord Johnson Johnson. When it rises we spot Teddy hanging outside the net and when David can't hold on to him, his fall is underscored with swirling strings followed by a whimsical oboe melody which coincides with his safe landing and pursuit of the balloon on foot (or rather paw in his case). In the finished film Teddy's fall was left entirely unscored and the music dialed out. Soundtrack Album VS the Film Version The original 2001 soundtrack album version of Moon Rising switches the position of the three sections placing the furious music of the Mecha hunt at the beginning leaving a short portion of the Joseph Williams' techno beats and the solo voice in the middle and and ending with the original Moon Rising cue. It also omits the music for Teddy’s fall altogether. The LLL release combines Moon Rising (4m5) and The Biker Hounds (4m7) for listening purposes and provides Joseph Williams' composition for the Biker Hounds (4m6) on disc 3 as a separate bonus track that actually runs longer than the version heard in the film. *** Gigolo Joe, a lover Mecha and David among other robots are carried off to the Fleshfair where disgruntled people who hate all Mecha related artificiality execute them on an arena for entertainment in the style and tradition of Ancient gladiatorial games. The Fleshfair sequence plays without traditional underscore and all that is heard is source music, provided by a band called Ministry (Al Jourgensen, Paul Barker, Max Brody and Deborah Coon) who perform two songs, What About Us? and Dead Practice on-screen in the film. When the time of David’s execution comes and he is brought to the arena to be destroyed, the audience, who has not seen a Mecha child before and does not even know they exist, demands for David to be set free and under the pressure from an outraged angry mob Johnson-Johnson has no alternative but to let David and Gigolo Joe go free. *** 20. Remembering David Hobbie (5m3) (2:20) (LLL D 1 Track 18, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 15): Joyous warm string melody with horn lines underneath plays as David and Gigolo Joe are freed from the Fleshfair, the music celebrating their freedom and relief. As the film cuts to Professor Hobby's facilities, where he is watching some photos of David (as we later find out his own dead son), the A Child Lost Theme makes its final appearance in the score, luminous piano and harp dueting in a nostalgic fashion. When his team informs him they have located David, the music continues optimistic and warm, a variation of the theme's melody passing to flute and ghosted by clarinet as we cut back to the woods, where Gigolo Joe and David are trying to make their way to the Blue Fairy. Here can be heard a faint reference to the minimalistic figures of the Travelling Theme for the first time (1:28-1:39), presented on piano and glittering harp figures as David and Joe talk about the journey. A lyrical dreamily wandering oboe line scores a shot of the night sky and the moon but as David ponders if it is the real moon, remembering the Moonballoon, the music suddenly grows eerie with queasy strings and synthesizer tones darkening the mood. 21. The Journey to Rouge City (5m5) (3:51) (LLL D 1 Track 19, OST track 10 Rouge City 2:00-end (Album Edit), Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 5 2:00-end (Film Version)): The Mecha World/Travelling Theme prominent in this scene is very effective describing the robotic and highly Mechanized age of the film but importantly provides dramatic propulsion for the journey montage. It also conveys the thrill and excitement of this futuristic travel and David’s marvel at all the wonders he is now experiencing. A short lyrical oboe line backed by strings, solo horn and harp is heard when we see the moon far in the distance, the score conjuring a small but magical little moment of beauty before it flows into a rhythmic repeating motif that could be characterized as The Mecha World/Travelling Theme ticking away on marimba and other percussion and supported in its drive by the rest of the orchestra. A short optimistic interlude for woodwinds seems to remind us of the oboe ideas of the previous tracks before the travelling motif takes over. Most of the cue consists of the development of the travelling music that steadily and minimalistically in the mode of John Adams and Steve Reich grows and modulates in orchestrations when David and Joe are seen driving towards Rouge City, an exotic den of pleasures and vices, to find Dr. Know and around 2:33-2:58 as their vehicle dives into a tunnel shaped like a woman's mouth that leads to the city the piece bursts into a grand rolling string statement of Richard Strauss' Der Rosenkavalier waltz theme (taken from Der Rosenkavalier Suite Opus 59 and adapted for the scene by Williams). From here the cue winds slowly to a close, orchestration gradually becoming sparser until only marimba accompanied by synthesizers is left and fades into silence as the group arrives to their destination. The Rosenkavalier waltz was the one piece of music Kubrick wanted to include in the film and as an homage Williams incorporated it into his score though not knowing where exactly Kubrick himself had planned to place it he chose this particular sequence to use it. The Soundtrack Album VS the Film Version The soundtrack album track Rouge City contains as an intro a part of the film version of the Abandoned in the Woods (3m7) and the Travelling Theme is cut short just as it would go into the Rosenkavalier waltz section. Most probable is that Williams didn’t want to present other composer’s work on his album or the rights of the music were an issue though you can clearly hear the clumsy transition from one part of the cue to the next on the soundtrack album. The LLL set contains the full cue. This is a good example of how differently the composer can reimagine his music for a soundtrack album for listening experience purposes. 22. Immaculate Heart (0:46) (5m6A) (LLL D 1 Track 20, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 16) Gigolo Joe and David arrive to the Rouge City and head for the cyber parlour called Immaculate Heart where the mysterious and sage Dr. Know can be found. The composer introduces the Blue Fairy /Humanity Theme here as it rises from a fluttering bed of strings on solo flute with ghosting clarinet and slightly comedic rhythmic backing, an inkling of what is to come, a fragment that has yet to reveal its true significance in the story but at this moment it reinforces David's wish of finding the Blue Fairy with Dr. Know's advice. 23. Rouge City source music (1:45) (Unreleased. Source music composed by Joseph Williams): Techno flavoured and beat heavy source cue plays as David and Gigolo Joe are walking through the neon sign illuminated streets of Rouge City. 24. Inside Dr. Know's (4:32) (LLL D 3 Track 7) Williams provides ambient and mickey-mousy quirky entirely electronic underscore for this scene where the animated Dr. Know, voiced by Robin Williams, is seen consulting David and Joe. This diegetic piece of music emanating from the Dr. Know interface (he is a database programme) with its different question categories, that launch various musical effects takes on a deliberately cartoony character that doesn't seem to stay in the same mood or style for long. There is also a repeating motif for the main menu of the programme David is using which bridges the gap between pure sound effects and underscore and Williams even finds a way to inject a little fragments of David's Theme into this colourful and playful musical collage. 25. To Manhattan (5m8) (1:27) (Unused in the film. LLL D 1 Track 21, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 17): As the curious exchange between Dr. Know and David comes to close the Mecha boy sees a puzzling message appearing on the screen that initially quotes Williams Butler Yeats' poem The Stolen Child: Come away,O human child! To the waters and the wild With a fairy, hand in hand, For the world's more full of weeping than you can understand. Your quest will be perilous Yet the reward is beyond price. In his book 'How Can A Robot Become Human', Professor Allen Hobby writes of the power which will transform Mecha into Orga. DAVID Will you tell me how to find her? DR.KNOW Discovery is quite possible. Our blue fairy does exist in one place, and one place only, At the end of the world Where the lions weep. Here is the place dreams are born. The music would probably start just as the message appears, but since the cue went unused in the film, it is difficult to tell its exact placement in this sequence. It begins with swaying figure on the strings but turns into a lovely longing piano version of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme that suddenly ends unresolved as David’s hope of becoming a real boy is rekindled but the end of his journey still remains a mystery. Incidentally Williams named two consecutive cues, 5m8 and 6m3, To Manhattan on his original manuscript. 26. Amphibicopter Escape (source) (0:31) (Source music composed by Joseph Williams): As soon as the pair exits the Dr. Know parlour the police are waiting outside as the law has finally caught up with Joe. Here a piece of threatening tracked material from Moon Rising is used. Another source cue begins here as tense synthesized drum beats go to a techno drumming and effects that underscore the hijack and escape in the police amphibicopter. This is another piece probably composed by Joseph Williams and resembles quite a bit his music for the Biker Hounds sequence. This energetic passage is immediately followed by... 27. To Manhattan (6m3) (5:28) (LLL D 2 Track 1 (0:00-5:28), OST track 1 Mecha World 0:00-4:42, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 1 0:00-5:14): David, Joe and Teddy are seen flying towards Manhattan in the amphibicopter and Williams delivers a forceful variation of the minimalistically inspired constantly building repeating Mecha World/Travelling Theme, that seems like an extension and elaboration on the music of the previous travelling scene to Rouge City. With rhythmic tug of the strings and burnished steely fanfares from the trumpets and horns the ship is on its way. Long clear string and brass lines supported by the mechanical beat of marimbas and glittering harp underscore the ride of the protagonists through the skies. It feels like the whole orchestra becomes a giant clockwork machine repeating and modulating the constant ostinato motif of the theme as it keeps building and building with propulsive brass, steady marimba pattern over continuous rhythmic string figures until it reaches a climax at the 3 minute mark with the combined forces of the orchestra, percussion and the electronics when the flying machine plunges into the full view of a skyscraper in the sunken Manhattan that indeed has gigantic lion statues on top of outlying buttresses “weeping” through their metallic jaws and eyes like enormous fountains. From here the music continues subdued as David and Joe land in the Cybertronics main building, the tone of the music turnining gentle with probing high strings, luminous sparkling harp and a dreamy solo horn line as the score voice the robot boy's excitement. David seems so close to his goal (or so he thinks) and the cue ends with clear tones of bell tree and celesta but the musical sequence continues on without pause to an interconnected cue... 28. The Reading Room (6m4) (3:13) (LLL D 2 Track 1 (5:59-end), OST track 1 Mecha World 4:42-end, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 1 5:14-end): After a probing light figure in string the music grows eerie with a cold electronic pulse, yawning ominous string figure and scraped gong as David steps into a room that is revealed to be a library. Just then one of the chairs turns and both audience and the robot boys see a David replica reading there calmly. Subtle yet hard edged cold string sustain and hollow synthesizer sounds underscore this revelation. Baffled David is feeling confused and angry since he realizes that he is not unique and thus special any more, the ghostly synthesized voices and subtle icy twinkle of piano depicting his psychological state. Rubbed tam tam groans, strings and synthesizers rise and as David flies into a fit of uncontrollable manic rage as he thinks this clone is after his mother’s love as well, he in a moment of fury decapitates the robot with a table lamp. Here the score turns from fear and confusion to rage and the woodwinds and strings swirl furiously, chirping and screeching, creating the confusion and horror while underneath the percussion hits imitate the blows of the lamp although they do not catch the on-screen action blow-by-blow. In this moment of madness proferssor Hobby appears out of the blue and stops David and calms him explaining the purpose of the Mecha child. He is the test version of imprinted robot capable of love and affection and that there will be many more of his kind for those who are unable to have a child of their own or have lost their own children. When Hobby mentions that David, his real son, was one of a kind, unique, in anguished tones, we hear David’s Theme sing out on compassionate oboe which ends the cue on a warm note which makes the next cue a sudden but narratively effective shift in tone. Album Versions VS the Film Version The music underscoring David's rage is included in the album version of The Mecha World but it is missing the atmospheric middle portion of David meeting his robotic clone. The Oscar Promo is missing the same section as the OST. The LLL release features the entire sequence as written, joining the cues 6m3 and 6m4. 29. The Replicas (6m5) & Floating Downwards (6m6) (5:58) (LLL D 2, Track 2, OST track 3 Replicas, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 9): This sequence is also composed of two continuous cues. Professor Hobby leaves David alone in the offices as he goes to fetch his team of scientists so they can start to analyze David, his data and his experiences to learn more from them in order to perfect their imprinting protocols. The robot boy wanders off into a workshop nearby and makes a startling find that brings home professor Hobby's words: A room full of Mechas, replicas of David, have already been manufactured and packaged for sale with female versions lined next to them. He is not unique, not like human children are. The music starts very sparse and haunting as chilling treble voices of the women's chorus seem almost to moan as they murmur in high register, piano, sinister percussion, distant muted brass and high strings underscore the scene where David discovers the replicas. As he notices the packaged robots his horror and dismay increase and finally as the boy finally seems to lose all heart and his hopeless horror is revealed, the camera zooms to his eyes and the choir and orchestra build to a literal screaming halt around 3 minute mark. Subsequent scene finds David sitting on a ledge high up in the Cybertronics building at the heart of sunken Manhattan completely heartbroken and forlorn, oboe and the choir now expressing his heartache in mournful and sympathetic tones. Finally in his despair the robot boy plunges down into the ocean that now covers all of New York (witnessed by Joe from the copter) and with this the music takes a sudden turn to ethereal and reflective with twinkling piano and luminous strings as David is seen sinking to the bottom through water pierced by clear shafts of sunlight from the surface. Luminous high register orchestrations follow when a school of fish swim around him and he is carried on by them, the sunlight dazzling in the clear blue water, Williams capturing the lyrical atmosphere in his music. Subtle fragments of Monica's Theme can be heard amidst the music along with something that sounds like a slight nod to Albinoni’s Adagio for Strings (beginning at around 4:20), creating a spiritual almost religious musical tableaux. Just as David hits the ocean floor, Joe comes to his rescue and at that very moment David sees a glimpse of something that catches his eye in the water which animates the score on hopeful singing strings. He has seen the Blue Fairy! In the Making The LaLa -Land set (Disc 3 Track 8 includes an alternate take on the Replicas section of this sequence with notably enhanced brass starting at 2:20 mark with a disconsolate horn passage and a pinched trumpet cry during the choral crescendo. Alas Gigolo Joe has been tracked by the police because he is wanted for a murder of a client and at this precise moment they descend on him in the Manhattan ruins and capture him. Saying quick goodbye to David, he in his last selfless act of kindness to his diminutive saviour activates the amphibicopter which plunges under the waves towards the place where the Blue Fairy lies! 30. Finding the Blue Fairy (7m1/2) (5:59) (LLL D 2 Track 3. OST track 11 Search for the Blue Fairy (Edit), Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 7 (Edit)) Music takes a murky, meandering underwater quality as David is seen slowly propelling past the old Coney Island amusement park buildings. Slow, deep orchestral sonorities, rumbling piano, tuba, double basses, lower woodwinds and deep horn lines all create the sense of antiquity and the ocean depths, the higher strings counterpointing the atmosphere with their colours. Williams even adds a carnival organ into the orchestral palette as a nod to the atmosphere of the amusement park, a ghostly musical reminder of the bygone eras, harp glittering like light through shadowy waters above the orchestral textures. At 1:58 the music becomes more agitated and anticipatory. Barbara Bonney’s voice is heard humming softly under the coalescing orchestral forces as David closes on his goal with strings and bubbling woodwinds and a wash of sound from the bell tree heralding his arrival to the statue of Blue Fairy with their swirling excited textures. Here the orchestra gives a way to a humming human voice, soprano Barbara Bonney, who performs the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme. The soprano voice complements the orchestra with beautiful subtle wordless solos as Ben Kingsley's narrator voice continues David’s story. The whole scene is musically based on one long development of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme as David has reached the fulfillment of his dream. But since he cannot achieve his hopes, the theme is full of both hope and profound spiritual beauty but also quiet sorrow of unimaginable depth. There in the deeps of the sea the amphibicopter is stuck under the crumbling metal of a falling ferris wheel, trapping the robot boy and his teddy bear in their craft. And as the screen grows dark while the narrator tells us how David still continued to make his innocent plea to the statue that was standing right before him but beyond his reach, again and again praying to become a real child, the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme fades softly away in tones of hushed sadness. This cue along with the lengthy finale is one of the emotional centerpieces of the score. Williams has here captured all the spiritual depth of David's hope and faith and also the deep sadness of this search for something he cannot ultimately achieve and thus has created a moment that both rejoices and laments for David with profound sympathy. It is one of those unique opportunities where music can speak deeper than words and the composer captures the deeper subtext of the scene with poignant lyricism that reaches for the human soul. He gives David’s most fervent dream, his belief, and the character of the Blue Fairy a voice of her own. In the Making Although the music of this scene always used the broad cantilena melody of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme, the music itself went through several different versions before an edit of several takes and elements was used to compile the final cue heard in the film. Williams created at least a purely orchestral version (LLL D 3 Track 10 (Orchestral Excerpt)), an orchestral version with shimmering bell-like synthesizer accompaniment without vocals (LLL D 3 Track 9) where oboe takes the solo part and a combination of soprano soloist and orchestra (D 2 Track 3) before the film makers opted for an orchestra and subtle vocal accompaniment heard in the film. There is yet another alternate version of this piece with the major difference being that the solo soprano is in the forefront of the composition. This is the concertized version of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme Williams reworked for the soundtrack album and there exist two different arrangements of it, one with and another without the soprano vocals (titled A.I. Theme (Instrumental Version) LLL set D 1 Track 22 (4:08) and A.I. Theme (Vocal Version) D 2 Track 11 (4:01)). In the end Williams chose to use the vocal version edited together with the film opening of Finding the Blue Fairy on the soundtrack CD. Bonney's voice conveys perfectly the feel and emotion of the scene and gives the piece a fairy tale-like quality but it also enhances the feelings of sorrow and loss in the scene, Bonney's voice echoing powerfully and operatically as if from the depths of the sea itself. 31. Journey Through the Ice (7m3)/Stored Images (7m4)(Film Edit)(~5:14): Stored Memories forms one long 5 minutes track but was created editorially from two different versions Williams wrote of this cue. The film version opens with the original version Williams wrote but at around 2:25 mark it is edited into the ending half of the revised version 2 of the cue. Both versions are analyzed separately below: Journey Through the Ice (7m3) (Version 1) (4:43) (LLL D 2 Track 4, OST track 8 Stored Memories and Monica’s Theme 0:00-4:43, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 4 0:00-4:43) The piece starts directly after Barbara Bonney's and orchestra's last notes have faded as we now are introduced to the world of the far future and Manhattan all covered in ice 2000 years after David was trapped in the sea in front of the Blue Fairy. A solemn religioso piece for a mixed choir singing a long lined wordless melody underscores the flight of the futuristic Super Mechas over the glacier city. As they land to the site where David has been found in the ice, the music remains mournful, almost like a funeral hymn and when the Mechas approach the amphibicopter and brush off a layer of snow to reveal David inside, frozen, still staring at the unattainable Blue Fairy standing before him, the statue by some miracle yet intact after two millennia. One of the Mechas reaches out and accesses David’s memories and reads them and twinkling piano and bell tree underscore his sudden awakening at 2:17-2:25. Glittering celesta and other chimes play with the rising choral forces and strings spin luminous busy figures underneath as amphibicopter and David are melted from the ice, the musical atmosphere itself warming and lighting up. Clear flute and clarinet bubble to life as the ice melts and David with seeing eyes looks in astonishment at the Blue Fairy standing even after all this time before him. He steps slowly out of the amphibicopter and the music retains the sense of awe as the little boy approaches and touches the statue, an oboe’s warm voice greeting him over a bed of strings, pensive and lyrical. But the statue falls apart under David’s touch and his horror but most of all his grief is announced when the choir repeats the mournful theme from the beginning of the piece almost as a quiet thredony, double basses ending the piece almost in mid-phrase as David notices the Super Mechas for the first time. This original take on the material is much more sentimental than the revised version which explores the alienness of the scene. Williams scored David’s reawakening with empathy and pathos that was in the end perhaps considered a bit too emotional by Spielberg. The final version underscores David’s horror and discomfort and the ambience of the icy world is emphasized in the orchestrations and nearly themeless approach. Journey Through the Ice Version II (7m3) (Version 2) (5:04) (LLL D 2 Track 5, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 6): This version of the piece opens with a high female chorus, shimmering bell tree, harp and celesta, the music very dispassionate and emotionally detached, depicting the icy world where the futuristic Mechas approach the excavation in the ice. The chorus becomes almost a drone and bell tree offers glinting icy accents with harp as the robots approach David, celesta presenting few scattered notes here and there and piano rumbling in the cold space. The opening 2:17 of the music was not used in the film. At 2:18 icy strings, harp, orchestral chimes, bell tree and high female choir continue to enhance the alien and cold atmosphere as David stares out with seeing eyes first time in 2000 years. The Mecha child espies the statue of the Blue Fairy still intact and gets out vehicle and slowly approaches his goal just few feet away. As David feels the the frozen statue with his hand the hoarfrost covered edifice crumbles to pieces under his touch which is scored with subtle intensified orchestral rumble (3:20) but in the film sound effects take precedence over music, which is dialled out at this moment. David is confused and horrified and icy piano plays fragmented pieces of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme as he suddenly becomes aware of the the Super Mechas around him and indeed the huge icy cavern they are in. The remainder of the cue continues eerie but now more luminous with women's choir singing in the background and Williams offers further fragmented readings of what sounds like both The Blue Fairy/Humanity and Monica's Theme on piano while the Mechas keep studying David's memories. This latter portion (from 2:18 onwards) was used in the film, where the cold and slightly alien atmosphere was favoured over direct emotionalism. 32. Stored Memories (7m4) (3:07) (LLL D 2 Track 6) With clear peal of triangle and harp the Mechas start to read David’s memories and a lovely lilting duet for cello and piano performing full version of Monica’s Theme appears as images of her from David’s memory are projected through the glassy bodies of the super Mechas as they share the information among themselves. Then in a flash accompanied by subtle sizzling high strings and icily coruscating synthesizer effects David appears to be at home again. In this familiar environment Williams again reiterates Monica's Theme on piano as David's hope of returning home to his mother seems to have come true and the piano enhances the simple direct emotion of the calming song-like theme. But soon the robot boy encounters someone unexpected. 33.What Is Your Wish (7m5) (4:12) (LLL D 2 Track 7, OST track 8 Stored Memories and Monica’s Theme 5:40-end, Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 4 5:40-end) Then and there the David hears the unlikeliest voice in their house, the Blue Fairy (voiced by Meryl Streep), calling out to him as she has appeared as if by magic in the next room. As he goes to her, the source of his greatest desire and dream, a subtle soothing wordlessly sung melody of the gentle female chorus over a bed of warm string harmonies represents the Blue Fairy instead of her actual theme. Perhaps Williams is suggesting subliminally here that David's wish to become a real boy is not in the power of this enchanting figure as she is not real after all, only a figment of Super Mechas' doing, and can't grant him his wish in the way he desires. The fairy then proceeds to explain the situation to David, about his mother and how he is the only living memory of human race left in the world while the music retains a sympathetic tone with the chorus intoning their warmly serene melody. She informs Monica cannot be brought back after such a long time, not without some trace of her physical being, a finger nail or hair, but Teddy, who has also been revived after his long journey with David, has saved the lock of hair the boy cut from Monica's head all those years ago. This means that she can be created anew from its DNA and so solo harp presents a meaningful and poignant melodic phrase (2:59) as we see David handing this precious memento to the Blue Fairy and Monica's Theme calls delicate out on celesta, softly played shimmering glockenspiel notes and glimmering bell tree. It is a moment of innocent hope and determination and the expectant rhythmic string chords that close the cue illustrate the boy's renewed faith. In the Making The version of this music found on the soundtrack album is slightly truncated. An alternate version of this piece can be found on the OST album and the Oscar promo that features Barbara Bonney's solo voice humming gently in the place of the chorus. This alternate is also presented on the LaLa- Land set (D 3 Track 11). 34. The Specialist Visits (8m1) (3:59) (LLL D 2 Track 8, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 18) We see David next in his old room and the harp plays a solo over a wash of gently dancing luminous strings and glinting chimes and for the first minute or so the music is ethereal, magical and calm as we are shown David calmly playing with his old toys again. Then crystalline musical tones usher in a Super Mecha, the Specialist (voice by Ben Kingsley), who we now find out has been the narrator of the story all along. And when he explains to David that they can bring his mother back for just one day and how it can be done only once (wish fulfilment in the best Spielberg fashion) Williams spins a beautifully heartfelt and delicate chamber-like variation of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme on strings, celesta, flutes and two harps that expresses sadness and tenderness in equal measure, the score capturing the sorrow and comforting wisdom of this futuristic being. It is almost as if the score is preparing the listener for what is to come, singing a quiet lullaby to David but also in its poetic way extolling the human spirit, the Specialist viewing human fragility with sadness but also with wonder, their soul something he cannot fathom, nor their concept of love and what it can help them to achieve. Around the 3 minute mark a haunting sonorous voice of solo cello intones the theme for one final time with delicate lyricism signifying that David stands behind his decision to meet his mother for one last time even if it will be for only a single day. Here the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme has fully changed from a theme for a character to a musical identification of David’s dream of reuniting with his mother, of achieving humanity, which his wish to become a real boy has actually been all along. 35. The Reunion (8m2) (7:29) (LLL D 2 Track 9, D3 Track 12 (Alternate), OST track 12 Reunion (7:45), Oscar Promo Disc 1 track 11(7:00) (Alternate)) After David has restated his wish to see Monica for one last time, the morning miraculously comes and as the sun rises Specialist urges David to go to his mother and spend a day with her. Williams uses a fleeting variation of the Blue Fairy/Humanity Theme here to signify that David's impossible dream has after all come true and from this point on piano takes the centre stage. Accompanied by oboe, cello and strings a beautiful long development of Monica's Theme is first heard on the piano as David wakes Monica up and they sit together for a breakfast. The theme continues with oboe peacefully accompanying, cello ghosting the piano melody, adding a warm texture underneath as the two spend the day together, the music playing lullaby-like, lilting warmly and reassuringly in the background. When David tells of his incredible journey to his mother (close to the 4 minute mark), with a shimmer of violins Williams weaves David's Theme together with Monica's and so these two musical ideas are finally united. David's melody continues on solo oboe in a bed of soothing string textures, harp effects and etheral celesta interjections as they celebrate the boy's first birthday as he has never had one before. But eventually the night falls and the moment of their parting is drawing nigh. David tucks his mother to bed and as she finally says that she loves him, the everlasting moment that David has waited for so long comes. The composer presents a small anticipatory harp and string cascade when she finishes her sentence and the camera closes on them as they hug, the soloist beginning a rendition of Monica's Theme full of serene finality and acceptance, the hopes and dreams of David at last fulfilled. Monica falls asleep, never to wake again and David goes to sleep beside her, closing his eyes for the last time and Monica's Theme on the piano, harp and graceful warm strings brings the cue to a peaceful close, like a lullaby sending our small protagonist to where dreams are born. In the Making The film version of this piece is likely a hybrid edit of different takes of the piece. Neither the LLL set, OST version nor the Oscar Promo version fits the film’s running time or performance of the music completely. The OST performance is close to the film version in some portions while the Oscar Promo in others. The LLL set (and the Oscar promo) contains an alternate slightly faster version of the piece but Williams chose the slower lengthier performance as the one presented on the original soundtrack album and in the complete score programme on disc 2 of the LaLa-Land Record's release. 36. End Credits (Where Dreams Are Born) (8m3) - Opening End Credits/Vocal and Credits (4:24) (LLL D 2 Track 10, OST track 9 Where Dreams Are Born, Oscar Promo Disc 2 track 2): For the film's end credits John Williams created this hauntingly beautiful and lyrical concert version on Monica’s Theme that features soprano Barbara Bonney singing the wordless cantilena version of the theme accompanied by piano, cello, oboe and strings. It is a fitting and poignant farewell to David, the score gently addressing his achievement of some measure of humanity at the end, Bonney's voice lending a spiritual depth to his character and the end of his quest with this gorgeous vocalize. 37. End Credits part II (2:21) (Film Edit) To accommodate the end credits' length music was tracked from the cue Journey Through the Ice (Version 1). It is the segment from the beginning of the cue until 2:20 where the choral section of the piece ends. Abandoned in the Woods (Album Version) (LLL D 3 Track 13) Originally John Williams recorded another version of the Abandoned in the Woods (LLL D 3 Track 13, OST track 2, Oscar Promo D 2 Track 1) to function as the second part of the end credits. He wrote essentially a concert version of this particular theme, which features more powerful full ensemble orchestrations for the material and the accompanying minimalistic arpeggio-figures than the film counterpart but it also adds a completely new coda after the crescendo after the 2 minute mark, which restates the Abandonment Theme on woodwinds and tense brass with the minimalistic string motif slowly winding down to silence. While it was ultimately unused in the film's credits, this version made it to the soundtrack album and the Oscar promo, while the film version of the film cue of the same name was finally released on the LLL set in 2015. The Song For Always (LLL D 3 Track 1 & 14 (Duet) (4:40) Poet Cynthia Weil wrote lyrics to John Williams’ Monica's Theme and two different versions of the song were recorded, one with Lara Fabian and the other with Josh Groban and Lara Fabian singing a duet. Neither version of the song appears in the film and was created just for the soundtrack album. Here follow the lyrics of the piece: I close my eyes And there in the shadows I see your light You come to me out of my dreams across The night You take my hand Though you may be so many stars away I know that our spirits and souls are one We've circled the moon and we've touched the sun So here we'll stay For Always Forever Beyond here and unto eternity For Always Forever For us there's no time and no space No barrier love won't erase Wherever you will go I will know in my heart you will be With me From this day on I'm certain that we'll never be alone I know what my heart must have always known That love has a power that's all it's own And for always Forever Now we can fly And for always and always We will go on beyond goodbye For Always Forever Beyond here and on to eternity For Always And ever You'll be a part of me And For Always Forever One thousand tomorrows may cross the sky And for always And always We will go on beyond goodbye © Mikko Ojala
  11. I post this analysis, earlier featured in the JFK appreciation thread in General Discussion which I wrote ages ago but have recently dusted and polished to its current form. It is also a bit less ambitious and not to mention shorter than previous ones mostly because of the nature of the score. The Sounds of Intrigue and Innocence Lost – The Music of JFK - An Analysis of John Williams' score by Mikko Ojala Oliver Stone’s both controversial and acclaimed movie about the tragic events that took place on November 22nd 1963 in Dallas, Texas was a moderate box office success, blending both factual evidence and speculation into a potent mix to create a one of the most memorable and controversial movies of the 1990’s, dividing critics and movie buffs alike. The movie's script was penned by Stone himself with the help of Zachary Sklar and was based heavily on Jim Garrison's own autobiographical account of the JFK trial, in which he was the prosecuting counselor, called On the Trail of the Assassins. Sklar had been instrumental in releasing Garrison's work in 1988 and had worked as an editor on it and helped the author to shape and finish his manuscript, turning it from 3rd person scholarly work into obviously more marketable 1st person whodunit styled mystery. Another influential work was Jim Marrs' look at the alledged JFK conspiracy Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy and the author himself worked as a consultant on the movie project and the script. Stone's attempt with this film was not to try to solve the JFK murder or lay the issue at rest once and for all but to create a counter-myth to the Warren Commission Report, which he criticized as presenting a false and clouded picture of the events of the assassination. In the film as the plot to assassinate the president of the United States slowly unfolds with it’s myriad subplots and as the protagonist Jim Garrison starts to investigate it ever further the viewer is captivated and held in thrall for the whole three hours running time of the film. And even after that the film requires multiple viewings to be fully understood with all of its nuances and cross references. The fast and collage utilizing editing style of the film was to become Stone’s trade mark as he used flashbacks and forwards and fast glimpses of things happening elsewhere to create a feeling of unending intrigue and many layered meaning of the film’s events. To complement a very convoluted (some would say too convoluted) plot Stone hired a star studded cast with Kevin Costner as the sympathetic everyman prosecutor Jim Garrison, Sissy Spacek as his wife, Gary Oldman as Lee Harvey Oswald and Tommy Lee Jones as the main antagonist Clay Shaw, only to name a few of the prestigious group. Numerous smaller roles were filled with screen legends like Walter Mathau, Ed Asner and Jack Lemmon who lent the film credence, prestige and excellent performances. These fine actors bring enormous amount of talent but also believability and sympathy to these characters, helping the audience to relate to them in this plot heavy film. For this tragic piece of American history Oliver Stone chose perhaps the best possible composer, John Williams, whose music has in part come to stand for the American culture and national pride, capturing both Olympic Games and their spirit and historical jubilees of USA’s national celebrations and his scores have worked their way into the consciousness of the American public to an unprecedented extent. Stone had previously worked with the composer on Born of the Fourth of July in which Williams had used his lyrical and dramatic talent to portray the hardships and experiences of the Vietnam veteran Ron Kovic to beautiful and powerful results, capturing both the anguish and the idealism with his memorable themes and underscore for that film. After JFK the collaboration would continue with another political and historical drama, Nixon, in 1995 and add another impressive score in the composer's discography. But this assignment was quite different compared to the 1989 movie. Williams’ task was two fold. His music would have to convey all the mystery and intrigue of the assassination plot but also illustrate a more human side of the tragedy and capture the spirit of the Kennedy era of 1960’s along with its feelings of hope and promising future. His music would also have to create a bond between the family of Garrison and the audience, making the main protagonist relatable and human, an everyman caught in the midst of a whirwind of facts and falsehoods. The major challenge was also the fact that he had to write the music even before he had seen a frame of the film. According to both Richard Dyer’s 1992 Boston Globe interview with Williams and Oliver’s Stone’s DVD commentary, Williams visited the site of Dealey Plaza and the sets and the New Orleans shoot and discussed the subject thoroughly with Stone to get the feeling of the movie and then began his compositional challenge. The end result was 6 musical sequences reflecting different aspects of the film and were to be used in the movies in various ways. In the Boston Globe interview from 1992 Dyer mentions that these 6 pieces pre-recorded for the film were "Kennedy Theme" (aka Prologue), "The Motorcade", "The Conspirators", "Garrison's Obsession", "Garrison Family Theme", and "Arlington". Additional musical material followed during the filming and post production and some of it found its way on the soundtrack album as well. The effect and the fit of the music in the final film is amazing when we regard how early it was written and how effortlessly it permeates the film and the viewing experience. Though the music was in quite large part written in advance, it seems likely that many scenes were still spotted by Williams and Stone since it is hard to believe the match of the image and music in the film is just sheer good luck and editing. Williams himself says this in a 2000 interview with reporter Ray Bennett: And so much of that score, I’d say a third of it, was written and recorded before he [Oliver Stone] photographed the film. I loved working that way and I think Oliver did also. Alas, we do it all too infrequently. It can be very rich in terms of the closeness of the wedding of the music and the editorial life of the film. There’s an incestuous bond that happens that way that’s tighter than even the most expert fitter of post-synch music can get. The fact that the music was composed so early poses a problem when you begin to analyse the music from structural or architectural point of view. The use of themes and their approximate function or leitmotific meaning can be accertained only from the interviews and DVD commentary or the track titles of the soundtrack album and you can never be entirely sure if the reoccurring phrases are not just there because they fit the scene or as actual thematic links, but I have tried to separate reoccurring musical signatures from repeated underscore. Oliver Stone’s style of editing in this film requires quick changes in the music as well, but there are luckily many sequences where the score gets to shine, providing defining mood, rhythm and subtext to the scenes. But in many instances only small snippets of Williams’ musical suites were used and there is even additional music credited to a Canadian duo of composers called Tomandandy (information from film's credits and IMBD) and even Williams’ older music from Born on the Fourth of July ended up being used in the film. This renders the track-by-track analysis of the score in the movie difficult if not almost entirely unfruitful since the musical architecture is that of a music editor and not the composer himself. I try to discern here the main thematic material used in the score from Williams’ soundtrack album and based on how these themes correlate with the use of the music in the film itself. Themes of JFK: The Prologue Theme (Theme from JFK): John Williams had strong notions about John F. Kennedy and the era of his administration and he apparently poured it all into the main theme, which stands as the focal point of the score stylistically and emotionally. The theme contains a long singing melodic line, which is optimistically noble and bright, signifying the mindset and hopeful era of Kennedy’s and 1960’s. This is the main reoccurring idea throughout the movie and is varied from full orchestra of the Prologue to a soft piano renditions for Garrison family, the melody of the theme lending itself to countless variations. JFK Snare Drum Motif: Actually a part of the JFK main theme this brisk tattoo-like motif on the snare drums often appears to symbolize the military aspect of the whole affair as well as the Kennedy family. It is used many times instead of the main theme to signify the Kennedys but also the underlying threat from the often unseen cabinet and members of the military, who do not approve of the president or his policies. Interestingly enough this musical idea also returns in the next Oliver Stone/Williams collaboration, when Williams uses this same motif in Nixon when we see Kennedy landing in the Love Field airport in Dallas on the 22 of November. It gives a hint of things to come and is a clever reminder of the earlier film creating continuity beyond the limits of one movie. The Conspirators Theme: Rhythmic piece with staccato percussion, synthesizer and piano that relentlessly repeats the same rhythmic patterns in the background as the strings and brass create a brilliantly simple but undeniably one of the most memorable intrigue and suspense themes of the 90’s, heavily influential to both Williams’ later similar material in scores like Jurassic Park and Nixon but also popping up in the works of other film composers ever since. Steady rhythm and the ticking metronome percussion create a feeling of continual scheming and intrigue. This theme is used in many scenes but most of all the ones involving Clay Shaw, David Ferrie, the Cubans and Lee Harvey Oswald speaking about or planning the assassination. The rhythm draws also a connection to the often breathlessly nervous character of David Ferrie as well, who also has a small percussive idea of his own in the film. The Garrison Family Theme: A warm but ultimately sad and yearning melody for the family life disrupted when Garrison starts to immerse obsessively to the murder investigation, but also conveys the love and warmth Jim feels for his family. It starts with solo played by cor anglais that has become along with oboe Williams’ chosen instrument to portray family and the nostalgia and safety of home in his scores. Interestingly this musical idea is heard most often in the scenes where the rift in the family is emphasized, the music depicting more the fragility of Garrison’s family than the familial support or homeliness, almost an elegy for a family lost, caught helplessly up in a web of much larger intrigues raging around them. The concert version on the soundtrack album ends to an abrupt dissonant chords as if to show the danger that the investigation poses to the whole family as it in fact did. The Assassination Motif: A short repeating, in Williams’ own words almost minimalistic, threatening 11-note motif for the assassination. It consists of two repeated 4-note phrases and a 3-note ending. The small idea is highly cyclical but Williams cuts it by one note in the last phrase, thus creating a suitable halt to its motoric progression. Used many times through the movie in the scenes involving the approaching and imminent assassination or conspirators talking about it. A full presentation of this idea can be heard on the soundtrack album on the track called The Motorcade, which is Williams’ reflection of the moment of assassination itself and used to a great effect in the film during several sequences depicting the events of the Dealey Plaza. David Ferrie Motif: It is a bit unclear if this really is a motif or composed by Williams but Ferrie receives his own short percussive musical idea that is featured in a couple of scenes. It is basically a slowly quickening rhythm on percussion and sounds very Latin American, again drawing further subtextual connections to the Cubans. This motif is used to a great effect in the captivating scene where Garrison interviews Ferrie in a room in the Fountainbleu hotel as he gets more and more agitated as he rants about the assassination and the US intelligence community and his involvement in the plots, the pace of the music quickening with his breathless tirade. Arlington: The name of the piece refers to the military graveyard in Washington, where John F. Kennedy is buried. In this piece Williams has created a self contained string elegy in the memory of the dead president and also to mourn the disaster of the assassination of JFK and the many victims of the following events, the piece having a tragic feel of lost innocence. The theme starts with a elegiac French horn solo that suddenly takes a dark turn from which the whole string section flows into a mournful and solemn meditation on a new melody. This piece is used in the film as Garrison finds out the full implications of the assassination and all the events that afterwards are linked to it (indirectly the Vietnam War, Lee Harvey Oswald’s fate and the cover-up of evidence and facts by the intelligence community) and also as part of the pre-trial montage. It is a presentation of sorrow and lament for the whole tragedy, an elegy for the nation. This is also the piece that is featured in its entirety in the end credits, a somber musical message for the departing viewers. Track-by-track analysis of the score on the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack: Most of the cues found on the album are concert versions of the main musical ideas, thematic suites Williams composed for the film for Oliver Stone to use editorially as he saw fit and thus they reflect the themes in their original form so I won’t describe them in detail a second time. In the analysis I will focus on the score tracks only and do not concern myself with the source music featured heavily in the film and also on the OST album. The track numbers correspond to the soundtrack album sans the source music. 1. Prologue: The movie opens with a montage of Eisenhower’s farewell adress to the nation and Martin Sheen narrating the events of the Kennedy era and so Williams has a chance to start off with a formal and heraldic musical introduction. The piece begins with a short, precise and repeated snare drum line, a motif for the Kennedys, and then the main theme emerges on a solo trumpet, played here with grace and lyricism by Tim Morrison, a member of the Boston Symphony orchesta and the principal trumpetist of Boston Pops, who already lent his talent to the first Williams/Stone collaboration Born on the Fourth of July. The theme sings of a better future full of nobility, pride and glory, the tone of the lead instrument bright and warm. The lone trumpet is joined gradually by whole orchestra, brass playing heraldic and glowing under the soaring strings. At 2:03 a new thematic element is introduced, a light, lilting, innocent motif on the flutes backed by other woodwinds which again melts into the main theme around 2:32 as it finally comes to a serene close with solo trumpet, harp, assorted chimes and flutes. In the movie version of this cue the Conspirators Theme edited into it as the prologue montage refers to Castro and Cuban situation of the 1960’s. 2. The Motorcade: A musical counterpart for the assassination scene, this cue is tense, menacing and not to mention a brilliant piece of orchestral writing. Here Williams uses the 11-note assassination motif as the building block for the whole orchestral tour-de-force, kinetic and ominous. It begins with clarinets playing the assassination motif which is carried shortly to the rest of the woodwinds over tense strings and rumbling grand piano until suddenly the brass make a statement of the motif, the music growing ever stronger as it progresses around the orchestra as the president’s motorcade closes on the Dealey Plaza. Fast paced piano solo punctuates the brief respite from the growing orchestral forces but again restating the assassination motif in fragments just before the cue builds into a furious, almost cacophonous climax with snare playing the JFK motif, brass playing the main theme, strings sawing away dissonant chords, woodwinds again taking up the assassination motif and Williams even adding a bagpipe into the musical confusion, perhaps as a subtle homage to JFK’s Irish heritage. As the car brakes the assassination motif swirls maniacally out of control and suddenly the killing shots ring out punctuated by brass and percussive orchestral hits as Garrison shows the last shot on the Zapruder film, Kennedy getting shot in the head, over and over again: Back and to the left, back and to the left. From here on the music rumbles and churns on menacingly before fading into uncomfortable silence on the last notes of the still repeated assassination motif. 3.The Drummer’s Salute: A traditional military snare drum tattoo performed by the Royal Scots Dragoon Guard but Williams cleverly introduces the Main theme on deep brass underneath percussion’s rapt stance. This piece is used as part of the opening montage showing the streets of Dallas just before the assassination, a subtle yet somehow unsettling harbinger of things to come, the tone and mood of the main theme subdued and gloomy. 4.Theme from JFK: A piano arrangement of the piece shows also the more delicate side of the theme compared to the idealistically orchestral, stately and brassy Americana of the Prologue. In the film this version represents most often the love of Garrison towards his family and the more personal sadness over Kennedy's fate. The concert version ends with mounting crashing dissonance as if to imply the horrific end of JFK. 6. Garrison’s Obsession: driving, fast and cyclical 10- note piano figure imparts a powerful sense of pursuit, danger and confusion. Brass section and strings join the fray and the piece grows progressive louder and full of sense of mounting menace, augmented by tubular bells and exclamatory brass. This piece is used many times in the movie though the most memorable occasions are when Oswald is arrested in the movie theatre and when Garrison is attacked at the airport (new scene on the Director’s Cut DVD). 8. The Conspirators: The original and unedited version of the Conspirators Theme. The theme is most often featured in the scenes featuring Ferrie, Oswald, Shaw and the Cubans planning the assassination but also during scenes involving these plans in some way indirectly, the piece ticking away oppressively and obsessively underneath the dialogue. 9. The Death of David Ferrie: Used in the scene involving Ferrie’s death but also elsewhere to imply sinister forces and unexplained happenings in the movie. Again this cue is edited into many other scenes. It creates an eerie, foreboding feel through the use of ghostly synthesized choir, low brass and strings along with different synthesized effects in the background. Atmospheric and ethereal it creates just the right unsettling mood for the scenes it underscores throughout the film from Garrison's investigations to Oswald's past to the ominous meaning of the death of David Ferrie. 11. Garrison Family Theme: A concert arrangement of the Family Theme featuring cor anglais as a solo instrument. In the movie there appears another version of this theme on solo piano as well. It is the least used of the themes perhaps not to over sentimentalize the mood of the film but where it is used the warmth of the melody is always counterbalanced by a certain melancholy, a comment on the strained familial relationship of the Garrisons. 14. The Witnesses : Another moody and tense underscore cue that is full of dark orchestral rumbles and threatening synthesizer effects that ebb and flow without discernible themes to augment the somber and dark feel of many scenes. Here Williams comes closest to sound design in his writing, the musical landscape created largely to unsettle and disturb, a perfect subtle unnerving accompaniment to Stone's images. 16. Arlington: This concert arrangement features a noble and wonderfully serene French horn solo and the string elegy which is one of the most beatiful and at the same time heart wrenching pieces Williams has ever created. Full of sorrow and dignity but also pathos and anguish it is the highlight of the album. The music begins with a mournful rendition of the Main Theme on solo horn, played by the ever brilliant James Thatcher, the most frequent horn soloist on Williams’ soundtracks, the ruminating and serene nobility of the musical idea suddenly taking a turn into foreboding and darkness and the string section begins a new tragic and elegiac theme, a lament for the slain president. This new elegy soon gains darker undercurrents as low register string figures encounter the high strings, that in the end reach a chilling almost violently slashing climax. The primary string theme then returns calmer and sorrowful again as if the just heard expression of musical rage had taken its toll and as if the struggle against the injustice of the assassination and events surrounding it had drained the orchestra and with its last resigned notes the piece slowly slides, note by note, into a calm silence. 17.Finale: The track starts with a darker reading of the JFK theme on trumpet, similar to the horn rendition of heard in Arlington, but leaps from there to a radiant performance of the main theme with more powerful orchestration than before as if to say in its triumphant tones that even though the case against Shaw was lost Garrison had done something historic and honorable in his attempt to solve the assassination plot of JFK against all the forces lined against him. Williams’ does create a strong sense of accomplishment and finality, some would say that he does it here falsely since the film ends in a defeat, but the composer is emphasizing the ideals and principles, not Garrison or his case specifically, but the effort to uncover truth, in itself a noble endeavour. The rather more sombre answer to the whole JFK story comes in the end credits where the above mentioned Arlington offers a more ruminating and reflective but ultimately mourful take on the whole affair. 18. Theme from JFK (Reprise): In typical Williams fashion, the composer reprises the piano rendition of the main theme to close the album with a sense of things coming a full circle but in doing so also ends the entire experience in the sudden disturbing rising and resonating thunderous rumble from the orchestra, almost like a grim question mark. This could be seen as highly fitting as the whole JFK assassination was left unsolved as well, the music reminding us much as Stone's film to study the past. © Mikko Ojala
  12. Here's my catalog of themes for The Last Jedi. Anybody have ideas about what the sarabande, crying motive, desperation motive, or last-ditch fanfare might signify? https://www.aaronkrerowicz.com/star-wars-blog/the-last-jedi-soundtrack-musical-analysis-catalog-of-themes
  13. Hi to everybody! I don't if you are aware of this, but I would like to share with you an amazing trilogy of videos of the analysis of the LOTR's OST. The analysis is made by Jaime Altozano in Youtube. The videos are recorded in spanish but english subtitles are available if you wish!! The analysis is really well made going deep into the music details of any theme, melody, etc. The explanations are supported with pentagramsa and movie scenes. He does not only comment what can be found on the Complete Recordings' booklets but it goes beyond and also tries to guess what it may be Howard Shore's interpretation. Each video pretends to cover each of the movies, but as the analysis advances he tries to connect all the music so at the end he is going back and forth between movies in each of the videos. Ok, no more words. Here they are. Enjoy! (1) The Fellowship of the Ring: (2) The Two Towers: (3) The Return of the King:
  14. Here is the second part of my analysis of Howard Shore's score for the first part of the Hobbit trilogy. Unfortunately I could not present it in one piece as it was too long for a single post. I am just that verbose. Check here for the FIRST PART (The Thematic Analysis) of the complete write-up. The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Music composed, conducted and orchestrated by Howard Shore An Analysis of the Special Edition of the Soundtrack Album By Mikko Ojala Track-by-Track Analysis Below I will journey through the Special Edition soundtrack album of The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey from Bag End to the Eagles’ Eyrie and beyond. All the observations are either completely my own (or born out of discussions on these forums and elsewhere with a dedicated group of the Lord of the Rings and the Hobbit music fans) or based on Doug Adams’s insightful liner notes from the Special Edition soundtrack album or his thoughts presented in his blog Music of the Lord of the Rings Films (www.musicoflotr.com) and whose writings (and the upcoming book on the Music of the Hobbit Films) will of course be the definitive guide to this music. Firstly I attempt to analyze the music mainly as heard on the Special Edition of the soundtrack album, but I will be making some comments on the score as heard in the film and the changes made to the score compared to the music heard on the CDs. Secondly it is worth noting that the soundtrack release for The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey came out in two different releases, the Regular Edition, which to surprise of many contained two CDs and the Special Edition that was also comprised of 2 CDs but contains about 20 minutes more music, including several bonus and extended tracks. Curiously the Regular Edition had sections absent from the Special Edition as well so having both would be required for the most complete experience of this music outside the film. I will make note of the major differences between these two releases in the analysis since both albums contain some music that is missing from the other. Thirdly I must impress upon the readers this is just a piece born out of my personal love of Shore's music for Middle-earth. Although I am an ardent fan of film music but I am no musicologist so much of the below analysis focuses on the relation of Shore's thematic architecture to the narrative of the film and not so much on the theoretical side of the music as I am not qualified to say anything extensive or authoritative on that account. Disc 1: 1. My Dear Frodo (8:02) Just like the original prologue of Fellowship of the Ring this piece functions as an overture to the 3 part saga of The Hobbit introducing many of the new central themes that will appear in these scores. Shore either states them in full or gives smaller hints and embryonic variations of many elements that will later gain central stage in An Unexpected Journey or its sequels. Introduced are The House of Durin, Bilbo’s Adventure, Erebor, Thorin Oakenshield, The Arkenstone/The Map and Key, two of Smaug’s musical signatures, Suffering of Durin's Folk and The Woodland Realm. Opening logos and credits roll and the curtain raising figure of the score, a warm, flowing and graceful melody of The House of Durin Theme appears in optimistic glowing major mode and Shore weaves subtle hints of the History of the Ring harmonies into it in the accompanying figures and thus draws connections to things to come from the very first notes. The House of Durin Theme will reveal its true prominence in the sequel, The The Desolation of Smaug, but here it is a subtle suggestion which sets the dwarves and their heritage squarely at the centre of the story. The dwarves are only half the story however and the music next announces the prominence of the eponymous protagonist of the tale, the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, as Bilbo’s Adventure (0:37), a new theme for his journey, fleetingly rises in warm strings and seems to recall slightly The Journey Back theme from Return of the King in its contours. Shore offers here perhaps a nod to the There and Back Again title of Bilbo’s memoirs, the full meaning of the theme still hidden in this innocent setting before it gracefully bridges to a familiar rich and stately string reading of the Shire Theme’s Pensive Setting at 0:51 as The Hobbit title card appears, the reassuring guise of the theme a nostalgic reminder of the Lord of the Rings and a signature motif of our heroes, the music ushering us to Bilbo’s quaint home at Bag End, where the Bilbo's Adventure's gently rising figures on strings and a steady soft beat of percussion follow the old Hobbit through his house as he rummages through old treasures, searching for something. As he finds a red leather bound book in a chest and sets his feather pen on the page the Shire theme’s harmonies continue to rise expectantly, a sudden repeated silvery glint of a triangle and a new lilting flute melody over rich string accompaniment carrying us to a new realm as Bilbo begins his memoirs, There and Back Again, A Hobbit’s Tale. After a quick map sequence that transports us East beyond Lone Lands, Edge of the Wild and Mirkwood the story flashes back to Dale and Erebor and our first view of the mountain kingdom is heralded by a regal horn reading of the Erebor Theme (1:57) over deep martial drums and slightly dissonant harmonies in the hazily shimmering string layers as Bilbo recounts the history of the reign of Thrór, the King Under the Mountain. The music captures a sense of grandeur and the dwarven musical world in its steadily climbing figure but also creates a vertical image of the mountain realm itself in musical form. It is followed by a more long lined melody, yearning, expansive and noble Thorin Oakenshield Theme (2:17), that takes over in the horns and celli and speaks of the young prince’s character as much as it underscores the great dwarven realm’s magnificence, strings developing the theme in an answering phrase and a solo trumpet and high strings in turn glide on top of the weighty mass of the low orchestral murmurs, developing Thorin’s music as the great excavations and riches in the mountain’s depths are revealed. Here in the dark roots of the mountain the dwarves discover the heart of mountain, The Arkenstone, a magnificent multifaceted glowing jewel and Shore captures the luminous essence of the gem with a simple scintillating string line and a high choral cluster (3:03-3:11) that is awe inspiring and bewitching at the same time. And so many nations come to honour the power of the dwarven king, the glimpse of King of the Woodland Realm in Mirkwood, the Elven king Thranduil and his emissaries, earning ethereal swelling string layers above which a female choir sings a lyrical line (presumably in Sindarin), introducing the musical idea for the Woodland Realm (3:23-3:31), the music here a mirror of their slightly otherworldly graceful demeanour. But the might and prosperity of Erebor is not to last, darkness falling over the king, a deep male choir chanting in Khuzdûl, the voices rising in the familiar perfect fifths, the tone reminiscent of Moria music from Lord of the Rings, the grim tone presaging sorrow as Thrór becomes obsessed with his wealth but also anticipating another calamity as the treasures of Erebor have aroused the greed of something else. A bass drum beats slowly, as if to call for attention, ponderous and ominous before it is on the 5th stroke engulfed in a searing musical motif. The dragon Smaug the Golden has come (4:16)! This first theme bursts forth in wicked and aggressive reading as he assaults the dwarven kingdom and the human city of Dale, high strings sawing through a rhythmically sharp angled and reptilian melody as the F minor-F-major chordal progression, Smaug's Breath, repeats underneath oppressive and brash, the lower registers of the orchestra pulsing like gigantic bellows as Smaug’s fire strikes the guards and burns them to cinders, Balin and Thorin barely escaping the fire drake’s first wrath. The human town of Dale lies before the gates of the Lonely Mountain and it first to face Smaug’s fiery fury. A mixed choir bursts forth in dramatic ascending figures of a Moria/dwarven chant as the dragon attacks and destroys the city, the heavy plodding percussion following the choral conflagration. Shore pits Smaug the Golden theme (4:56), now even weightier and sharper than before as it plods on in brass and percussion as if to spell suffering and woe, against the amassed choral forces that seem now to mourn the Men of Dale, the clear soprano voices singing a brief lament to the devastated city as we see the tragic figure of a lone child, a loss of innocence, amidst the flames of the smouldering ruins. Unusually Shore mixes the female chorus with the males in the dwarven music, almost as if to unite the worlds of men and dwarves in his music to show a common plight that has struck both races. The dwarven nation regroups and prepares to defend their home and so defiant and heavy rhythmic male choir chants in a style reminiscent of Moria's dwarven music that mingles with bold statements of both Thorin’s Theme (on horns) and Erebor Theme (on trumpets and trombones) as they await for their enemy (5:35). But soon the dwarven voices are lost in a sea of blaring brass dissonances and percussion’s enraged pounding when Smaug breaks the great gates of Erebor and obliterates the defenders with terrible ease, snippet of Thorin’s Theme underscoring his lucky escape before the marauding beast, snare drums marching in underneath a sinuous and cruel reading of Smaug the Golden on violas and violins (6:05), which grows into a storm of swirling orchestral lines that depict the loss of the Arkenstone in a sea of treasure right before the eyes of Thorin and Thrór and the tumultuous destruction of the kingdom of Erebor. Leading survivors through the smoke and burning Thorin struggles out of the mountain with his father and grandfather and we hear the first appearance of Suffering of Durin's Folk motif rising and falling in the orchestra (6:39) as the choir mourns for the tragedy of the dwarves in elegiac tones, the male and female chorus exchanging phrases over the orchestra. The theme is repeated deep in the double basses and celli full of grim regret when we see the prince, desperate, begging for help for his people from the Elven king Thranduil, who has arrived with his folk to bring help but after seeing the sheer destruction the dragon has wrought, refuses his aid in fear of facing the beast's wrath and retreats with his army and thus earns the enmity of Thorin, the fateful and grim strains of Suffering of Durin's Folk slowly fading away on solo horn and moody strings when we see the dwarven prince and his companions becoming a wandering folk bereft of glory and riches, their race scattered into the wind. In the Making The prologue as heard in the film contains several smaller musical adjustments compared to the original version heard on the soundtrack albums. First the Shire Pensive Setting for strings featured on the Hobbit title card has been replaced with a nostalgic yet oddly static clarinet rendition and the following section for Bilbo’s search for the book is entirely re-scored utilizing Gandalf’s Farewells from Lord of the Rings (a curious even if an emotionally resonate thematic choice) as the old Hobbit begins writing his memoirs and for the transition from the Shire to Rhovanion in the East, The Journey Back theme from Lord of the Rings and a new section for the establishing shot of the town of Dale are used. Since Shore had to re-score a new longer cut of the film later the whole sequence has musical edits, omitting choir and changing the order of some sections and replacing sections with re-scored material. E.g the Suffering of Durin's Folk theme at the end contains an additional extended passage to cover the extra footage added to the scene. The Extended Cut of the film also repeats some parts of the composition(such as the repetition of the Woodland Realm material for the extended scene with Thranduil and the wood elves featuring the jewels of Lasgalen) to cover for the additional footage but no actual new music was composed for the longer version of the film. 2. Old Friends (Extended Version) (5:02) After the opening lesson in ancient history we are back in the Shire and the beginning of the score is full of familiar sounds and themes, the frame story functioning as a welcoming reintroduction to the life and home of our protagonist at the eve of his 111th birthday and the composer naturally reprises the different variants of the Shire theme in all their verdant glory. In a hole in the ground there lived a Hobbit opens the first chapter of Bilbo’s book, the statement earning a dreamy and bucolic reading of the Pensive Setting of the Shire theme on strings and clarinet as the camera explores the halls of Bag End, the tone familiar and welcoming, the Hobbit Outline Figure on light pizzicato strings following the melody. As we see Frodo appearing from a doorway and reminding absent minded Bilbo of his birthday and its preparations, a spirited rhythmic reading of the Rural Setting plays and ends in a quote from FotR, the music for the raising of Bilbo’s birthday banner in the Party Field being reprised as a reference to the upcoming event. Frodo’s gentle admonishment to the old Hobbit of becoming recluse and for his strange behaviour is underscored by the humorous sneaky tug of the Shire accompaniment figures but the same use of the Shire Skip-Beat with darker harmonies (1:31) that followed Bilbo in the FotR at Bag End appear here as well, indicating perhaps that our old protagonist’s oddity and restlessness is growing, the orchestrations now coloured by the more pronounced appearance of mandolin and hammered dulcimer to add a subtle sense of nervous humour to the music, strong rhythm and pondering clarinet line ending in slightly misterioso string sustain. The old hobbit is up to something! A very traditional jaunty beat of the Rural Setting sees Frodo off to wait for Gandalf in the East Farthing woods at 1:53, growing into an passionate and warm reading of the Pensive Setting of the Shire theme on strings, showing us the bucolic splendour of Hobbiton and Bilbo relaxed on his porch smoking a pipe. When the old Hobbit continues his story and blows a smoke ring into the air, Shore making another musical reference to FotR, this time to some pipes and smoke rings, as his music on the tin whistle and strings recalls the moment when Gandalf and Bilbo sit on the very same veranda at the evening of his birthday but here a title card An Unexpected Journey appears. Doug Adams offered insight into this moment on his blog in 2013: The Lydian dissonance of the final notes (G#A) is in a higher key than when we last heard them in FotR and gains a hidden meaning, both the billowing smoke ring and the harmonies drawing now a veiled connection to the History of the Ring Theme. Descending glowing notes of the solo harp passage, perhaps a subtle nod to the chords of Bilbo Baggins themes, gently transition us 60 years into the past (2:42) and we see young Mr. Baggins sitting on his front porch on a sunny morning in the quiet of the world, when a wizard in a high wide brimmed tall hat, silver scarf and grey robes and carrying a gnarled staff arrives along the path to the Hobbit’s front gate. Strummed mandolin and pizzicato strings of the Hobbit Skip-Beat rhythmically underline the initial conversation between the wizard and the Hobbit when this man announces that he is looking for someone to share in an adventure, the Shire’s stepwise music haltingly humorous and subtly plucking away, the music referencing perhaps Bilbo’s Antics for a brief moment, the clarinet voicing his comic concern at going on bothersome adventures (3:20). When this grey clad stranger announces that he is disappointed that Bilbo Baggins doesn’t know his name and reveals himself to be none other than Gandalf the Grey (3:33), his primary theme appears formally for the first time, introduced on cor anglais as it rises and falls with ambiguous harmonies almost as if asking a question. And now as the Hobbit suddenly remembers the wandering wizard, a leaping and sprightly string motif for Gandalf’s Fireworks seems to jump out of his childhood memories when it references a specific scene from the Fellowship of the Ring, where this music was heard the first time, creating in the process a recurring thematic idea. Here Shore's music starts to form these back-and-forth series of references that create call-backs (or call-forwards) to earlier music/scene to weave connections between the trilogies. Plucky and light orchestrations continue as the Fireworks motif mixes with the Shire Theme when Gandalf announces that he will send Mr. Baggins on this adventure. This again instigates the appearance of a slightly mysterious reading of the Hobbit Skip-Beat accompaniment figure that followed the aged Bilbo around earlier at Bag End (4:06), as he emphatically refuses Gandalf’s invitation and slips inside his hobbit hole as fast as he is courteously able, hoping that this strange visitor will go away. But instead the string section reprises a familiar motif from the FotR, the music that accompanied Gandalf’s telling glance at a certain old map at Bag End and this bit of mysterious music now underscores the wizard drawing his secret rune on Bilbo’s front door, in essence beginning the Quest of Erebor. The music bears also another secret, the melody faintly hinting at Thorin's Theme, the music from FotR now revealing a surprising yet entirely fitting new connection to the past. Doug Adams mentions in his liner notes that here the Shire theme is stretched over minor harmonies and seems to belong more to the wizard than the hobbit but it becomes synonymous with Bilbo's odd behaviour. Our small hero is alarmed and braves a glimpse through his porch window, the moment earning the first appearance of a slightly sinister sounding up-and-down climbing figure (4:28), that seems to trigger the change in his fortunes that mounts into a startling dissonance as Gandalf’s eye peers through the window pane of Bilbo's porch. As the wizard goes off on his business and disappears down the lane, an ominous lower string reading of the previously mentioned rising and falling triad figure with high strings adding nervous layers above brings the track to a close but also seems to inform us of the hobbit’s state of mind, Bilbo obviously smelling trouble. In the Making The film version of the reintroduction to the Shire is quite different in places as several sections seem to have been revised. E.g. the ruminative music from the FotR for Gandalf's inspection of the map of Erebor is reprised several times in the film to underscore old Bilbo's strange behaviour in the frame story before we move to the actual Hobbit's tale. On the Regular Soundtrack album the shorter version of the piece includes alternate passage, a bucolic solo flute rendition of the Pensive Setting of the Shire theme and another reprise of the Fireworks motif. 3. An Unexpected Party (Extended Version) (4:09) But Bilbo Baggins is more than a bit absent minded and soon forgets his close brush with adventure. And so after a stroll to the market at Hobbiton, the night falls on the Shire and Bilbo is preparing to eat a delicious fish for dinner, when he hears the doorbell. Behind the door stands a strange dwarf, who introduces himself as Dwalin and the music open with a subtly ascending expectant figure, Shore referencing the harmonies of the Erebor Theme with light pad of the percussion underneath providing a sense of momentum. Something important is taking place. Here the composer also further develops the mysterious rising and falling motif (0:12->) that was heard at the end of the previous track as Dwalin steps in, hands the Hobbit his cloak and looks around for food. The pizzicato double basses develop the aforementioned motivic phrase with insistent rhythmic tug while violins spin suspensefully in the high register, the heavy rhythmic pull of the lower strings repeating haltingly the Hobbit End Cap to emphasize Bilbo’s bafflement and annoyance. The stranger heads for the kitchen to the tune of a heavy bass variation of the up-and-down motif, full of the diminutive host’s concern and fright, and when he braves to inquire, who promised the dwarf food, only the music answers, the opening pitches of Gandalf the Grey (0:32) dancing mischievously on cor anglais to offer a helpful musical hint. And so Dwalin dines on poor hobbit’s fish plate but Bilbo has very little time to mourn for his lost dinner as soon the door bell rings again and with a quick touch of Uillean pipes another dwarf, Balin, is introduced (0:38). Now nervously fluttering flutes accompany the fussy up-and-down climbing motif that forms the spine of the piece as he rather defeatedly escorts the old dwarf inside and the motif continues haltingly rhythmic as he watches helplessly how the two, brothers apparently, unceremoniously rummage through his larder. When the doorbell sounds for the third time (1:14), the music part humorous and part suspenseful with tremoloing high strings, hammered dulcimer and weighty tugs of double basses greets another pair of dwarves, Fili and Kili, who barge in to join the group, the music underscoring the Hobbit’s growing frustration. And this anger finally bursts out when the door bell rings yet again. Shore presents a new motif associated with our hobbit and his awkward handling of strange situations, Bilbo’s Antics (1:41), a lilting quote of the opening pitches on flutes and comedic double basses soon leading into a full fledged rendition of the folksy off-kilter melody on solo violin with string, hammered dulcimer and mandolin accompaniment as he rushes to the door and pulls it open with force, the settled and peaceful life of the Hobbit shaken to its roots, the music expressing this with a humorous slant. When the door flies open yet again the harmonies of the Erebor Theme that greeted Dwalin are reprised as a whole troop of dwarves lands on top of each other and on Bilbo’s front door mat, Gandalf the Grey appearing behind them with his theme (2:15), this time heard in full as a warm and expansive string reading as the wizard’s hand behind all these events is revealed. Now that Bag End is full of dwarves and the music spins into a series of variations on Bilbo’s Antics (2:24->)as the music whirls with woodwind and string solos and rhythmic runs as the Hobbit swirls around in his vain attempt to contain the busy bustle of the dinner preparing guests, the Shire Theme’s pitches of the Rural Setting dancing about with humorous alacrity in retrogrades (meaning the theme is essentially played backwards pitch-wise), the style reminiscent of the Hobbit Antics motif from LotR. When Gandalf inquires from Dwaling where their leader is, the stout dwarven warrior answers that Thorin has travelled to a council of dwarves in the Blue Mountains and this mention of the Dwarf Lords earns the score’s only quote of the theme on noble horns (3:45), another piece that was originally designed as musical foreshadowing as more distant kin of Thorin’s company, Iron Hill dwarves, and their lords will play a larger role the final film but alas the theme appears here one and final time as it was discarded before the next two scores were written and remains one of the curious “what could have beens” of this score. In the Making Several sections of this piece were re-scored, in essence removing a whole development of a new motif for the dwarves’ invasion of Bilbo’s kitchen and pantry (passage beginning at 2:24) and replacing it with an entirely new playful variation on the Shire's thematic ideas. 4. Blunt the Knives (Exclusive Bonus Track) (Music by Stephen Gallagher, lyrics by J.R.R.Tolkien) (1:01) When the rowdy feasting is over, the dwarves collect Bilbo’s crockery and the fussy hobbit thinks that they are going to break every last one of his plates and mugs because of the rough fashion they handle them and so Kili begins an impromptu song on the subject as the troop with lively enthusiasm joins him to do the dishes. The melody is composed by Stephen Gallagher, a New Zealand composer and the music editor of the Hobbit films. Peter Jackson once again had Plan 9 and now in addition Stephen Gallagher handling the diegetic music throughout the trilogy much as they did on Lord of the Rings, and it is a Celtic flavoured jig with mischievous slightly altered lyrics from the novel itself. And by the end of the song all the plates and mugs are in neat stacks and piles on the table, miraculously unbroken no less. 5. Axe or Sword? (5:58) And just as the kitchen chores are done there is a heavy demanding knock at the front door as Thorin Oakenshield, leader of the dwarf company arrives. And with him arrives his theme, Thorin’s melody rising on proud yet somewhat subdued horns and stately strings as he steps in out of the night and is introduced. Thorin, obviously an important dwarf, assesses the “burglar” and seems to find him wanting so Thorin’s Theme continues regal and a touch haughty, hobbity rhythmic lower strings and clarinet answering for Bilbo with slight indignation. Thorin’s Theme answers with its bassoon, clarinet and strings warming ever so little towards the halfling while hinting at the connection to Erebor Theme as well. As the company sits down to discuss their plans, Thorin tells of the ill news from the council in Ered Luin: the dwarf lords of the other Seven Houses having refused to help in retaking of Erebor. At this moment Gandalf as quick as ever presents the dwarves a kernel of hope, when he produces an old map from the sleeve of his robes the appearance of the Lonely Mountain on it earning the ever ascending Erebor Theme (0:57) on august horns over tremoloing low register strings and then passed on to cor anglais. Dwarvish slowly rising and falling figures continue in the strings and horn as Oin tells of favourable portents to reclaim the kingdom and Thorin’s Theme appears in yearning tones to greet his good omens for the Quest. But as he mentions The Beast gloomy hue slithers into the music (1:34), a new inverted variation on Smaug’s the Golden Theme, heard so fervent and fiery in the prologue, now travels cold and malevolent from oboe to the pinched stopped horns and high register strings over the hollow ghostly clang of Tibetan gongs and deep rumble of the double basses, creating in the process another new motif for the dragon's thematic family, The Malice of Smaug, the music here expressing Bilbo’s apprehension as Bofur describes Smaug the Terrible to him. Shore’s approach is subtle, Bilbo’s imagination incapable of conjuring the actual Smaug or his true horror, so the rendition of the theme remains veiled here, but it casts a sudden momentary pall over Bag End, causing the nervous dwarves to bicker among themselves on how to best defeat this menace. Thorin breaks this argument with firm hand, Erebor Theme sounding in the horns once more (1:55) as the leader of the company bolsters the confidence of his disheartened followers, the melody travelling again to cor anglais and on to strings that sing a warm, hopeful and proud reading of Thorin’s Theme that ends in a slight horn crescendo to emphasize the moment of decision, the prince calling to his company to follow him, the group now cheering with enthusiasm. The horn tones darken momentarily when Balin reminds his fellow dwarves that the great front gates to the mountain are sealed as Smaug himself guards that entrance. But as an answer and solution to this obstacle Gandalf produces an intricately carven key of obvious dwarvish make, the luminous music of the Arkenstone (2:39) rekindling their hopes as Shore ties this motif now to The Map and Key as well, all heirlooms of Thorin and treasures of the lost kingdom and a way to win back the Arkenstone itself and Thorin’s Theme answers in its most optimistic variation thus far when the dwarves ponder the meaning of Gandalf’s gift and how useful it could be to the Quest. The talk turns to burglary and inevitably to Bilbo, whose protestations to the contrary earn a light clarinet phrase over rhythmic string figures derived from the Shire theme (3:20) as he tries to dispel the misapprehension that he is indeed "an expert treasure hunter". This causes another frustrated argument among the doubtful dwarves and tremoloing strings shudder when Gandalf reveals a fraction of his power, the room darkening and the wizard’s voice booming like thunder, silencing the bickering company (3:40), the final sustained chord on horns and strings hanging in the air as it makes here a subtle thematic connection, the harmonies being the same that open Gandalf the Grey Theme. Now the wizard beseeches Thorin to trust him on his choice of Bilbo Baggins to join the company and an impassionate melody (3:53), perhaps a variation on Thorin’s Theme, plays on fervent strings as the dwarf leader after a moment of consideration finally agrees. This is followed (4:18) by a sudden flowing climbing melodic figure on celli over a glowing haze of tremoloing violins and violas as Thorin warns the wizard that he cannot guarantee the Hobbit’s safety on the journey, the music opening to a fateful yet optimistic statement as Gandalf acknowledges the danger but is still keen to send Bilbo with the company. Something tells him this is an important moment and the halfling has an important part to play. But as the hobbit reads his “burglar contract” alas his nerves can’t handle the possibilities of being lacerated, eviscerated or incinerated by a dragon and so he passes out on his living room rug. When the small creature comes to and has calmed down with a cup of tea in his hand, Gandalf takes measure of the situation, trying to awaken the Tookish adventurous side in Bilbo but this is more easily said than done. Strings open tentatively with Shire’s rhythmic lilt (4:35) as the wizard begins the story of the Bullroarer Took, Bilbo’s distant heroic ancestor, a solo clarinet warmly presenting us the first appearance of the Bilbo’s Theme (Dreaming of Bag End) that represents the quiet-loving side of the Hobbit, the melody nostalgic and comforting, the music full of the warmth of the Shire, violins and harp developing the phrase further. Solo horn presents Bilbo’s Theme (Tookish Side theme) (5:05) almost ruefully as he is now both afraid and intrigued by the notion of the adventure ahead. When he asks Gandalf will he return from this journey alive and well, the wizard gives no certain answer and the second part of Tookish Side on solo clarinet with an answering horn phrase sounds almost disappointed as the upward reaching end of the theme winds on strings into a calm but slightly bittersweet finish when our protagonist seemingly refuses the task set before him and walks away. In the Making The final discussion between Gandalf and Bilbo was re-scored and uses the Shire themes instead of Bilbo's thematic material as the film makers often decided to emphasize the general idea of hobbit nature rather than Bilbo specifically, which necessitated new variations of the Shire themes to be written to replace Shore's original intentions using Bilbo's themes. 6. Misty Mountains (Music by Plan 9, lyrics by J.R.R. Tolkien) (1:41) As the night deepens the dwarves begin a song, one of many made in their exile, telling of the loss and eventual reclaiming of their kingdom. Thorin first sings alone but gradually the others add their low voices into an almost a chant like melody, deep rooted and stoic in dwarven fashion. The words are an excerpt from the song found in the novel, the melody penned by the Plan 9 but here also begins an important thematic thread, which runs through the whole score as the dwarves begin their quest. The melody of the song, which tells of reclaiming of Erebor, becomes a musical motto for Thorin’s company and their goal, which travels from diegetic form into the score and follows the dwarves and Bilbo ever after. Howard Shore implements the theme in the underscore in various ways and thus it becomes a leitmotif in its own right. 7. The Adventure Begins (2:05) Mid-morning light shines through the windows of Bag End and disturbs Bilbo’s slumber. As he wakes up and cautiously walks through the empty and curiously dwarf free home high strings sing a wistful yet ethereal melody that climbs much the same way as the one heard in Axe or Sword? when Thorin and Gandalf discuss Bilbo’s part in the adventure but this time it seems to be a reference to the Misty Mountains theme, almost a ghostly reminder of the song Bilbo heard the previous night. But here it transitions to upward leaping Shire whole steps in expectation although the old Baggins side, which is holding Bilbo back, sways in the lower strings in triple meter and reluctant solo clarinet hints at Bilbo’s Antics (0:41) to voice objections as the Hobbit stands in the middle of his living room and has a brief inner struggle, two sides of is persona tugging at him. When he suddenly sees that the contract is still on his table, with a rising light tremolo on strings the Tookish Side wins (1:05), sounding warm and excited as it soon sends him on a mad dash down the Hill in search for the dwarves. Here the Shire material takes a frantic yet playful and jubilant cast, reminding us of the similar sprightly and sprinting music for Frodo and company fleeing certain farmer Maggot in the FotR, the fragments of the Shire theme spinning away as flitting woodwind runs and fast accompanying figures from the Shire’s instrumental palette, plucked mandolin, dulcimer and guitar propel him on his way, the score opening into a joyous poignantly rising version of the Pensive Setting as Bilbo informs his neighbours that “I’m going on an adventure!” disappearing down the lane towards Bywater as the music crescendos triumphantly. 8. The World Is Ahead (2:21) Bilbo catches up with the dwarven company and a similar ethereal strings and dulcimer colouration that underscored his awakening at Bag End trembles in anticipation underneath as he holds up his signed contract, which he hands over to Balin. Bilbo’s Adventure peeks out hopeful on the clear tin whistle as strings pace rhythmically in triple meter when the Hobbit is accepted into the company and the journey is about to begin in earnest, a heroic horn and string reading the theme (0:44) calls out to send the troupe on its way rising in optimism the melody now bolstered by sturdy dwarven tones. But soon enough fussy Bilbo’s Antics (0:58) dances forth as the worried Hobbit is hoisted on a pony, a new experience for him, and then he exclaims much to the amusement of his companions that he left his home without a handkerchief, a pinched clarinet singing out compressed variants of Bilbo’s music, the rhythm hinting at Bilbo’s Antics. When Thorin’s company is finally on the road a slow, proud expansive brass and strings statement of The Misty Mountains with percussive forward moving undercurrent (1:32->) charts their travels through the land, the song now transformed into a travelling theme and another symbol of the Quest of Erebor, the dwarven determination and heroism now attached to the melody as they leave the Shire and cross the Lone Lands on their way to the Misty Mountains. 9. An Ancient Enemy (4:58) The company has stopped for the night under a cliffside and Bilbo, who can’t sleep, walks about anxious. Fili and Kili play a joke on him and scare the Hobbit with stories of orcs, when Thorin grimly interrupts and admonishes the younger dwarves, who are taken aback. Balin, who also is awake, then tells to the Hobbit and the pair that their leader has a good reason to hate the orcs so vehemently. The music kindles as the old dwarf recalls the Battle of Azanulbizar outside the gates of Moria when Thrór tried to retake the city from the orcs many years ago. Shore explores in this music further the dwarven motifs but also brings back prominently the Moria’s parallel fifths as the events take before it’s gates. Low orchestral rumbling, grand piano, basses and horns slowly rise in series of chords that take us back in time, the dwarven/Moria parallel fifths suddenly leaping into the chanted male choir led Ancient Enemies Theme that possesses characteristically dwarven timbres but here weighty, fatal and rhythmically taut as we are brought in medias res of the battle, the orc hosts in vicious combat with the dwarves. When the name of Azog, the orc king of Moria, is uttered by Balin, dissonant string figures climb urgently to herald his appearance, our first full view of him earning the first rendition of Azog’s Theme (0:59) in its cruel and violent low brass guise, the motif blaring on tuba and trombones augmented by a dramatic gong crash. Bilbo listens intently as Balin recounts how Azog slew Thrór and the score seems to halt for a moment, the long phrases of the new development of the Ancient Enemies Theme making things appear like in slow motion before horns, grand piano and percussion gradually explode into a controlled crescendo at 1:20, parallel fifth choral figures announcing Thrór’s demise. The tide of the battle turns, the dwarves are on the run, the Dwarven music of Moria, sung by a male choir chanting in stoic grief as they flee. Suddenly Thorin’s Theme appears in the midst of the voices (1:56) as the dwarf prince rallies his kin and faces Azog in a duel to avenge his grandfather. Moria parallel fifths appear (2:04), in a musical progression very reminiscent of the ever ascending music heard in The Fellowship of the Ring, the male voices now chanting proudly in Khuzdûl over orchestral support while Thorin faces the Pale Orc. The music climbs ever higher in suspense, strings straining into upper registers with the parallel fifth figures, percussion and brass keening underneath as Azog gains upper hand with his ferocious speed and strength, disarming Thorin. The young prince takes hold of an oak branch to shield himself, earning for his famous defense the name Oakenshield in the process, and as he finally reaches for a sword and hews off Azog’s hand the choir in grim determination rises, singing the Moria theme in harsh raw tones. With Azog’s defeat the enemy is routed. Solo trumpet calls out Thorin’s Theme (2:53) as a musical rallying cry as the dwarves follow him into battle, the male voices again singing in triumphant choral defiance as the warriors rush against the orcish ranks and thus the day is won.But it is not a victory to be savoured, the dwarven dead beyond count and the living now too few to retake Moria and so dark low string layers, sombre horns and the mournful dwarven choir grieve with the survivors. Balin then in admiration remembers how Thorin showed his worth, being the true leader his kin would be ready to follow, and a noble setting of Thorin’s Theme (3:59) on strings and solo trumpet calls out in its longest development yet, the melody continuing as the whole company now rises to show their uniform admiration and respect to their leader. And while the dwarven company reminisces the past, in the wilds in the darks woods on the other side of the ravine a new danger lurks, a trellis of sickening double bass and celli tremolos warning the listener of the danger as horns burst into an ominous statement of Azog’s Theme (4:37) when a Warg rider appears on screen, the track ending in a mounting dissonant burst from low strings, percussion and horns . The enemy has found them. Thorin’s group is now being hunted. 10. Radagast the Brown (Extended Version) (6:38) The journey continues under a gentle summer rain and Dori asks Gandalf if he could, since he is a wizard after all, do something about the humid weather conditions. When the old man answers that he doesn’t hold sway over the weather of the world, Bilbo wet and miserable, now pointedly asks of the existence of other perhaps more powerful and useful wizards. Gandalf gruffly recounts the short list of the members of his order the Istari, and the Gandalf the Grey Theme appears on strings to colour his wizardly count but as he mentions Radagast the Brown it is not the Brown wizard’s music but rather Istari/Gandalf’s Secondary Theme (0:20-0:37) that appears as he tells of Mirkwood and how Radagast tends the woods and animals there, the boys choir singing the lyrical and sage, ever higher rising secondary theme to lyrics related to Radagast (written by Philippa Boyens) as the story moves to the forest lands far away in the East: Meno edveno / O Galad vos i lais. Lim meno lim / Na fuin , tri dhuaith... Away! Away! / From soft leaf-light. Hurry! Hurry! / Through dark of night... All is not well in Mirkwood however and as we see Radagast, an eccentric hermit-like wizard wildly moving through the forest and finding a growing sickness and darkness, an eerie and foreboding motif doggedly follows his footsteps, Radagast the Brown's Secondary Theme (0:38-0:51) calling out in the boys choir, perhaps a reference to the music of Nature but more haunting here, as the same lyrics that were attached to Gandalf’s story just prior now seem to refer to the darkening of the forest. Radagast flits through trees and bushes, collects mushrooms, investigates tree sap and finds dead or dying animals, all to the agitated tune of Radagast the Brown Theme (0:52-1:13) a jittery collection of musical devices, solo fiddle scratching a repeating cyclical melody on the top of a ticking, pecking collection of percussion instruments (shakers, gourds and woodblocks) and all the while lower strings perform short pointed up-and-down flitting figures underneath. When the wizard finds a dying friend, a hedgehod called Sebastian, Radagast the Brown's Secondary Theme appears again (1:14-1:39), this time in the strings, to note the strange affliction of the forest and the animals. It is slowly overtaken by the snapping percussion that propels Radagast to his home at Rhosgobel where he tries to save Sebastian. Radagast the Brown Theme scurries on (1:40-2:04) as the man tries feverishly in many ways to heal the hedgehog, the exotic series of remedies underscored by a see-sawing solo violin line and urgent string figures inherent in the theme. But nothing seems to work and Radagast is at a loss, when a sudden string cry halts his theme and another subtle compressed variant of Radagast the Brown's Secondary Theme appears (2:05-2:14) in the string section as he finally understands what is at the root of this suffering. Sorcery! The realization conjures an urgent string line that rises into a alarming and foreboding oboe solo and ominously rising high violins, when a croaking 8-note tone row interrupts as it repeats in the deep woodwinds, double basses and celli to signal the arrival of The Mirkwood Spiders and Sebastian’s apparent death. A sorrowful violin passage mourns the hedgehog for a brief spell (2:56-3:07) and only now the wizard becomes aware that his home is surrounded by giant arachnids, who crawl outside of his door and up the walls in attempt to get inside. Tense, nearly panicking, bubbling and winding woodwind lines and ever tightening screeching string dissonances and the ominous gong hits underscore Radagast hurriedly detaching a crystal from his staff and with the apparently lifeless hedgehog in his lap beginning a fervent incantation in Quenya to drive out the darkness. As the music reaches fever pitch, the dark miasma is drawn from the animal, and Sebastian springs to life once more. But Radagast doesn’t have time for relief, for the enemy is now curiously receding into the forest, the giant spiders quickly disappearing from sight. The orchestra again springs to action with Radagast the Brown Theme (3:48), the jittery violins and violas and steady up-and-down motion of the basses first presenting the emblematic quick progressions of the theme that lead into the solo violin that saws away with considerable tremoloing vibrato to enhance the driving urgency of the moment. Here Shore further expands Radagast’s musical palette as the boys choir, mostly associated with the purity of Nature by Shore in his earlier music for Middle-earth, begins a powerful and rhythmically charged chant (4:08) as one of the wizard's bird companions appears to bring news of the source of the evil, the choir’s melodic line the same that appeared previously in the strings and solo violin, percussion adding further element of manic hurry to the scene as we transition explosively to Radagast on a sled pulled by gigantic rabbits, the choral line continuing fervent but trailing ominously into silence as he heads through the forest towards the old fortress of Dol Guldur, the ruin on its hill nearly suffocated by the thick undergrowth and sickly trees of the forest. The Special Edition Soundtrack VS The Regular Soundtrack Album and the Film Version Loose ends... This piece was almost entirely replaced and re-scored in the film, the film makers opting for a much less colourful approach, omitting in the process the quirky and nervous music for Radagast almost altogether. Gone is the jittery violin and scurrying woodwind and string figures as is the choir that sings both Gandalf’s Secondary Theme and the Radagast the Brown's Secondary motif, leaving only fragments of this music intact or referenced in the new composition found in the finished film. It is not easy to say, was Shore’s original approach heard on the album meant to score the cut we see in the final film. The music continues on the Special Edition album longer than the scene itself running over 6 minutes opposed to the little over 4 minute length of the scene. One can only make guesses whether the scene was considerably longer at some point or is the music after 4 minute mark an alternate cue placed at end the of the track as a bonus a cue or even was this music perhaps meant to score part of the same scene or music from some entirely different section of the film. As some hints of the 2 minutes of bonus material featuring the themes associated with the Necromancer are heard in the scene in the film. This music probably underscored a different cut of this scene where we see Radagast first repelling the sorcery and the spiders and then arriving at Dol Guldur and exploring the ancient fortress as the themes for the Necromancer present in the composition would suggest. Shore presents in the extended composition a new theme, Dol Guldur Descending Thirds, that marches forth (4:50) on threatening low brass and woodwinds, the theme repeating obsessively over the clash of bowed cymbals (a staple Shore musical effect). The Dol Guldur Descending Thirds continue like a gnawing mystery in the deepest reaches of the orchestra, churning and grinding until unexpectedly the music surges into a series of three pitches, the Threat of Dol Guldur (6:10) offering imperious and forceful music for the growing power of the Necromancer, that alarmingly summons another motif in its wake, a ghostly oboe led rendition of Necromancer’s Theme (6:23) that quickly trails off incomplete, a doom laden musical harbinger. 11. Trollshaws (Exclusive Bonus Track) (2:09) The dwarven company camps near an abandoned farmstead and after a brief terse discussion between Gandalf and Thorin the wizard storms off in a foul mood because of the dwarven leader’s obstinate refusal to continue on to Rivendell because it is a refuge of the elves and Thorin harbours vehement grudge against all elves because the wood elves refused to help his kin when Erebor was attacked. At night Bilbo is sent to bring food to Fili and Kili who are guarding the ponies. A winding celli and double bass melody, moody and quite ominous opens the piece as Bilbo walks into the woods with bowls in his hands. When he comes to the pair of young dwarves, who we see staring concerned at the ponies, a small rhythmic reminder of Bilbo’s Antics (0:16) plays to inform us that something is a bit off. Fili announces that two of the steeds are missing and equally alarmed string clusters bloom in the orchestra as a sign of trouble and while the trio searches for explanation to this disappearance pinched clarinet and low woodwind and string phrase repeats (0:36) before a nervously growing orchestral crescendo when a large uprooted tree is shown, the Hobbit deducing that something rather large and quite possibly dangerous absconded the animals. When Fili mentions the possibility of Trolls ominous tremoloing strings and deep ascending horn line and double bass figure (0:56-1:14) and the low rumble of a gong conjure the first hint of the Trolls Theme, a menacing growl, the composer compressing the figure before unleashing a full renditions of the motif (1:16-1:41) when one of the monsters comes tramping through the trees with one missing pony under each arm, the 4-note nucleus of the ponderous and brutish idea repeating in the deepest strings, menacingly low brass and pounding bass drum interspersed by halting rhythmic string figures that seem to represent Bilbo’s Antics figure quivering before this gargantuan threat. Pizzicato celli and basses (1:42) over fluttering woodwinds and violins repeat the Trolls Theme as Bilbo is sent by Fili and Kili after the lumbering creature, the music scoring the humorous predicament but keeping the threat of the Trolls clearly focused, the string section rising to a slight swell as Bilbo traipses after the beast. 12. Roast Mutton (Extended Version) (4:58) In this sequence Shore carefully follows the beats of the scene and when the focus goes from the Trolls to Bilbo the music changes accordingly, the Trolls Theme dancing on pizzicati strings when Bilbo’s stealthy activities are seen and switching to heavier orchestrations when the Trolls are on screen. In the movie the scene is scored with a mix of music and carefully placed silences, where each provide a needed suspenseful or comedic effect. The track opens with another rendition of the transposed version of the Trolls Theme in waltz time plays on low brass over tremoloing string section as Bilbo sneaks closer to the clearing where the trio of Trolls is preparing their supper over a large fire. The full reveal of the monsters earns a ponderously low variant of the theme on double basses, which is answered by the violins, a cut switching quickly to pizzicati strings as Bilbo creeps around the clearing towards the troll's makeshift paddock in his attempt to save the ponies. The Hobbit spots a vicious looking blade on Tom’s belt, very suitable for cutting the bonds that hold the ponies behind the fence and his first attempt to retrieve is a humorous failure, the Bilbo’s Antics motif swaying playfully on woodwinds and mandolin to underscore his nervous heroism (0:30-0:40). The brief exchange of the trio and Bilbo’s second attempt at burglary receive another slightly more plodding series of pizzicato renditions of the Trolls Theme over sizzlingly suspenseful high strings that grow gradually heavier when Shore introduces more lower woodwinds into the orchestration. While the Hobbit makes his second grab at the weapon, more fateful series of celli and double bass renditions of the motif bolstered by grunting brass lead into a horrified crescendo on the tremoloing strings when Tom by accident catches Bilbo (1:36). After an unscored interrogation the Trolls decide to capture their small Burr-a-hobbit (Bilbo's stuttered answer to the question who he is, first burglar, then a hobbit) intruder to pry more information about his friends out of him, and the score returns as the trio is trying to catch the small creature. Tense and oppressive transposed variants of the Trolls Theme loom over Bilbo threateningly (1:38) when the oafish brutes attack and finally as plodding and pulsing brass chords swell Bill grabs our small hero by the legs and dangles him in the air. But the help is not far away as Kili dashes to the rescue from the forest to the valiant rhythmically ascending strains of what sounds like something between Bilbo's Adventure and Erebor Theme on horns that are supported by resolute lower string pulse (2:09), the bold leaping setting similar to the Uillean pipes led variation heard on the bonus track Erebor. The Trolls turn to meet this new enemy and the Misty Mountains Theme calls out tense yet determined on brass with resounding percussion in tow, trombones answering the horns as the whole dwarven company joins the battle to rescue the hobbit. A fierce musical battle ensues, the Trolls represented by snatches of their plodding material and aggressively stomping percussion section, the brass hurtling dissonantly blaring aleatoric howls at the heroic dwarven fanfares in combat for supremacy, the ¾ waltz time of the Troll Theme taking firm hold of the score as the creatures seem to get the upper hand. The mounting fluttering and screaming brass and string dissonances and merciless percussive blasts beating the troupe into submission with their staccato force (3:26-3:39) that end in a surging tremolo of high strings when the monsters force the dwarves to capitulate under the threat that the Trolls will tear the hobbit to pieces. And thus the dwarves are then summarily tied, gagged and stuffed into sacks, except for those unfortunates who are put above the fire to be cooked and eaten first. Bilbo in his desperation sees that dawn is approaching and decides to play for time, knowing sunlit is the trolls' chief weakness that turns Stone Trolls to stone of the mountains from which they were born. Shore answers with a waltzing rhythm derived either from Bilbo’s Antics motif or the Troll’s Theme, the music tugging humorously as the Hobbit starts his bluff, speaking nervous nonsense to his gargantuan captors about how to best season a dwarf. Soon to his relief our diminutive hero spies a grey robed shape flitting behind the rocks at the edge of the clearing. The wizard has returned! And even though they are not out of trouble yet the score allows for a quick hopeful and expectant rendition of Gandalf the Grey Theme (3:56) on glowing higher strings while the celli and basses present the Trolls Theme in counterpoint which then travels to solo clarinet over the soft tread of percussion, the motif halfway between the Trolls Theme and the Weakness and Redemption derived figure signalling a sudden turn of events and Bilbo’s quick thinking. But the slow witted cooks are getting tired of Bilbo’s culinary advise and once again the high strings start ascending into a tense knot as the Trolls decide to just eat the dwarves as they are but suddenly the violins weave a winding luminous melodic line which lead into rhythmic strains of Gandalf the Grey Theme that now appears, along with the wizard, on strings and horns and crescendos triumphantly as he splits the cliff face with the strike of his staff and releases the rays of the rising sun on the Trolls, turning them all to stone. The Special Edition Soundtrack VS The Regular Soundtrack Album and the Film Version The Special Edition soundtrack presents what is to be construed as Shore’s original take on the scene although this version leaves out several smaller sections compared to the final film version, perhaps with listening experience in mind perhaps because they were rewritten at the director's behest. The composer’s original concept uses much more dissonant and aggressive and less heroic approach for the combat with the Trolls honing in on the ferocity and chaos of the situation and presents a token appearance of the Misty Mountains Theme. This version of the battle music does not appear in the film in this form but sections of it made it to the movie. The Regular Edition soundtrack uses a full fledged and broadly orchestrated brassy rendition of the Misty Mountains Theme when the dwarven company battles the monsters, the theme repeating twice during the confrontation. This version in a slightly modified way is used also in the film and it can be guessed that the film makers wanted to give the whole scene a more heroic cast and at the same time attach this musical idea firmly to the dwarves, their heroism and their quest in the minds of the viewers/listeners. The Regular Edition of the track is truncated compared to the SE version and leaves out music from the ending of the scene. One notable difference between the album versions and the film (apart from containing the above mentioned alternate revised passages) is that the final statement of the Gandalf the Grey Theme lacks the short luminous choral burst present in the movie as Gandalf splits the rock and the sun shines through, which was probably a late addition into the cue at the sessions. 13. Troll-Hoard (2:38) Tom, Bert and Bill have been petrified, turned to stone by the rays of the morning sun and Gandalf muses that these three must have had some kind of shelter, perhaps a cave, to use during day time and our heroes make a search of the area. They soon find a dark entrance in a cliff face that leads deep into the stench and decay filled abode of the trolls, where heaps of treasure, stolen and discarded weapons and bones of the monsters’ helpless victims litter the floor. Wizard leads part of the troupe down into the darkness and chilling and ominous yawning string lines on violins and answering a compressed motif suggesting the Trolls Theme on celli follow theirs steps. When their sight is finally focused in the fluttering torch light on the troll-hoard (0:46-1:06) and its ancient treasures, chests of coins, jewels and racks of weapons, a gloomy variation on the Suffering of Durin's Folk calls out again on celli and is answered by the violins, the moment a harsh reminder to the dwarven prince of the lost wealth and glories of Erebor but the composer is also making a subtle reference to the corrupting influence of such riches and the dwarven greed when Bofur and others obviously covet the contents of the trolls' ill-gotten stores. Gandalf and Thorin inspect the swords in the pale musical light of the string section and as the wizard tells him that these swords were forged not by Men but Elves of Gondolin in the First Age, the celli and higher strings open into an expansive lyrical statement of subtle awe, a winding oboe line decorating the statement (1:33) evoking lost grandeur. Thorin hesitates to take the Elven weapon as his old hatred still burns deep in his stubborn mind but as Gandalf gruffly admonishes him, he unsheathes the weapon, the string section rising ever so slightly at the reveal of the blade, Gandalf the Grey Theme appearing (1:49) on solo clarinet to mark the wizard’s approval of his own elegant weapon. String layers, double basses and celli perform a rising fragment of what seems to be somewhere between the Trolls Theme and the Weakness and Redemption figures, the high strings murmuring suspensefully on top to remind us of the origins of the hoard, play as the dwarves bury part of the treasure (1:52), oboe’s sharp voice noting Thorin’s further inspection of his sword and pizzicato celli and double bass notes offering a subtle comedic slant to the dwarves’ “long term deposit” of the found gold as Dwalin looks on his comrades’ unabashed greed with slight disgust, his pride not allowing for him to take part in such base activities. And so our explorers depart the caves, deep woodwinds, bassoons in particular, exploring the Trolls' Theme/Weakness and Redemption opening notes underneath violin and viola layers (2:16) when Gandalf suddenly spots something among the debris, a dagger of Elvish make and the low orchestral sounds give away to contrasting high violins as he picks up the dagger and returns to the company. 14. Hill of Sorcery (3:51) Gandalf offers Bilbo the dagger he just found but the Hobbit first refuses it saying that he has never wielded a weapon. A sombre string phrase underscores the moment but as Gandalf tells Bilbo that true courage is not about knowing when to take a life but rather when to spare one and to emphasize the meaning of the moment the clarinet presents a gentle reading of A Hobbit’s Understanding with warm strings accompaniment, the music making an emotional statement while also drawing subtextual connection to Fellowship of the Ring, to Frodo’s and Gandalf’s discussion in Moria and at the same time presaging the events to come in the Hobbit, where the wizard’s wisdom and Bilbo’s hobbit nature will rule the fate of many. But the theme is interrupted after its first phrase as the ensemble reaches a slight crescendo, steady tread of percussion over winding string phrases, suggesting the Trolls Theme, announcing alarmly that something is approaching and the company prepares hastily to meet this oncoming threat, the forest floor rustling as the yet unseen menace approaches. But the music, Radagast the Brown Theme (0:48), reveals an ally instead of an enemy as it hastily spins its urgent string figures over the constant ticking of the sharp percussion and agitated celli, double bass and woodwind phrases when the wizard appears through the underbrush in his sled and bursts onto the forest clearing crying havoc! Gandalf slightly puzzled greets his distant colleague and inquires what has upset Radagast so and when the wizards confer while the rest of the company listens on, Radagast the Brown Theme continuously stops and starts, the score haltingly humorous. Winding quick phrases of the theme repeat in fragments, both the restless cyclical string lines and the lower register woodwind and double bass figures illustrating the befuddled mind of the nature wizard and his constantly broken train of thought, which is now also troubled by a stick insect. As Radagast finally begins his tale he reports of the strange dark sickness of the Greenwood, the decay and corruption and the appearance of the gigantic spiders (1:43) a lugubrious theme crawls forth, the Dol Guldur Descending Thirds, on lowest woodwinds, bassoons, contrabassoon and bass clarinets repeating in grave tones that continue as the wizard names the source of this evil, Dol Guldur, and cold whining high strings above and trombones and tuba below appear to evoke Gandalf’s foreboding as he in disbelief claims that he thought the old fortress abandoned. Alas the Brown Wizard knows better and the Dol Guldur Descending Thirds gains even more ponderous and urgent tone (2:27) as we now see in flashback Radagast exploring the ghostly, bramble choked and crumbling fortress at the heart of the southern Greenwood, the motif bolstered by the brass section in their darkest timbres, bowed and rubbed cymbals clashing and gnashing in sharp metallic tones, the double basses carrying the piece slowly forward. There at the heart of the Dol Guldur Radagast proceeds warily but suddenly the Threat of Dol Guldur surges forth (2:52) to announce an ambush, the brooding horns and trombones rising in menace. The appearance of the ghostly assassin, a wraith, earns a banshee wail from the string section that keens in dissonant tremolos (3:02) and as the pair does battle powerful fluttering horn fanfares proclaim the wizard’s might as he bests the creature, that leaves behind a dagger, a Morgul Blade. But at that very moment the Brown Wizard perceives the master of the fortress, the Necromancer, whose appearance, a shadow in the darkness of his abode conjures up the Necromancer’s Theme (3:13) on the double reeds, the African rhaita wailing with exotic malice, steady pulsing beat of percussion and urgent double basses evoking horror and deadly danger. And so Radagast the Brown flees, the cyclical string figures so emblematic to Radagast’s music gain a manic speed and fervour as he runs from Dol Guldur and to his sled, the ever quickening pace of the music and the portentous brass and percussion ratcheting up the tension as he speeds away with gigantic bats on his tail and heads to warn the members of his order of this new evil. 15. Warg-Scouts (3:05) Radagast has barely finished his disconcerting story when the company hears blood curdling howls filling the woods. Alarmed the group notices that their ponies have bolted and run away and when Bofur claims that the cries are not that of mere wolves, a pair of Wargs, gigantic wolf like creatures, leap from the underbrush. Thorin and others dispatch them quickly but where a warg howls, there also an orc prowls and Gandalf hastens the now steedless group into flight as their hunters can’t be far behind. When we see the Orc hunters for the first time the music leaps to life with rhythmic drive. Shore presents the Wargs and their riders with a forceful staccato motif, the brass belting out a rolling melody consisting of oppressive descending 4-note phrases while the high strings present sharp jabs, hinting at the harmonies of the Ringwraiths in the underlying rhythm, drawing again musical connections between the orcs in pursuit and the powers of Mordor that loom at the far edges of this story. As the Brown Wizard on his rabbit sled tries to lure the pack off the trail of the company, Radagast the Brown Theme’s swirling string motif becomes entwined with the Wargs music (0:08-0:18), the wizard flitting about the hillocks dotting the valley of Bruinen at an amazing speed. Drums beat a primal rhythm as they underscore the feverish escape of Thorin’s company through the thinly wooded hillocks and the driving brass fanfares call out as the ferocious monsters give chase to Radagast. The Warg Theme again hurries to the fore (0:44), the almost fugue like repetition heightening the sense of pursuit as they nearly catch up with the Rhosgobel rabbits but Radagast the Brown theme (1:01-1:11) runs circles around them in the dizzying ever winding motion of the string section while percussion bounds on, the Warg Theme growling in menace (1:13->). A lonely Warg rider leaves the pack in the middle of the chase when his mount catches the scent of the escaping dwarves. He approaches the rock formation under which the company is hiding and dissonantly mounting high strings and relentless double bass and percussion rhythm raises the tension as the low brass repeats a 4-note section of the Wargs Theme (1:31). The brass erupts in blaring ascending phrases over the ever tightening high strings when the dwarves ambush the scout, and slay the rider and the Warg. All wait and hope that they might have gone unnoticed, the unbearable tension climbing ever on in the pained tremoloing strings. But the leader of the hunters, Yaznek, hears the faint death cries of the orc scout and commands the whole Warg pack to charge towards the company’s hiding place, the insistent rhythm that has driven the piece continuing with fresh vigour (2:02). Gandalf has with his usual timely wizardly punctuality found a way to escape the the Wargs, a passage through the rock, a hidden cave on the plain behind a hillock. Surrounded by the pulsing rhythm in the lower strings and heavy percussion that constantly skirts the Warg Theme Thorin heroically defends the retreating dwarves and the Erebor Theme erupts on proud yet strained horns to exclaim his determination and valiant efforts (2:09) as he covers his comrades’ escape and is the last one to dive into the safety of the cave before the approaching Warg horde. Up on the plain the orcs and their mounts, who have just lost their quarry, suddenly find that the tide has turned on them when they suddenly face a new enemy. The orchestra plunges into a militaristic and driving horn reading of the Lothlorien Theme (2:30) bolstered with snare drum and heavy battery of percussion to announce the appearance of a squadron of elven warriors on horseback. Shore’s music seems to offer us a piece of musical misdirection or commentary, the appearance of the Lothlorien theme perhaps enhancing the mysterious appearance of these unknown allies, who swiftly and determinedly dispatch the orcs, the score moving from heroic fanfares for the unexpected rescue to suspenseful web of the tremoloing string layers when we see the leader of the pack Yaznek and few of his followers barely escaping with their life and Thorin grimly noting that the rescuers are indeed Elves as he inspects an arrow from a corpse of an orc who landed in the cave during the swift and brutal fracas. The Soundtrack Album VS The Film The soundtrack album version of the piece is an edited down version of the music compared to the movie which removes e.g. the repetitive driving solo percussion sections which add to the tension of the scene and some other orchestral passages are removed from the album version. One notable change in the film version is the omission of the Radagast the Brown material altogether and his swirling string material is completely absent and rescored for the movie, which suggests that the film makers in the end opted to remove much of the original musical personality Shore had intended for Radagast from the film. Disc 2: 1. The Hidden Valley (3:49) Tentative string and woodwind harmonies form a halting melodic line as the dwarven company follows an underground tunnel from the cave to an unknown destination, the rising figures looming over the troop like the cliff faces above them. Thorin is resentful to Gandalf for steering them towards the elven refuge of Rivendell and the lower strings and woodwinds express his apprehension, hinting at Thorin's Theme harmonies. Suddenly the company reaches the ravine’s mouth and steps into the open air again and the music slowly opens into an equally expressive statement, the score quoting another rising and falling string figure (0:41-), which sounds like a slightly modified variant of the Evil Times from the LotR collection of Ring Quest themes although it sounds almost like a sigh of relief, the inherent weariness of that theme subdued here as the valley of Imladris is seen below them and this leads into a tremoloing string crescendo that is accompanied by tubular bells as they stare the opening vista in amazement. As Bilbo, our protagonist, finally turns his gaze to the great valley Shore takes the orchestra into an opulently expansive reading of the Rivendell Theme (0:59) which exudes wonder, awe and majesty. At this time, long before the War of the Ring, Imladris is timeless and unchanged and thus the theme is still beautifully resounding, its colours bright and gleaming with no signs of diminishment, the arpeggios still flowing with immortal vigour of the elven people and the melody of the theme itself rising gracefully on female chorus amid the glinting elegance of the orchestral chimes and harp glissandi, all extolling the nearly otherworldly allure of Rivendell in the eyes of the hobbit and his companions. The theme is also set to new words in Sindarin, Rivendell Revealed by Philippa Boyens, that beckon the weary travellers to enter in peace: Edwenno brestaid en-Amar Lay down your troubles, set aside your fear The Rivendell Theme moves to its emblematic string arpeggios as the troupe makes its way down to the valley and arrives to the courts of the Last Homely House, the theme’s choral lines rising gracefully ever upwards, evoking the magically serene atmosphere of Elrond’s house. Shore develops the melodic contour of the Rivendell material even further here than he did in LotR, the female choir exploring new avenues through the theme’s harmonies, the tone welcoming, warm and lyrical, the music towering ethereal above the characters like the tall and graceful elven spires of the refuge. Lindir, one of Elrond’s councillors, greets the company and Gandalf at the gates and the music continues reassuringly gentle and lofty, the rising string figures, woodwinds and light women’s chorus creating a feel of stately refinement all the while Thorin glowers at their host, reluctant in his pride to ask for help from the elves, who he feels are all untrustworthy. As Gandalf inquires where lord Elrond might be, a slight tension creeps into the music through suspensefully arching string tremolos but the wizard’s question is soon answered by the muscular canter of a new motif (3:14) as the lord of Rivendell, Elrond Half-Elven returns with his warriors, riding to the courtyard and surrounding Thorin’s company, the score leaping into a martial march for brass, percussion and strings, a rare display of aggression in the elven music of Rivendell. While the lower strings form the insistent rhythmic base, the alarmed high strings melody and brass exclamations dot the march, the music illustrating as much the noble Elven warriors and their entrance as it does the dwarves’ distrust of the elves and their fear of being ambushed, the score coming to rest on a reassuring clarinet chord that dispels the fear from the mind of the listener if not from the minds of Thorin and his company who continue to glower at their host. 2. Moon Runes (Extended Version) (3:38) Elrond dismounts and greets his guests, the dwarves still doubtful, but the score presents a warm token of friendship in a gentle reading of a motif resembling the Evil Times, this time in major key and supported by a reassuring and singing tones of the celli section, the musical idea perhaps suggesting here the reversal of fortunes or just elaborating on the Rivendell arpeggio forms in longer lined exploration. The master of the Last Homely House welcomes Gandalf and his friends into the shelter of his home and an ascending string line accompanied by a subtle harp figure climbs up when Thorin reluctantly accepts the help of the Elven loremaster, the music containing a hint of tension as the two take measure of each other, the dwarven prince showing again his stubborn prejudice against all Elves. Horns continue the phrase but seem to weave dwarven colours into the music, the harmonies pointing toward the dwarven musical colours before fading away into silence. The music moves ahead to a later scene when Elrond, Gandalf, Thorin, Balin and Bilbo gather in Elrond’s chambers and the wizard urges the dwarf leader to show the map of Erebor to master Elrond. Thorin shows his reluctance yet again, his pride almost getting the better of him but finally surrenders the parchment to the Elven loremaster. As he does so Shore presents a lyrical solo cor anglais reading of the Erebor Theme accompanied by warm low strings (0:59), conjuring up in music the destination of their quest and the crowning of the dwarven hopes, while solo harp answers in descending phrases of the same theme, revealing to us the ever burning desire on Thorin’s mind. Elrond exclaims to the surprise of all present that the parchment contains hidden moon runes and the Erebor’s ascending idea is joined by a new expansive melody (1:19) on clear horns and strings, which seems to draw its colours from both the Elven and dwarven melodies before soaring into a magnificent string led crescendo around 2 minute mark when Elrond takes them to a special precipice above the valley where he intends to decipher the message hidden in the map. As the parchment is placed on a table of pure crystal high above the valley floor where waterfalls surround a special vantage, Erebor Theme soars forth, this time on resounding celli and violins and supported by murmuring string layers, and blossoms into a high chorus, a very elven colour, as the moon shines upon the ledge. Here Shore unites the elven and dwarven musical worlds as they are working in rare collaboration and reverses their musical colours. As a gleaming solo trumpet supported by the elven female chorus intones a new mysteriously glowing variant of the Erebor Theme, the celli and basses weave in the Rivendell arpeggios beneath in the low registers, which again is often used for the dwarves. The knowledge and skill of the Elves helps to reveals a long hidden dwarven secret of Thror’s map as lines of hidden writing appears on its surface. Elrond recites a cryptic message found on the map "Stand by the grey stone when the thrush knocks and the setting sun with the last light of Durin's Day will shine upon the key-hole.” and Thorin’s Theme on proud and noble strings and horns animates the dwarf prince’s pondering as he tries to decipher the meaning of this clue and segues to the Erebor Theme, a cor anglais solo answered by the horns when Balin concerned points out that they have to stand at the dwarven secret door at exactly the right time to find and open it before the music draws to a gloomier close on sombre strings as Elrond warns Thorin against the folly of such perilous quest. He enigmatically adds that he and Gandalf are not the only guardians keeping watch over Middle-earth. The Special Edition Soundtrack VS The Regular Soundtrack Album and the Film Version The film version of the cue is slightly different than what is presented on the Special Edition soundtrack. The cue used in the movie can be heard on the Regular Edition of the album, which contains a different ending, the luminous music for the revelation of the moon runes followed by silence and omitting Thorin’s Theme altogether and seguing into a soft solo harp statement of Erebor Theme for Balin’s words of dwarven lore and drawing to a mysterious close similar to that found on the extended SE version. 3. The Defiler (1:12) Meanwhile Yaznek and the orcs who escaped with their lives from their skirmish with the elves report back to their leader in the ruins of the fallen watch tower upon Weathertop. As it is revealed that their master is none other than Azog, who survived his terrible wounds at the battle of Azanulbizar and is now burning with vengeance against Durin’s heir, violently shivering double bass and celli tremolos and chtonic rumble of timpani and percussion awaken Azog’s Theme that growls on the deepest most brutal brass voices (0:05->), repeating with oppressive terror and becoming the focus of single-minded development in this brief cue. Yaznek prostrates himself and begs for forgiveness for his failure but the Pale Orc is not in a merciful mood. He strangles his minion with a twisted metal hand he now has in place of the one Thorin Oakenshield cut off and throws Yaznek to the wargs while a slowly grinding orchestral rumble with torturous horn progressions climbs to a swirling string crescendo as the canine beasts descend on their former master with the rest of the survivors looking on in quaking fear. Azog proclaims a price on the dwarves’ heads and Azog’s Theme returns (0:56) as a cruel snarl on low brass, horns, trombones and tuba. He commands his riders forth to spread the word and the music again mounts into a dissonant cluster of orchestral sections with lowest voices of the strings, brass and percussion joined by a sickening high end tremolos of the violins and violas, a musical equivalent of a foreboding shiver. 4. The White Council (Extended) (9:42) The piece opens with music for a scene exclusive to the Extended Edition of the film (0:00-3:32), where we see Bilbo exploring the Last Homely House and chancing upon the shards of Narsil. The Rivendell arpeggios flow gracefully underneath on sonorous warm timbres of double basses and graceful celli as the Rivendell Theme harmonies are sung by a serene and clear female chorus, the hue of the music wondrous and probing, underscoring Bilbo’s wonder filled walk through the elven halls. But all of a sudden a threatening edge creeps into the music (0:38), a familiar but terrifying musical memory, the Mordor Descending Thirds haltingly animating in the lower reaches of the string section and repeating in snippets while high strings create an alarmed sheen over the motif as Bilbo encounters the Sword that Was Broken upon its dais and beside it the terrible image of the contest between Isildur and Sauron on the slopes of Mount Doom in a painting behind it. The theme makes a fleeting appearance here and fails to coalesce in full form, the horror of this ancient evil in Bilbo’s eyes nothing but an ominous memory in the murals of Elrond’s House but drawing still an inevitable connection between The Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings, a harrowing musical harbinger. The shadow of the past is soon dispelled as pulsing, pearly, bell-like tones of flute figures and majestically peeling chimes herald a full reading of the Rivendell Theme when the hobbit meets the master of the house Elrond Half-Elven, both the emblematic chorus and the arpeggios gleaming with ethereal grace, projecting stately and learned atmosphere before a solo clarinet, simple and unadorned conjures thoughts of home as the first part of Bilbo’s theme, Dreaming of Bag End, calls out (1:32) as our small protagonist shares his thoughts with Elrond. The mighty loremaster and the homesick halfling talk and the score expresses Bilbo’s yearning for the simple comforts of his Hobbit hole and perhaps the simpler life he now seems to have left behind and the strings take up the melody with gentle harp accompaniment passing phrases and alternating with the clarinet as Elrond reassures his small guest he is always welcome to stay at Rivendell. An expansive slowly descending and ascending series of lines on strings and horns follow chord progressions derived subtly from the dwarven material in this music for an extended scene (2:26-3:34) underscoring Gandalf’s and Elrond’s discussion about Thorin and the quest Gandalf has set in motion. Both Bilbo and Thorin overhear this argument and weary and moody long phrases from strings and brass, that develop the descending ending phrases of Thorin's Theme and perhaps presage the House of Durin theme in shape and contour, convey both the concern of the Wise and the dwarf prince's reaction to the words of the wizard and the elf lord who discuss the susceptibility to madness that lies upon Thorin's family line. As these two members of the White Council ascend into a chamber high above valley to confer with one another the music continues in subdued hues, the Rivendell arpeggios now gloomily performed by the quietly ominous double basses to illustrate the grave circumstances of their meeting. The half-elven sage reveals that they are not alone and that Gandalf should answer for setting up the quest of Erebor to others as well, which evokes an ascending string cluster that blooms into exotic colours as a female chorus over the drone of monochord and string harmonies chants in Quenya a familiar musical idea (3:52), the Lothlorien Theme for the appearance of Lady Galadriel, who stands ethereal in the moon light, Shore’s modified maqam hijaz scale for the theme exuding mystical Eastern tinged harmonies. Instead of the words heard before in Lord of the Rings the theme, like the Rivendell Theme before it, is now set into new lyrics (again by Philippa Boyens), conveying the Elven queen’s grace and hidden power and alluding perhaps both to her Ring of Power, Nenya, and her luminous presence: Ninque sile mise nár / Nóna silme andané A white fire shines within her / The light of star born long ago The Grey Wizard is glad of this turn of events and greets the queen of Lothlorien with warmth and reverence but still the afore heard strings and horn statement (heard initially at 2:26) quickly guides us to another revelation when Gandalf is told that lady Galadriel did not summon this meeting. For it was Saruman, the head of the Istari, who called them here and now steps forward and the Isengard Theme arrives (4:41) with him on low brass but here it is clouded in a mist of high string harmonies, a subtly disturbing musical reminder of the future as we see Gandalf’s strained and surprised expression. Something momentous must be afoot for the head of the order to summon them to a meeting like this. And so the White Council is gathered. Mysterious atmosphere created by ambivalent string and brass harmonies wafts through the air as they ponder on all the news gathered before them, the previously heard solemn brass and string motifs forming a starting point for this material, Shore scoring the dialogue with subtle sighing musical accents. Gandalf expresses his fears that something powerful and dangerous is rising and is behind the growing darkness in the world and the Dol Guldur Descending Thirds materialize with these thoughts (5:55) on horns, tenebrous and menacing. Lower woodwinds, bassoons and contrabassoons soon add their throaty sonorities to the repeating variations of this shadowy motif as the wizard mentions the Necromancer. Saruman is ever doubtful of the dark news and presents counter arguments, scoffing at Gandalf’s mention of Radagast as the source of the news on the troubles of Mirkwood and this Necromancer as he thinks the Brown wizard no more than an addled hermit with too much fondness for mushrooms. But Galadriel advices Mithrandir to present the evidence Radagast had found and a darker foreboding takes slowly hold of the score (6:43-7:43), an eerie reading of the mysterious choral line of Radagast's music ( Radagast's Secondary Theme) flowing forth, opening with an repeating up-and-down running string line that is here not typically restless but transformed into something almost hypnotic by the composer. The music makes a connection to a previous scene where we saw the wizard discovering the darkening of Mirkwood and this motif seems to be another musical reference to the Brown Wizard's strange powers and connection to Nature. It nervously winds ever on and is joined this time by a ghostly female choir, almost like an subtle re-purposing of Nature’s musical timbres where the purity of the choral sound receives a more ambiguous almost ominous edge as the piece climbs alarmingly to a pinched crescendo of choir and chilling high strings when Elrond opens the cloth wrapped parcel Gandalf brings forth from the folds of his robe. The revelation of a Morgul Blade shocks everyone present and this ill news is greeted by an urgent and oppressive statement of the Threat of Dol Guldur (7:42), the orchestrations mirroring those of the Dol Guldur Descending Thirds with its lowest possible brass and woodwinds, the timpani rumbles spiking the horrific weight of this evidence. The motif continues to rise in urgency and power when Galadriel recognizes the weapon belonging to the Witch-King of Angmar but says that it was buried with him long ago in the High Fells of Rhudaur by the Men of the North when the kingdom of Angmar fell and Elrond confirms that the tomb was protected by powerful spells that could not have been broken. As if as an answer to their words the score presents a pinched yet maliciously languid rendition of the Necromancer’s Theme on oboe (8:08), the voice of the instrument calm yet oddly piercing and wicked here, the melodic line winding sinuously on, almost like a shared evil premonition of the Council on the mysterious power capable of breaking those mighty wards and freeing the Witch-King. But none of them dare to admit this possibility as the truth. Saruman is still not convinced that the White Council should act, and low murmur of double basses, celli and brass lines answer to each other haltingly in a rising and falling breath-like fashion as he argues against rash actions and the dwarves’ planned quest for Erebor. Galadriel suddenly realizes Gandalf’s stratagem of playing time as she senses that the dwarves are leaving and that the Council cannot stop them and the wordless communication between them earns an ethereal and exotic choral line above cold high strings figures. And soon enough Lindír arrives to announce to the council that Thorin's company has departed from Rivendell. In the Making The piece plays out mostly intact in the extended version of the film although keeping with the philosophy of presenting Bilbo with the general qualities of the hobbits and as a resident of the Shire rather emphasizing his own personality, the statement of Bilbo's Theme (Dreaming of Bag End) is once again replaced by a rendition of the Pensive Setting of the Shire Theme. Curiously enough a brief horn rendition of Bilbo's Theme remained in the film underscoring Elrond and Lindir's discussion and the dwarves' unceremonious use of an elven fountain as a bath but this version of the theme was not taken from the track presented on the soundtrack album but is a new revised recording. 5. Over Hill (3:43) The dwarves have indeed set on their journey once more, already climbing the cliff side path out of Rivendell and back onto the road that leads to the Misty Mountains. Thorin heads the company and dispenses warnings and orders to them all. A solo horn over string section sings a lonely yet courageous melodic line of the Misty Mountains Theme, the journey to the Lonely Mountain continuing once more, the music capturing Bilbo’s rather rueful last look on the magical valley of Imladris. Thorin’s Theme however appears to urge him and the dwarves on with valiant brass and strings reading that sends the company on its way as it rises to a noble and hopeful crescendo. Meanwhile Gandalf and Galadriel confer in private, the placid string lines forming a base from which the Lothlorien Theme blossoms diaphanous and lyrical, Shore setting the theme on his solo woodwind of choice, the English horn, the melody wafting exotically in the still air as the Lady of the Golden Wood expresses her private concern for the growing darkness, an enemy which has not yet revealed itself. She urges Gandalf, despite Saruman’s orders, to solve the mystery of the Morgul Blade and warns him to be careful on his journey. The hushed strings voice concern over these dark matters but as Galadriel asks the wizard, why he chose Bilbo Baggins, a hobbit, to be on this quest, the orchestra slowly gains warmth from the harmonies of the Shire that lead into a gentle clarinet reading of the Pensive Setting of the Shire Theme (1:38), Gandalf expounding on his belief in the simple courage of ordinary people, like Bilbo Baggins, to keep the darkness at bay, the musical gesture unadorned and touching as the Istar and the elven queen bid farewells. The company of Thorin Oakenshield is making their way across the foothills towards the mountains that loom closer and closer and are accompanied by the Misty Mountains Theme, which is here (2:24 onwards) presented in its most magnificent reading yet. Pounding bass drum sets a steady pace for this piece of travelling music while the horns over string support slowly and broadly perform the melodic line with steadfast dwarven heroism while snatches of Thorin’s Theme are heard in the clarion-like trumpet counterpoint, again clearly assigning him as the driving force and leader of the trek. The music gradually grows into a brilliant full ensemble reading of the Misty Mountains Theme where horns carry the melody supported by leaping violin figures (hinting at the Hobbit Skip-Beat), courageous heralding trumpet counterpoint answering the horns with Thorin’s Theme, which takes over in resolutely ascending strings as the cue reaches a resounding fateful crescendo when we transition from the travelling montage to a stormy mountain side where the company is trudging on in the pouring rain. Soundtrack Album VS the Film The music in the film is a later revision and the soundtrack album contains what is likely the early version Shore wrote for the scene. In the film the music for Gandalf’s and Galadriel’s discussion remains the same as on the soundtrack until 1:05, when Lothlorien Theme ends. The following segment (1:05-2:16) is nearly entirely unused and replaced in the film (a transitioning string segment in 1:24-1:37 remains in the movie to underscore the final moment of the discussion). In the film the section of the scene where Gandalf discusses Bilbo and the simple courage of normal folk features a near note-for-note quote of Hymn Setting of the Shire Theme from the Breaking of the Fellowship scene in FotR with tin whistle over strings, whereas the album uses the Pensive Setting of the Shire Theme on clarinet. The film makers probably thought that the Pensive Setting was not emotionally powerful enough to emphasize Gandalf's connection to Bilbo so they replaced it with another variant of the Shire Theme. It is worth noting Shore originally scored this particular scene with the Shire Theme and not Bilbo's Themes so it is another moment where Shore's original subtler intention was swapped for something more heavy handed and undoutedly direct thematic statement playing on the nostalgia factor of the audience for emotional response. 6. A Thunder Battle (3:56) This composition is very much one of the "Monsters of Middle-earth" parts of these scores and almost entirely focuses on musically depicting the Stone Giants that the company faces in the Misty Mountains. Amidst the thunder and rain an enormous boulder comes sailing through the lightning flecked darkness, which is answered by an alarmed climbing 3-chord motif on brass and strings, that rises suddenly in the orchestra when the dwarves and the hobbit take heed of Dwalin’s timely warning and press against the cliff as the rock strikes the mountain lee above them and hail of stones and falling debris strikes the mountainside and threatens to crush them. Shore seems to treat this piece as a musical mirror of the Stone Giants that are attacking each other in the deafening storm and pits the brass section against the strings, each hurtling vertical and rhythmic 3- and 2-note patterns against each other all the while percussion section pounds forceful driving rhythms underneath, the simple but powerful chord progressions signifying weight, colossal size, intense danger and the sheer might of Nature. The piece also seems to share stylistic shades with the ponderously mighty progressions that assault the Fellowship on their way through the Red Horn Gate in The Fellowship of the Ring when Gandalf battled the raging blizzard conjured up by Saruman. At 1:02 the fight intensifies, the dwarven company trapped on a knee of a Stone Giant, holding on for dear life when these two titanic creatures pummel each other, two mountains come to life. The music follows the established forceful, unstoppable drive, which now continues to accelerate, the strings moving in relentless marching staccato rhythms, while the brass pelts our protagonists with towering rising chords, percussion pounding with relentless power, gong adding fulgurant interjections. The company is separated as half of the dwarves, including the Hobbit, find themselves riding on the other Stone Giant’s knee, while the rest watch helplessly on. The fracas is merciless and while Thorin and rest of the dwarves dodge cascades of crumbling rock about them and try to keep themselves from falling into the ravines below, they see how the other giant is destroyed, the collapsing colossus crashing against the mountain with terrible force and taking half of the dwarven company with it. Here the violins and violas lurch (2:11) into a swaying upward climbing and downward sliding melody, referencing possibly the Weakness and Redemption, with the horns, trombones and tuba playing an answering phrase with a fatal knell to it when Thorin looks on in desperation, fearing half of his followers, including his kinsman, dead as the Stone Giant falls to its destruction. But the orchestra opens soon into a salvatory major mode fanfare to signify their miraculous escape from the jaws of almost certain death as the rest of the company hurries to them. Bilbo is however, left hanging on the ledge in his desperate leap from the Giant’s knee and hangs above the abyss by his hands alone. Equally desperate burst from trombones and nervously tremoloing strings (2:44) illustrates this predicament and as the dwarves charge to his rescue pained upward surging brass exclamations and suspenseful string figures ratchet the tension as he starts loosing his grip on the slippery rocks. Thorin pulls the Hobbit up but is close to a fall and the similarly dire orchestrations continue until he is also fished out of the danger. Sombre and defeated strings play a sad snippet of a melody when Thorin angrily suggests that Bilbo is a useless addition to the company, always in need of a rescue (3:22), before he commands his group to a shelter of a nearby cave. Out in the storm Azog and his Warg riders are on the trail of their enemy, Azog’s Theme erupting from a bed of deep double bass and celli tremolos on fierce and brutally ugly horns as the orcs continue their pursuit. 7. Under Hill (1:55) The company takes refuge in a dry spacious cave, where they set up camp for the night. During the evening disheartened Bilbo decides that he is not adventurous material after all and makes ready to return to Rivendell on his own. Before he can step out, the floor of the cave suddenly gives away underneath them, a giant trap door plunging the dwarves and the hobbit head first into underground tunnels, the lair of goblins of the Misty Mountains. There the dwarves are immediately met by a horde of these creatures, which unstoppably overpowers them by their sheer numbers and carry them off as prisoners. Bilbo is left alone, ignored because of his small size and sheer luck but is then confronted by a single goblin and during their vicious fight they both plummet off a ledge and into the darkness of the caves below. Although there is a clear leitmotific identification for the monsters linked to the Mordorean host of Evil themes, the goblin material often thrives in textural elements alone, their music a frightening collage of harsh dissonant voices from different sections of the orchestra intended to evoke hatred, aggression, fear, revulsion and panic. The album presents an amalgam of the goblin music, an edited piece containing the main elements of their musical ideas featured in the opening Goblin Town scenes. The music opens as the goblins are hauling the captive dwarves into the heart of the Goblin Town (0:00-0:38), a massive subterranean shanty town dwelling of these vile, barbaric and diseased creatures, where also their leader the Great Goblin holds his seat of power. A loping rhythm on percussion with subtle high strings adding tension underscores the throng moving on in a constant stream and literally pushing the dwarves before them, the rhythmic device bearing resemblance with the orcish Five Beat Pattern from LotR but it keeps changing, unable to keep itself in one time signature, depicting the undisciplined, unpredictable and violent nature of the goblins. A wicked blaring series of malevolent fanfares sounds on trombones, tuba and trumpets and answered by horns, containing snatches of an angular melody, gleeful and malevolent, as we see a wide shot of the rickety wooden platforms and structures above the endless ravines and tortured crevasses upon which the Goblin Town is build on, a nightmarish and fantastical vision. The same melody continues for the introduction of the Great Goblin, a monstrously gigantic and obese creature, on his throne, before which Thorin’s company is unceremoniously escorted. The music then jumps a bit backwards in the Goblin Town sequence with snarlingly fluttering trumpets in highest registers and 5/4 Five Beat Pattern continuing (0:37-1:08), this time depicting the moment when the goblins come and over power the dwarves when they drop through the trap door. The music emerges lopsidedly with plodding strength as the percussion and low brass performs the rhythmic aspect while the trumpets and strings present continuously more alarmed and pained series of jarring aleatoric and dissonant cries, the rhythm once again unravelling into a series of different time signatures although a 3-chord insistent nucleus, the Goblin Theme, becomes the most prevalent. This is an organized musical chaos where the orchestra registers the horror and alarm of the assault of these terrifying monsters before fading into tremoloing high strings as the dwarves are carried off and the roiling mass of goblins passes out of Bilbo’s sight. Again the music jumps forward (1:08-1:55) to the interrogation of the dwarves by the Great Goblin but it is not the Goblin Theme or their aggressive unpredictable music that we hear. As the corpulent king of the Goblin Town mentions that there is a price on Thorin’s head Azog’s Theme rises repeatedly and slow on ominous horns with chilling high sustained strings in tow, when the dwarven prince incredulously comes to know that the Pale Orc is alive, the piece culminating in an ascending series of fateful 3-note figures (suggesting the Goblin Theme) as the Great Goblin dispatches his diminutive scribe to send word to Azog. 8. Riddles in the Dark (5:23) The piece presented on the soundtrack albums probably contains Shore’s original intentions for the scene. This is a collection of cues for Bilbo’s encounter with Gollum, shorter musical pieces joined together on the album for listening purposes but it is also probable that it does not contain all the music Shore composed for the sequence. Much of this score is unused in the film with only a few select sections ending up in the underscore, while most of the sequence was re-written and as a result contains numerous quite direct references to several cues from LotR trilogy featuring Gollum’s themes. The below dramatic outline for the track is pure conjecture on my part, an attempt to figure out, how this piece presented on the album would fit into the film. Bilbo wakes up in the darkness somewhere in the depths of the mountains, where his fall was luckily dampened by a bed of giant mushrooms. He quickly realizes that the goblin, who fell with him, is lying only a few feet away on the cavern floor, ragged breathing of the monster and the bluish light of the halfling’s sword telling us that it is alive. But out of the inky blackness of a nearby tunnel two pale eyes emerge, and we soon see a curious black creature with spindly arms and legs, Gollum, who approaches the prone goblin while muttering to himself constantly. Bilbo stares in horror how the creature starts to haul the orc away to obviously make a meal out of it but suddenly the monster awakens and the two have a short and violent scuffle where Gollum knocks his prey out with a rock. The music comes in on almost a croaking rhythmic figure on double basses and contrabassoons with sustained violas, violins and steady tread of percussion in support as Gollum beats the goblin warrior violently. Such is the intensity of the brief brutal fracas that a small golden ring falls out of Gollum’s pocket during his savage onslaught and at 0:17 Shore underscores this moment with a drawn out appearance of the History of the Ring Theme on violins. But the shape of the motif is slightly altered here as the history of the One Ring is now in flux and it has just left Gollum and the music registers this with a more active variation of the theme. This is a significant moment on its journey and Shore animates both the Ring’s intention and the shift in its progress and eschews the nearly static form that this theme possessed in FotR. Not only is Shore employing a leitmotif in an effective manner, he is also drawing a clear connection between LotR and the Hobbit, which the knowing audience is aware of, the link between the theme and the Ring and all that it implies, the music communicating a shared knowledge between the viewers and the composer that the main character is entirely unaware of at this time. Ghostly string divisi tremolo as Gollum drags his prey away and a cold clear oboe line shines alone in the darkness as we see Bilbo fumble after his sword, still glowing on the floor, the music recalling the lyrical revelation of the Elvish blades in the Troll-hoard. Suddenly the strings swell dramatically (0:45) and sing out a tantalizing slightly halting ¾ variation on the History of the Ring Theme, the cor anglais ghosted by strings, when Bilbo spots the gleam of gold and picks up the ring, pocketing it without much thought, the music however again making note of the One Ring passing hands, claiming a new unwitting master. The desperate Hobbit shadows the frightening creature deeper into the caves and the strings divide into intensifying tremoloing layers with horn lines ascending portentously as camera pans away from our protagonist, revealing a dark roughly hewn passage worming further into the eternal gloom that dwells in the mountains roots. For the hobbit is hoping beyond all hope that this terrifying skulking creature could show him a way out after all. And so Bilbo follows wretched Gollum to an underground lake, where the creature has already started to prepare his monstrous victim for lunch while singing an off-tune forlon song in a ragged voice. Unfortunately the halfling is careless while peering to see better and Gollum senses an intruder. The frightened Hobbit presses himself behind a rock while melanholic yet sly string phrases slide slowly up-and-down (1:20), suggesting the The Pity of Gollum harmonies when we see the creature silently paddling his small coracle with his hands, approaching stealthily over the inky water, the tone of the music still yet anticipatory, before accompanied by a slight tremoloing string crescendo Gollum emerges between the rocks above Bilbo’s head. A dangerous new colour creeps into the music when Bilbo witnesses and participates in an odd discussion between him, Smeagol and Gollum, where Gollum’s Menace surfaces with his voice, the sly and cold and winding string melody over soft trembling tread of cimbalom intimating (1:47-2:11) that something is terribly off, deadly in fact, the theme here resembling the age old Dies Irae-figure of the plainsong tradition, a woeful musical clue. This music speaks of the feral, malicious and twisted side of Gollum that seems to dominate his personality and actions in the darkness under the mountains. Bilbo is in real danger from this deranged and obviously schizophrenic creature. But then almost by accident Bilbo ends up having a riddle contest with Gollum and Shore’s music comes in at critical intervals to underscore this game of wits. If Bilbo wins the creature promises to show him the way out. The price of losing is that Gollum will eat the Hobbit whole. Much of the material following the back and forth dialogue of the two characters is left off the album and on the disc the music resumes at ending half of the contest, when Gollum is getting impatient and demands one final question from Bilbo. Nervously jumpy tremoloing string figures (2:21) illustrate Bilbo’s state of mind as he desperately wracks his brain to find a suitably diffcult riddle for Gollum to solve, while the slinking creature sits perched on a rock and getting obviously more murderously impatient by the second. In a moment of feverish thought the halfling’s hand strays into his pocket and feels the cold metal of the Ring, which prompts him to wonder out loud “What have I got in my pocket?” At this moment, even when we do not see anything, the History of the Ring Theme animates again on equally nervous high violins backed up by rhythmic violas as the music itself answers the Hobbit’s question and the strings reach an urgent small crescendo when it is Gollum’s turn to be upset as it takes Bilbo’s musings as the next riddle and accuses him of cheating. But Bilbo now adamantly stands behind his inadvertent riddle. Gollum’s distress and near childish tantrum at the unfair question is scored by a series of variation on the Pity of Gollum (2:55-3:50) that seem to mingle with Weakness and Redemption (which is inherent in the theme itself), the strings and woodwinds carrying the pitiable and sad theme as the skulking creature demands three guesses. And when he gives a wrong answer three times in a row slow breath like sighs are heard in the strings with constant tremolo undercurrent, another hint at growing anger Bilbo’s question has awoken in Gollum, who feels cheated. Gollum is now outraged but evil glee creeps into his voice when he thinks of his Precious that could help him to win this contest after all and as he triumphantly rummages his own pockets his delight turns to horror. The Precious is gone! Sad and pinched variation on the Pity of Gollum on cor anglais underpinned by tremoloing strings and subtly bubbling woodwinds plays (3:50) as Gollum is all of a sudden wracked by anger and desperation. This mix of rage and piteous sadness continues in the score while the creature frantically searches for the Precious, stones and old bones flying everywhere, the strings and brass picking again up the urgent pulsing chords that seem to signify Gollum’s anger, the frantic jitter of cimbalom joining the orchestration as a reminder of Gollum’s Menace, the lower strings paired with upper register violins and violas swelling into the chords of the Pity of Gollum/Weakness and Redemption. Bilbo, who has been in growing horror watching the odd creature’s rage and panic slips his hand into his pocket, somehow sensing that the Ring is what Gollum is after, and hides it behind his back, this small gesture earning a subtle quote of the first notes of History of the Ring Theme as he asks what the creature has lost (4:18-4:21). At this moment Bilbo sees the pitiable nature of the creature as it in enormous anguish cries and wails for the lost Precious, the composer here for the first time in the score unveiling the complete version of Pity of Gollum melodic line (4:24) on cor anglais. But Gollum is old and wicked and always suspicious of people trying to steal his treasured ring and quickly a thought takes root in his mind: Bilbo must have stolen his Precious and has it in his pocket! The Pity of Gollum slowly ascends from the woodwind setting into ominously calm high strings before black anger takes hold of the orchestra as Gollum in fury accuses Bilbo and forgets his fear of the Elvish blade and approaches him burning with mad rage. Here a rising wave of tremolos from low strings accompanied by cold, deadly and terrifying high strings and menacingly pulsing growling brass reaches a blood curdling crescendo just as Gollum screams in murderous anger and goes after Bilbo. 9. Brass Buttons (7:38) The music opens as Bilbo is fleeing through the tunnels high strings emitting a nervous quivering wail while the double basses and percussion perform rhythmic, forceful figures underneath, perhaps a nod at the Pity of Gollum’s harmonies or rather the pluckier material for the hobbits. The music articulates both the danger and the panic of the halfling’s plight as it mounts to a small string cluster and pulsing horn crescendo at 0:22 and a new pulsing metallic ticking percussion is paired with Gollum’s Menace as it appears with the vengeful creature at Bilbo’s heels, voiced by equally rhythmic woodwind forces. The pulse continues to grow in rhythmic strings, bass drum erupting underneath to exert another level of sonic foreboding as our hero’s life it as risk when he desperately tries to squeeze through a narrow gap in the passage, gets caught and pulls with all his strength, the crescendo catching the brass buttons of the hobbit’s waistcoat that fly into the air as he is free and falls to the other side. At 0:43 the mood shifts as cool violin colours placidly creep into the score, winding first toward the Pity of Gollum but then ending up in a fleeting series of variations on the History of the Ring Theme and then combining pieces of both when Bilbo accidentally dons the Ring and turns invisible and Gollum frantically berates the thief and tries in vain to find him. The music implies both the horrible and ravenous hunger that Gollum has for his Precious, his complete panic of losing it and again transports the Ring on its way through another leg of its journey as it tries to get back to its true master. This passage was entirely unused in the film (0:42-1:19), where only a different and very formal string reading of History of the Ring underscores Bilbo’s accidental donning of the Ring and the rest of the sequence plays in silence as Gollum searches for the thief. *** In the Making/Soundtrack Album VS the Film In the film Gandalf rescues Thorin’s company from the Great Goblin and his blood thirsty horde and is accompanied by a valiant string variation on his Secondary/Istari Theme, which rouses the captive dwarves into action, Shore providing another bold brass setting of the Misty Mountains for this heroic moment of defiance. This short passage can be heard only in the film, where it transitions to the following chase music. *** The story shifts to the dwarves at this point and they are also in headlong flight through the Goblin Town after Gandalf executed another nick of time rescue operation and now leads Thorin’s company through the make-shift wooden platforms that make up bulk of the cavernous city with an army of angry goblins on their tale. The music assumes a chaotic, bristlingly violent stance of the Goblin Theme, the 3-note ostinato motto repeating endlessly over varying rhythms and dissonant brass clusters. Even the Orcish 5/4 Rhythm appears amidst the sonic assaults, while a primal throaty male chorus chants ominously to the rhythm of the ostinato figure, evoking fear and vicious menace as swarms of the creatures pour from every hole and walkway to hunt for our heroes. And as usual the musical cohesion of the rhythms or the ostinati doesn’t hold for long, depicting with fitting tumult and disjointedness the goblins themselves, violent, unpredictable creatures all. At 1:53 as the hunt is at is most fervent another musical idea creeps into the Goblin music, the highly rhythmic pulses in the upper registers in different orchestral sections belting out merciless closed spaced harmonies belonging to the Ringwraiths and the rhythmic accompaniment figure of Threat of Mordor. This is a clear a musical connection to the source of all this evil, connecting the goblins to the same host of enemies as the wargs and the villains and servans of Mordor in The Lord of the Rings. The music reaches fever pitch as these searing harmonies blare out in continual waves as endless rivers of enemies flood the company’s path, and no matter how many they kill, the monsters just keep on coming, one group after another. Here in the film there is a brief pause in the score when Thorin and Dwalin topple an entire bridge of goblins and a good many more on ropes with a well timed strike at the supports of one of the walkways. But this momentary victory is followed by intensifying male chorus chanting of the Goblin Theme (2:29-) as the chase continues as hot as ever, lean ascending brass lines underpinning the voices this time as they build into a fervent crescendo when the dwarven troupe seems to be heading to a dead end. The abyss before them earns an alarming eruption from the brass voices that interweaves the panicky Dwarven parallel fifths familiar from the tenebrous depths of Moria with the tug of the Ringwraith (2:52-3:01) harmonies into a rhythmically jagged knot of strings, brass and percussion as Gandalf and Thorin create a make-shift swinging bridge out of the platform they are standing on to make across the chasm. Flutter tonguing brass and relentlessly violent percussion pushes the action on and a new rhythmic motif on deepest brass and percussion, opening with the 3-note Goblin Theme but then developing into new directions, an insistent 8-note rhythmic motif, which tries to pound our protagonists into submission through its sheer presence (3:07- ), high strings, trumpets and horns blaring chaotically above the low register tumult in pure panic and violence. The score then suddenly comes to a full halt at 3:27 as the Great Goblin appears to block their path and soon the heroes are surrounded by the goblin hordes on a narrow bridge. In the film this is preceded by an insert featuring the Misty Mountains Theme on bold horns as Thorin and others heroically dispatch another cadre of goblins but the album retains Shore’s original version of the music (presumably to an earlier cut of the movie), which is a bit shorter than in the final film. Also the encounter with the Great Goblin features a very brief cue for the death of the obese monarch of the Goblin Town, a series of rising brass chords as he is dispatched by Gandalf, which is not heard on the disc. The music resumes at 3:28 with a shuddering wavering strings lines as the bridge on which Gandalf, Thorin and the company stand, crumbles and falls, panicked brass hurtling down into the depths of the Goblin Town with the broken edifice and the dwarves onboard it, the orchestra reaching a cacophonous climax of rising chords as they reach the bottom, all alive and miraculously in one piece. A brief jumpy rhythm (3:44) on muted brass sees the dwarves out of the wreckage of the bridge, a subtle brief injection of humour into their current predicament as the dead Great Goblin crashes on top of them from the heights. Curiously Shore seems to be using what sounds like the rhythm of Bilbo’s Antics for this moment. This material travels to the woodwinds and strings but gains a more dire edge when Kili suddenly in horror spots again the army of goblins swarming down to their direction, the Goblin Theme rekindling in the deep male chorus (4:06) with their renewed threat, the ostinato repeating obsessive and ferocious over multiple rhythmic signatures. Gandalf hurries the dwarves along and says that their only chance is to reach the outside world as the goblins can’t abide the light of the sun and this may stall their pursuit. Meanwhile Gollum has reached the outer edges of the goblin caves and is getting desperate and his piteous devotion to the Ring and anxiety are implied by the miserable string harmonies of the Pity of Gollum as he in vain tries to catch the thief Baggins (4:26-). But suddenly he has to hide, when Gandalf and the dwarves hurry past him on their way to the outside world which gleams close ahead. Bilbo also catches a glimpse of his friends and a pained and anxious rendition of Weakness and Redemption/Pity of Gollum begins in the lower string section as his rescue is only a few feet away yet this way is blocked by Gollum. Bilbo is torn between his desire to follow his comrades and his fear of getting caught by the murderous creature if he tries to sneak past it. The musical phrase culminates in pinched brass chords further enhancing the hobbits desperation. He has the Ring, he is invisible and he has a weapon. It is his only way to get out of the caves. He lifts his sword and prepares to strike Gollum down. But as he is about to commit this irrevocable act, a sad and piteous musical message emerges from the orchestra to stay his hand. Now he finally really sees Gollum for what it is, huddled against a rock and nearly in tears, alone and deprived of his most precious treasure, an altogether pitiable and wretched creature and first the Pity of Gollum chords and then the full melody is unveiled in the cor anglais and strings setting with subliminal cimbalom accompaniment as Bilbo looks at his enemy in saddened and horrified pity and lets the blade fall to his side. *** In the Making/Soundtrack Album VS the Film In the film a short passage from A Hobbit’s Understanding is tracked in at this moment (from The Hill of Sorcery, Disc 1 Track 14), illustrating Bilbo’s pity and gentle nature, his simple understanding of right and wrong ruling the decision rather than purely Gollum’s sad state but the album presents Shore’s original intention utilizing purely The Pity of Gollum material. Not only does the variation on the Shire theme underline Bilbo’s humane act but it also draws dramatic subtextual parallel with Fellowship of the Ring and the scene in Moria, when Gandalf and Frodo are discussing this very moment and how Bilbo’s act may have ruled the fate of many as it eventually did. The score provides dramatic underscore but Shore continues to establish such storytelling connections between the trilogies through the cross referencing musical ideas to form another kind of musical subtext. The music from 5:50 onwards is cut from the film and replaced by tracked music and the ending of the sequence is partially re-scored. The below is a guess at how the score would have applied to the dramatic outline of this series of scene covering Bilbo’s and the company’s escape from the Goblin Town. *** As Bilbo decides to spare Gollum a new determinedly heroic motif on rhythmic horns and strings begins at 5:50. Nervously trilling and swirling violin figures join in as Bilbo gathers his courage and makes a leap over Gollum’s head. The music becomes ever more excited, the brass propulsive and driving and the cyclically spinning strings suspenseful as the creature suddenly senses something near him and tries to grab the halfling but misses by mere inches and is left miserably hurling vicious curses at the thief that has escaped out of his reach and a wailing snippet half-way between The Pity of Gollum and The History of the Ring Theme calls out (6:32), both for the passage of the One Ring out of the caves under the Misty Mountains and for the wretched creature’s helpless rage. But our small hero now races out of the caves to the mountainside bathed in the glow of the setting sun to catch up with Thorin's company and the wizard. The dwarven company is finally stopping for a short rest and to gather the troupe together and strained and weary string phrases wind on when Gandalf notes that Bilbo is missing from the tally.Dwarves are trying in vain to recall when they last saw the halfling and accusations fly to and fro as each tries to exculpate himself while the wizard is anxious and angry with them for losing the hobbit. Meanwhile Bilbo still wearing the ring has caught up with the group and arrives just in time to hear the leader of the company speak his mind. Thorin is neither surprised nor pleased about Bilbo’s disappearance and at first a gentle alto flute solo and humming mixed chorus underscore the disheartened expressions on the company’s faces, and the wordless choir subtly evokes a long melodic line derived from the harmonies of Thorin's Theme when the dwarven prince tells them scornfully that the halfling has seen his chance and fled back to his home in the Shire, showing his doubts and arrogant view on Bilbo’s character and skills much to the dismay of his followers. The score subtly connects the overweening pride Thorin exhibits here to the following scene with a bit of musical foreshadowing. While the thematic subtext might speak or arrogance, the orchestrations at the same time elicit sympathy for the hobbit when we see the rueful faces of the company, many of who have grown to like Bilbo. And our hero has heard enough and decides to appear and speak his mind and with a light touch of glowingly tremoloing violins and violas he steps out behind the tree and takes off his ring and appears before the very eyes of the amazed and the delighted dwarves and wizard. 10. Out of the Frying-Pan Bilbo answers the excited and curious questions from his friends of how he survived out of the tunnels (he makes no mention of the Ring or Gollum) and then once more pledges himself to winning back Erebor for the dwarves. Despite having just said harsh words about Bilbo, Thorin is now in turn impressed, humbled and moved by the small hero’s words that ring the simple honesty and bravery of the hobbit kind. But their reunion is interrupted as the sun is slowly falling behind the hills and the air shudders with the howls of the wargs. Azog and his hunters have caught up with them! Here begins the final action set piece of the score and Shore unleashes a true tour-de-force of orchestral action on the audience as the movie reaches its exciting conclusion. Portentous trombone chords and sizzling thrum of a gong announce appearance of the enemy and furiously rumbling brass layers coincide with a shot of Azog astride his white warg on a cliff, the music displaying the emblematic boiling orchestral colours that have followed the orc and his minions throughout the score. High string chords climb in panic above angrily writhing and erupting brass voices as Thorin and Gandalf hurry the company into a flight down the mountainside and Azog commands his hunters after them. The chase has begun in earnest. As the Warg pack leaps after the heroes the Warg Theme bursts to life at 0:20 heavier and more blood thirsty than ever before and stomps to the fore with unstoppable momentum, the 4-note figures that make up the spine of the theme joined again by the clotted harmonies of the Ringwraiths in the sharp jabbing figures of the high strings. The heavy plodding percussion and double basses continue a driving staccato rhythm (0:31) as the gigantic wolves rush through the woods to catch their prey. The sharp and angular 4-note brass howls of the Warg Theme shudder in the air, growling like the beasts themselves full of fateful menace as the orchestral surges forward propelled by the inexorable deep rhythm. Thorin and the company dispatch the first attackers quickly but many more are approaching. The music continues grim yet heroic (1:03->) as the group fights back and the brass section leaps into figures derived from the Erebor Theme to denote their valour. Gandalf directs the dwarves and the hobbit further into trees and furious violins and violas hectically bow a panicky staccato rhythm as horns and trumpets trade heroic yet pinched phrases to illustrate the desperate situation only worsening. When the dwarves take to the trees and Bilbo is trying in trembling horror to dislodge his sword from a dead Warg, the manic strings reaching fever pitch while the forest echoes the approaching voices of their vicious pursuers. The Warg Theme returns with the monsters (1:26) that leap in large numbers through the trees and in pursuit of Bilbo who just in time reaches one of the pines where the dwarves are hiding to save himself from their wicked jaws. The growling rolling canon of the 4-note phrases of the Warg Theme continues ever more violent, the driving rhythms migrating from the basses to the trumpets as the beasts surround the trees and try to get their teeth on the dwarves on their precarious perches. High string tremolos and fluttering brass figures raise the tension when suddenly a momentary sense of calm takes hold of the music as we see Gandalf on top of the highest pine gently fishing out a moth with his staff from a nearby branch (1:56-2:09), ethereal high violins and steady hum of the double basses leading to serene and pure voices of a boys and female choruses chanting the Nature’s Reclamation, an old musical ally, when the grey wizard sends his messenger for help. And in need of help the company is when the previous rhythm associated with the Wargs returns and brings with it a savage and menacing rendition of Azog’s Theme in the deepest regions of the brass section as he strides into view on his white warg (2:12), the score announcing him to the dismayed Thorin and his company in cruelly wicked tones. In the film the music pauses approximately at 2:20 of the cue after which the music on the soundtrack album jumps forward to a later part of the scene. An alternate passage for the warg’s attack on the trees where the dwarves are hiding begins at 2:21 scored by intensifying renditions of the relentless rhythm and the Warg Theme in snarling brass, sharply pounding staccato beat of the percussion section and the lowest strings, the furore and sheer violence of their assault captured in this forbidding musical portrait. As Thorin takes charge of the situation and commands his companions to jump from their hiding place to another tree for safe footing, dramatic dwarven chords derived from the most fiery variation of Dwarven Fifths/Moria Theme on tense yet heroic brass (2:43-2:53) above the continuing rhythm pace the moment with steely concern. Meanwhile the canine beasts are ripping the trees from their roots and a new musical device, a furiously seesawing and intensifying ostinato oscillating between two chords on high strings stirs to life, emoting the panic and terror of the moment (2:55). The trombones join the ostinato and erupt in deep rising and falling fanfaric motif (The Suffering of the Dwarves in an action guise?) as the trees start to fall on each other one by one, the subtle thrumming echo of a gong accenting each falling tree, trumpets taking up the idea and developing it further and becoming nearly swashbuckling in their stern rising heroism all the while the strings weave their fervent pattern underneath with the dwarves and the hobbit desperately leaping from one to the next in attempt to escape the wolves waiting on the ground. The sequence comes to a dramatic brassy crescendo as one of the trees topples over the edge of the cliff and into the valley far below (3:22). Pulsing brass phrases and sizzling tension evoking fast pulsating string patterns weave together the vile and violent Warg music and the stoic nobility of the dwarves (3:23-) as the beasts circle the last tree where all the dwarven company is hiding, powerful mounting horn phrase underscoring Gandalf’s quick thinking as he picks up the pine cones and with his magic sets them aflame and sends one flying through the air as a fiery missile at the monstrous beasts lurking below. As the pine cone hits the ground and blossoms with fire a defiant and glowingly courageous horn melody (perhaps a variation on the original Company Theme) kindles in the orchestra at 3:43 and celebrates the turn of the tide as we see the heroes fighting back and how Gandalf hands down these flaming weapons to Fili, Kili, Bilbo and others and they begin a bombardment of blazing ammunition from the heights to repel their enemies, sending the wargs into a head long flight through the burning woods. Here another short horn fanfare calls out for the momentary victory of Thorin’s company. But their luck is not to last as the tree they are sitting in gives away and starts to fall, illustrated in the score by a precariously swirling string phrase(4:20-4:24). The music jumps a bit ahead to the moment when the situation is at its worst. The woods are all aflame around the company, the tall pine has nearly fallen and Azog is barring their escape to the woods with his riders. Things look bleak when suddenly a grim and fey mood rises in Thorin Oakenshield, and an ancient enmity and hatred for Azog seems to reawaken in his heart. In a bold, foolhardy act of valour he rises and with Orcrist in his hand marches alone to face the orc chieftain. To illustrate this noble yet misguided act born of pride and desperation, passion overriding sense, Shore presents a magnificent reading of the Thorin's Theme harmonies, transforming it here into a new courageous chant for a mixed chorus (4:25). Similar reworking of Thorin's Theme was previously heard when Thorin spoke harsh proud words against Bilbo. Now the effect is vastly different and the reading receives completely new dimensions and seems to refer to Thorin's recklessness and pride at this moment that are partly born of his hatred toward Azog, partly from his sense of honour. The chorus backed by the orchestra of driving strings and percussion chants the now highly rhythmic version of the melodic line full of pride and courage in Khuzdûl as the dwarven prince rushes through the burning forest to meet his enemy in single combat. Here Shore develops the rather unassuming variant of Thorin's music into a fully realized set piece. Azog stands waiting and soon Thorin’s walk becomes a run and the Dwarven rising figures in both orchestra and chorus intensify and finally reach a momentous choral roar as the two leap at each other. But Thorin falls, the pale orc easily subduing him with a single swing of his giant mace. And so the composer illustrates the effects of Thorin foolish pride with a sudden doom laden rumble of a gong and a mournful keen burst from a female soprano soloist and choir when he falls (5:11) pained rising horn cries briefly commenting on a shot of Gandalf trying to safe Dori and Ori. A grim and fateful deep male chorus chants full of unrelenting finality in dour mourning as Azog beats Thorin down and descends upon him, shrill high strings and chaotically growling and rumbling low brass crying out as the white warg sinks its teeth into the dwarven prince. The music for this finale works as dramatic misdirection, bolstering as much audience’s expectations as it does the dwarf’s confidence, giving the aftermath of the heedless charge a much more shocking and surprising cast. The point of view is completely dwarven here, the same madness that infects Thorin at this moment becoming the musical message in the score. In the Making In the film the sequence is heavily edited and the album presents also an edited down amalgamation of Shore's original intentions for this scene. Several passages were re-written and some re-purposed sections of the score are used from elsewhere in the film to fill some parts (assuming there was no time for re-scoring). E.g. for the domino-effect of the toppling pine trees as the dwarves flee from one tree to the next was rewritten for intensity instead of swashbuckling heroism and loses the leaping and swirling string figure chord progressions. Gandalf's magical pine cones and the subsequent fire are no more scored by the victorious leaping fanfare which is replaced by a bellicose dwarven choral chant that actually hearkens back to the prologue of the film and the final part of this scene take completely different approach as it was re-scored entirely. Instead of a dwarven point of view of Shore's original draft, the music makes a 180 degree turn and utilizes the Ringwraiths' Theme (as Doug Adams revealed in Tracksounds 2014 podcast it contains modified Khuzdûl lyrics pertaining to Azog and the rise of an old enemy) from The Lord of the Rings to underscore Thorin’s reckless charge. Not only does this approach favour the evil and the villain at this moment, hinting at his allegiances and true source of power behind Azog and the strength he now possesses but also gives the audience a clue to the outcome of the dwarf’s attack, so strongly does the main motif for Sauron’s greatest servants spell out doom and defeat. The music is signalling perhaps a state of madness in Thorin but also it broadcasts fully how everything will end and thus emphasizing the victory of Azog even before it has happened. 11. A Good Omen Out of the night the thrum of gigantic wings calls and the Great Eagles of the Misty Mountains, summoned by the wizard's timely moth-messenger, sweep to the rescue of Thorin’s company. A new magnificent choral theme set in the pure tones of a female chorus that claims kinship to the Nature’s Reclamation in the purity of its sound and orchestrations if not directly melodically, soars unexpectedly through the air in a long lined melodic meditation on a rising and falling motif. Accompanied by strong cyclical string and woodwind figures that propel the piece forward with vibrant energy the theme continues to develop, the noble avians turning the tide of the battle and carry our heroes to safety, snatching them from the field of defeat (and from the burning pine) at the nick of time. The choir fades away momentarily as at 0:34 a powerful reading of the melodic idea that began the whole score in My Dear Frodo, The House of Durin Theme is reprised with triumphant force by the full orchestra accompanied by a resounding percussive tread as if to complete a circle and draw the adventures of this section of the hobbit’s journey to a close but most importantly joining it with a brief snippet of Thorin's Theme, signalling that the heir of the House of Durin, Thorin Oakenshield, has survived his duel with Azog and is now borne away to safety from the battle field. The choir returns to celebrate the rescue of the dwarves and this noble theme climbs ever higher in the choral register. A martial striding rhythm in percussion and strings (1:08) underscores the eagles' attack on Azog's minions and their rescue operation of the rest of the dwarves and is soon joined by the heraldic horns that announce the final escape of the dwarven company, hobbit and the wizard from fiery doom with dynamic reading of the leaping Erebor Theme that rings out with resolve and climbing to a higher key than usual as it is answered by the trumpets, the slightly dissonant crescendo coinciding with the furious Azog roaring his frustration and rage at his fleeing quarry. At 1:53 high strings provide a shimmering fluttering base from which a luminous solo soprano sound pierces the skies singing a new melody as the eagles are seen transporting Thorin and his company through the snow capped mountainscapes under the rising sun and female chorus appears in support as the gigantic birds of prey one by one float towards a pinnacle of rock that is oddly shaped like a head of a giant bear, the Carrock, on the eastern side of the Misty Mountains. Shore follows their approach with slowly descending swelling phrases from the orchestra. As the birds approach the stone formation the broad brass chords from horns, shimmering dividing strings and luminous tremoloing textures, wildly fluttering woodwinds and the thrum of a gong accent their arrival and create both expectant and nervous sound that equally captures the wind swept visual vistas but also relates to the dramatic situation as wounded Thorin's fate is unknown. Thorin, apparently badly hurt, is set on the stones and double basses rumble in subtle sustained tones to address the grim situation, strings presenting rising figures as suspense mounts, violins climbing coldly on the other side of the orchestra to illustrate the danger. Gandalf hurries to the dwarven prince and by wizard-craft revives him. And as Thorin is not in immediate danger anymore the high strings sigh in relief and pause for a moment. Thorin rises slowly to his feet, battered and bruised and starts towards the relieved hobbit, slowly commencing what appears to be another grim judgement on the halfling's usefulness but suddenly he smiles and admits that he has been wrong about him all along and that he is indeed a valued friend and member of the company, having just saved his life from Azog and his minions. It is not certain whether or not Shore's music for the actual embrace of friendship of Thorin and Bilbo is present on the soundtrack album, but the score next opens up in a subtle, warm and gentle rising figure reminiscent of the Shire material (3:28) but here it is now tempered with humble heroism, the Shire Theme lending its whole step figures to the contour of the Bilbo's Adventure that appears in its very basic chord progression to note that Bilbo has earned his place in the company through his selfless willingness to sacrifice himself and resolute friendship. While undulating glimmering woodwind and string figures accompany the moment as we see the Eagles depart, the Company gathers together and turns their eyes towards east where the object of their quest and their distant dream, Erebor the Lonely Mountain, rises in the horizon beyond the wooded wilds of Mirkwood. Shore introduces a brief but passionate yearning melodic line on celli as Thorin views the road ahead full of optimism (3:51-) that rekindles with his hopes before the Erebor Theme itself appears as we see the distant mountain in full, the horns announcing the motto in formal fashion with double basses forming the steadfast base to it and trombones performing the answering phrase before regal strings take over the melody in a sweeping statement. There are good omens in the air for our heroes and Thorin's Theme follows on burnished French horns, ascending proudly but unexpectedly tremoloing string textures slide into the fabric of the music and as we see far off a lonely thrush approaching the far away Erebor over the desolation of the dragon and as the camera transports us to the vast chambers filled with immeasurable treasures Smaug has pillaged, a chilling female chorus intones a fateful line. But as the final shot moves to show us the opening eye of the awakened wyrm, the score ends in the ominous growling notes of Smaug the Golden with the searing Smaug's Breath motif churning grim underneath, giving the score ominous but fitting closure full of anticipation for things to come. In the Making/ Soundtrack Album VS the Film This last scene of the film was entirely re-scored and very few vestiges of Shore's original intention remain in the film and thus the above analysis is mostly conjecture on how the music would line up with the film. As for the changes to the score in the final scene the opening soaring choral piece was replaced by a majestic and equally uplifting version of the actual Nature's Reclamation Theme set for orchestra, female soprano soloist (Clara Sanabras) and full chorus, lifting the dwarves, hobbit and wizard to safety. This of course musically fulfils the promise of the quick quote of the Nature's Reclamation Theme in the previous scene bringing not only aid but also the theme back in full force. The revised piece however shows clear marks of temp-track and Theoden Rides Forth from TTT must have worked as the template for the film version of the piece as the contours of the music correspond surprisingly clearly and audibly with it. Another notable addition to this section of the film is the new haunting soloist and choral melody that is used for the subsequent flying scene where the eagles carry the company to the Carrock, that in effect becomes a new thematic identification for the Eagles of the Misty Mountains when it is reprised in the third film of the series. The final notable and puzzling addition to the last scene is the inclusion of the Gondor Reborn theme for the moment when Bilbo and Thorin embrace as the dwarven prince finally accepts Bilbo fully to their group. Not only is it thematically strange since it has no bearing on neither the hobbits or dwarves or the story at hand, it doesn't even belong to this part of the musical Middle-earth in the sense it represents the future of the world and more specifically Gondor, the world of Men after the Ring has been destroyed. This section was apparently revised at the director's behest at a very late stage and the curious thematic choice speaks purely for the emotional element of the scene without any contextual or subtextual connection to the narrative or Shore's thematic architecture. 12. The Song of the Lonely Mountain (performed by Neil Finn) (Extended Version) This is the end credits song composed by a New Zealand singer/songwriter Neil Finn whom Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh hand-picked to write and perform this piece. Finn uses the Plan 9 melody of the Misty Mountains theme as basis for his own expansion and development on the tune and the piece receives new set of lyrics that relate to the story of Thorin's company. The Special Edition soundtrack contains an extended version of the song featuring additional instrumental passages compared to the regular album. 13. Dreaming of Bag End The bookending piece of score that closes the end credits roll (which included tracked music from e.g. The Hidden Valley and Brass Buttons to cover its entire running time) is a beautiful concert piece styled presentation of Bilbo's Theme(s). A tin whistle presents a singing rendition of the first part of Bilbo's melody, The Dreaming of Bag End, which speaks of the hobbit's comfort loving gentle side that yearns only to stay at Bag End and never go on adventures and pines for his distant home on the long journey to the Lonely Mountain. At 0:52 recorder evokes the Tookish-Side, which begins introspectively enough but soon starts to climb in almost a noble fashion, but in a very hobbity way the adventurous streak is still balanced by the earthy wisdom and simple honesty as it longingly rises ever upwards toward humble heroism. This is a perfect encapsulation of Bilbo's character, a theme-and-a-half that is a single unit but with two different parts for different character purposes as Doug Adams describes on his blog when discussing various new musical ideas for Bilbo. Exclusive Bonus Tracks 14. A Very Respectable Hobbit This piece is a short thematic suite presenting some of the new (and old) Hobbit themes for the first film. The tin whistle in very hobbity style performs a chipper variant of Bilbo's Adventure in its elemental guise soon accompanied by the Hobbit Skip-Beat. Quickly the strings take over however with a brief glimpse of Dreaming of Bag End before diving into a new lilting and playful setting of the Pensive Shire Theme. The brief suite, a miniature of the hobbit life in music form, comes to a close with Bilbo's Antics (Fussy Bilbo) on mandolin and solo violin duetting over the percussion performing the jaunty rhythms of the Hobbit Two-Step. 15. Erebor This piece is another thematic suite, exploring what seems to be a very dwarvish take on the Bilbo's Adventure theme progression but transforming it in the process into something closer to a heroic theme for the whole company. The simple hobbity form of the gently upward reaching melody is given additional dwarven cast when Uillean pipes and bold brass exchange phrases of the melody as the theme leaps up with determined nobility and doughtiness further coloured by glorious cymbal crashes. This is another unused concept for the first film but its significance can only be guessed at. It might have been one of Shore's early ideas for the “Company Theme”, a musical role which was later overtaken by Plan 9's Misty Mountains melody, or perhaps another abandoned idea for the dwarven world although its form seems to suggest a connection to the Shire and Bilbo in the opening phrases. 16. Dwarf Lords Dwarf Lords is a fully developed suite encapsulating a thematic idea that was initially connected to the dwarves and perhaps their Seven Houses and significance in the later story as the dwarves of Durin's house unite to defend the kingdom of Erebor. As mentioned in the above analysis this theme makes one quick and subtle appearance in the first film at Bag End but was abandoned after the first film. There is very uncommon flowing lyricism to this theme although it retains some of the dwarven stoicism and those familiar ever rising figures but here they are treated by the composer with expansive optimistic colours and resolute marching percussion that has shed the characteristically mournful quality of the Ereborian thematic family, more like culture in ascension than in decline. 17. The Edge of the Wild This piece is an actual film cue composed for an earlier cut of the first film, which still contained the scene where Gandalf immediately goes to investigate the High Fells after Thorin's company has departed Rivendell. The name of the piece refers to the Misty Mountains as the edge of the Wild or Wilderland, which lay at the other side of the mountain range and which is marked on the maps of The Hobbit by Tolkien. It is an interesting and significant piece not only because we can hear an earlier take on the scene but because it presents the listener with entirely new albeit later abandoned thematic material and reintroduces a motif from LotR which was then dropped in the final approach for the same scene in the DoS. The music opens with an expansive gradually ascending melody for horns, in all probability Shore's own early take on the Company Theme (similar to the one heard in the suite Erebor) that resolutely rises with the support of the rest of the brass section and nimble high string leaps that resemble the Hobbit-Skip Beat. At it's apex the theme transitions to a brief quote of the Misty Mountains Theme, which suggests that at one point there might have been another theme associated with Thorin's company aside from the Misty Mountains song melody and that there was intent of using them in tandem (at least for the first film). This passage was likely meant to score the travelling montage of the dwarves and the hobbit traversing the Misty Mountains on their way East, which was in the finished film underscored by an extended and mighty statement of the Misty Mountains Theme. This section of the track does indeed fit the sequence almost to perfection when timed against the film. Shore's initial idea seems to be more subdued, the music still addressing the journey with an optimistic theme but in a more restrained manner, the scene culminating in the shorter statement of the Misty Mountains Theme as the company is seen travelling along the top of a mountain ridge. Where the film transitions to Thorin's company in the stormy night on the mountainside (scored here by swelling dissonant strings) just prior to the Stone Giant attack, the music moves to a different scene altogether here. At 1:24 the score shifts suddenly to a new winding ancient and exotic sounding melody spinning nervously on tremoloing strings underpinned later by the deep contrabassoon and brass colours and crescendoing on bowed cymbals and timpani as we see Gandalf climbing on another hillside, the High Fells of Rhudaur, where he is investigating the dark premonition of the Morgul Blade at the tombs of the long dead servants of darkness. The tension is released into sighing mysterious and glassy high string textures when the wizard comes to the broken outer gate of the burial place and steps in warily. His sudden loss of footing on the gravel and plunge down the steep corridor earns an ugly low brass croak and mounting terror from the steely screaming strings as he saves himself from falling into the shaft-like bowels of the ancient burial chamber. In the blackness Gandalf lights his staff and in the bluish light slowly takes in his surroundings, advancing down the crumbled stair to the tombs themselves. Shore's music pulses dangerously with bowed cymbals, low brass and strings but at 2:26 a terrible musical clue is presented, the ominous melody of the Witch-King of Angmar/The Orcs of Mordor wafting subtly yet recognizably forth as the Grey Wizard peers into first of the tombs, the door a twisted ruin but with more alarmingly the stone casket broken open from the inside. The thematic choice here is on one hand very apt foreshadowing although on the other it in the strictest scheme of Shore's musical architecture is a Fourth Age theme, which represents the far-encroaching power of Mordor in The Return of the King, so its appearance here is surprising given that the forces of evil are far from announcing their presence let alone unleashing their full might. Gandalf is full of dark thoughts and peers further inside and cold sustained high strings begin to mount expectantly to culminate in a brass stringer at 3:24 when suddenly a small bird flits out of the stone coffin and Radagast the Brown appears behind the Grey Wizard startling him. In the new division of the narrative when two films were turned into three the High Fells scene was moved to the second film to take place after the company reaches the edge of Mirkwood and was subsequently re-scored. The swirling opening string melody is all that remained of the old composition and the Witch-King of Angmar/The Orcs of Mordor theme was abandoned and Shore wrote another theme in its place called simply The Nine, which specifically addresses the return of the Ringwraiths and the growing power of darkness in more mysterious hushed tones of a ghostly soloist voice and the rest of the sequence is largely underscored by foreboding use of the hints of Mordor material. ©Mikko Ojala
  15. Here is part 4 of my blog series on celebrating Star Wars themes, this one on The Phantom Menace (oh come on - you can stomach it!): http://www.filmmusicnotes.com/celebrating-star-wars-themes-part-4-of-6-duel-of-the-fates/ Enjoy!
  16. Here is part 2 of my Celebrating Star Wars series: http://www.filmmusicnotes.com/celebrating-star-wars-films-part-2-of-6-uses-of-darth-vaders-theme/ Enjoy!
  17. Here is part 3 of my Star Wars theme analyses, this one on the Emperor's theme: http://www.filmmusicnotes.com/celebrating-star-wars-themes-part-3-of-6-the-emperors-theme/ Enjoy!
  18. As a way of celebrating the Star Wars saga in honor of the upcoming Episode VII, I have begun a series of six posts on my blog that will analyze one prominent theme from each of the six films in turn. The first is on uses of the Force theme (I had an analysis of the Force theme's structure before). http://www.filmmusicnotes.com/celebrating-star-wars-part-1-of-6-uses-of-the-force-theme/ Enjoy!
  19. Here is a result of quite a few years of on and off writing as I have continually added material from new observations, fan discussions and ideas and several revelations from Doug Adams into the text. I offer first the thematic analysis of the score with the track-by-track analysis of the Special Edition soundtrack album coming later. As always comments and observations, improvement and addition suggestions are most welcome. Thanks to all the fine folks here and elsewhere for your insight and help in parsing through these magnificent scores: KK, Jay, Georg, Faleel, BloodBoal, Barnald and all others! The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Music composed, conducted and orchestrated by Howard Shore An Analysis of the Special Edition of the Soundtrack Album by Mikko Ojala The Movie In a hole in the ground there lived a Hobbit. These words begin the classic children’s novel written by J. R. R. Tolkien, a work that has now been adapted into a motion picture trilogy by director Peter Jackson and his film making crew. The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, first instalment in a trilogy of films, opened in mid-December 2012 to much anticipation from the fans of Tolkien and his beloved novels and also the film buffs, who first fell in love with Middle-earth and its multitude of characters with the award and audiences winning Lord of the Rings movie trilogy. Nearly a decade has passed since the last journey to these mythical times and lands with Return of the King and audiences were expecting the new Hobbit films to capture the same vibrancy, sense of grandeur and scope as its predecessors that have established themselves as the modern classics of the fantasy film genre. The enormous box office winnings did indeed indicate massive interest from the movie going public for this new outing to Middle-earth although the critical reception varied from tentatively positive praising the actors, visual grandeur and production design to lukewarm and negative with the new high frame rate 3D, the lack of emotional resonance, slow pacing, overt humour, episodic nature of the film and stretching of the story of the novel too thin and adding extraneous elements meant to tie The Hobbit together with LotR mentioned as the worst offenders. During the award season of 2013 the film was mostly left without accolades outside the effects and production design department. The story of The Hobbit is set 60 years before the events of the Lord of the Rings and focuses on Bilbo Baggins, at first an ordinary stay-at-home Hobbit, a model of a country gentleman, who is thrust into an adventure by a wandering wizard Gandalf, who arrives one day with 13 dwarves in tow and coaxes the timid halfling from the comforts of his hobbit hole into the wide world and on a Quest to retake the dwarven kingdom of Erebor, the Lonely Mountain, from a monstrous dragon Smaug the Golden, who had pillaged it more than a century before and is rumoured to guard its wealth still. Bilbo encounters all kind of dangers and marvels on the road and in the Wilderland on his way to the far-off mountain in the East and will learn that he might not be as timid and soft as he thought himself to be and finds the qualities that the wizard Gandalf the Grey saw underneath the gentle exterior of the Hobbit, simple courage, loyalty, quick wit and the heart of a hero. The movie features an impressive cast: Martin Freeman famed for his comedic roles and most recently for his work as John Watson in the retelling of exploits of the world's greatest consulting detective in Sherlock stars as the young Bilbo Baggins, Ian McKellen returns to reprise his role as Gandalf the Grey along with the Lord of the Rings veterans Ian Holm (old Bilbo Baggins), Hugo Weaving (Elrond), Cate Blanchett (Galadriel) and Christopher Lee (Saruman). We also meet an entire troupe of new faces, namely the 13 dwarves led by the proud and heroic dwarven prince in exile Thorin Oakenshield (Richard Armitage), his old and wise right hand warriors Balin (Ken Stott) and Dwalin (Graham McTavish) and young heroic brothers Fili and Kili (Aidan Turner and Dean O’Gorman) to name only a few of the ensemble cast. Other returning film makers from the Lord of the Rings team are the screen writers/producers Philippa Boyens and Fran Walsh, artists and concept designers John Howe and Alan Lee, production designer Dan Hennah and the director of photography Andrew Lesnie and virtually armies of extras, special effects people and craftsmen (and apparently half of New Zealand) again taking part in the giant effort of creating these films. The Composer Also, most would say inevitably, returning was the composer Howard Shore, whose contributions to the Lord of the Rings were an integral part of the fabric of these films and has since become a phenomenon in and on itself. The composer seemed to capture in his previous trilogy of scores exactly the right tone and style for Tolkien’s creation. Shore built a highly dense yet fluid leitmotific work with which to address the story, not only expressing the sheer emotional breadth and spectacle of the tale but also the multifaceted subtext of Tolkien’s complex imaginary world, offering a wide ranging musical mirror to the author’s work, that helped the audiences to immerse themselves in this epic tale and resonated outside the cinemas and has in the intervening years become a musical event, the live projections of the trilogy with orchestra and chorus played to packed houses and a symphony culled from its themes frequently heard in concert halls around the world. As the rumours of the new trilogy of films began to circulate, Shore mentioned in interviews that he was very much anticipating another adventure in Middle-earth as he had read Tolkien’s works as a 20-year old and rediscovered the novel during the scoring of the trilogy and had always held a deep affection for Tolkien’s world and writings, especially sharing the author’s keen love of the natural world. Finally the legions of the composer’s fans sighed with relief when he was officially announced as the composer of the pair of Hobbit films in 2012, although one could hardly imagine anyone taking up the mantle from him. Shore seemed to be destined to complete his epic Ring cycle with two full scores. But soon it was announced that there would be three films as there was such abundance of material written and shot that it would require three movies to tell the whole story. So as another trilogy awaited the composer, undoubtedly an epic undertaking in every sense of the word given his previous success, the fans were waiting with with growing anticipation for new musical bounties. The Score The new score presented Shore a challenge and opportunity that must have been as similar as it was different from what had come before in the Lord of the Rings. The approach was once again to be Wagnerian with multitude of leitmotifs leading, enhancing and supporting the narrative as they had done for the previous trilogy. The new tale needed of course new themes for a whole plethora of concepts, the novel a rich inspiration and source for possible central musical ideas. The story is set in the same Middle-earth, only 60 years prior to the world changing events of Tolkien’s magnum opus, and as a children’s book The Hobbit is tonally much lighter, innocent and whimsical than its “sequel”. With the new films Peter Jackson certainly created a movie saga somewhat lighter in some respects than its predecessors, humour, comedy and playfulness holding upper hand for surprisingly long stretches at a time and so the music would have to follow suit, creating a good humoured, bubbly and sprightly tone for the adventure of a wizard, an accident prone band of dwarves and one fussy, nervous and out-of-his-element Hobbit. On the other hand there is a more serious and darker strain running through these films that gradually builds over the trilogy as the movie makers also sought to connect this new trilogy tonally with The Lord of the Rings. And thus the foreboding mysteries surrounding the growing darkness in the world and the dangerous enemy that is hunting the dwarves and their leader Thorin in particular demanded appropriately brooding, aggressive and doom laden musical signatures presaging the solemnity and resoundingly dramatic approach of the Lord of the Rings. One interesting aspect pointed out by the film makers and Howard Shore himself is, that the film is nestled in the The Lord of the Rings, existing both inside and outside the larger story, as it opens with the older Bilbo writing his memoirs There and Back Again at Bag End on the eve of his 111th birthday, which is the starting point of The Fellowship of the Ring. This offers an interesting position for a composer to work forward and backward through his musical storytelling. In addition to writing new thematic material (of which there is a large collection) Shore wisely and logically employs in his thematic structure his well established themes for several places and characters from The Lord of the Rings that make reappearance in this new trilogy. The scores for The LotR were strongly focused on the different cultures of Middle-earth and the music of the Hobbit trilogy continues with the same philosophy with Shore now expanding the palette into new areas as the characters and the audiences encounter uncharted places, lands and people on this cinematic journey.The old leitmotifs from Lord of the Rings work both as musical call backs that impart a sense of familiarity and certain a dose of nostalgia, drawing the audiences comfortably back into the world of Middle-earth and also represent certain unchanging elements in this story and in part create a continuity between the trilogies. Likewise this story within a story allows Shore to expose the roots and origins of some of his musical ideas, giving him an opportunity to develop or establish the history of his grand musical architecture in The Hobbit films and to foreshadow The Lord of the Rings with his new music in a satisfying way. And while Shore’s score does all this, walking a fine line between familiar and fresh, it retains an established soundscape but naturally expands upon its foundations and explores interesting new avenues and uncharted ways in the musical Middle-earth. The Last Minute Changes in the Post Production Peter Jackson has stated in a number of interviews that scoring the first film of this new trilogy was to him the hardest, because it contained so many familiar elements to it, which required a lot of references to the old thematic ideas for quite a number of well-known characters, events and locales the film was revisiting. The director gives the impression that he and composer Shore were somewhat tied down by the old call backs and that the music could not contain much new elements as the audience had to be eased back into the world of Middle-earth. While this might be partially true, Shore's original concepts which are represented on the soundtrack albums seem to be very clear and precise and he created a lot of new material that was either completely new and original or musically derived and grew organically from the previous themes featured in the Lord of the Rings trilogy. In the final film the score compared to the earlier version locked down for the soundtracks is much different, stemming probably from Peter Jackson's and the film makers' difficulties in defining which elements of the story would need new thematic representations and which should be again depicted by the well established themes from the previous films. Naturally film making is a collaborative and organic process and sometimes you can't know what will work with the film and what will not until you see the sight and sound put together and this might well have happened with the first Hobbit film despite careful preparation begun well beforhand the scoring sessions. One major change that certainly affected the music was the sudden decision to divide the films not into two but three parts, which must have caused furious recutting (and partial reshooting) of the first film that necessitated revision of the music as well. The original version of AUJ was to end well into the Wilderland with the Forest River chase in Mirkwood but when two films became three, the structure of the narrative was revised and a new ending was devised for the first film. The Special Edition soundtrack album has some vestiges of this in the bonus tracks where we have evidence of one particular scene from original film 1 that was moved to film 2. This is the music for Gandalf's visit to the High Fells in Rhudaur (titled Edge of the Wild on the album) which was then moved to film 2 and rescored in the process. But undoubtedly this shift affected the scoring process in other ways as well. It is normal for the film makers to re-evaluate the film and its post production aspects continually and this process usually stretches to the final minute when Peter Jackson's epics are concerned, but with An Unexpected Journey it seemed to go on for unusually long. The collaboration between Shore and Jackson was very close on Lord of the Rings and Jackson himself was present at the recording sessions in London during the hectic post production schedule of these massive films. The film makers had with the previous trilogy revised the meaning of scenes through the change of music and thematic content a number of times when the film seemed to need something else, either more or less from the music, and this is very normal procedure when the composer and the director are conforming the music to the images at the recording sessions. Such recording session collaboration took place with the AUJ in a normal fashion with Peter Jackson present in London to hear Shore record his score with the London Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Voices while also conducting the postproduction process in New Zealand. This time however it seems that the whole initial concept of providing specific music for the character of hobbit Bilbo Baggins was replaced almost entirely by variations on the previously composed Shire themes. The soundtrack album testifies this as many scenes with Bilbo's new themes were at the centre of the musical meaning and subtext but in the end Jackson and his team came to the conclusion that many of these moments needed to give emphasis to the nature of hobbits rather that specifically to the nature of Bilbo and thus this meant Shore had to entirely rewrite the music for those scenes. And if this was not enough many of the revised pieces were modelled very closely to the pieces written for The Lord of the Rings mirroring their outline and contour in orchestrations and content, making it sound like they were in fact not new music at all but re-recordings of previous compositions from Lord of the Rings or as some speculated simply tracked (using existing music from another source) from the soundtracks of those films. Same fate befell the music for the eccentric wizard Radagast the Brown whose music was toned down significantly. One could speculate that this musical material was too colourful, too prominent and too intricate. Perhaps they discovered also this during the scoring process when looking at the pictures with the finished film so Shore's layered and multi-part thematic constructs were severely streamlined. The final bigger revision and rewriting was done for the finale of the film, where Shore's original music was largely replaced by a series of call backs to the old themes and moments from the Lord of the Rings trilogy, the director obviously struggling hard to try to define the tone and meaning of the film through musical choices up to the last minute. The last choral sessions that finished the recording process ended at the end of November only a few weeks before the December premiere of the film at Wellington. While such musical changes are everyday occurrence in films and film music business, they are no less unfortunate in the light of how interesting and downright beautiful Shore's initial unused concepts were. But luckily we can enjoy them all on the soundtrack album for The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey. The Themes of The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey As mentioned above The Hobbit continues firmly on the established musical path of the Lord of the Rings, Shore approaching this first instalment of the new trilogy and the beginning of the eventual six film series as a part of a grand leitmotific opus. Highly thematic, blazingly dramatic and as colourful and complex as its predecessors, the score for The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey is a carefully built and intelligent piece yet retains the same melodically lyrical and directly resonate emotionalism that made Lord of the Rings such a success. As mentioned above the musical focus on the different cultures of Middle-earth, which was so emblematic to the LotR scores, is again present here and the dwarven culture is now given, through the 13 protagonists, a major spotlight not only in the film but also in the music without forgetting other elements of the story, the hobbits, the world of the elves, forces of Evil, the Wizards and the Nature itself. And as with The Lord of the Rings Shore not only paints the cultures with a multitude of themes but he also establishes specific instrumental colours and orchestral techniques for each of them. Another noteworthy aspect in these scores theme-wise is how many character themes Shore has composed for the new trilogy. The composer has often spoken of how he writes his thematic material partly inspired by the book and its ideas and obviously the text spoke to him on this character level, of the need for individual themes for important individuals. Shore not only creates single themes for these people but assigns some of them several to denote their different aspects throughout the story and to reflect their character growth. Bilbo, Thorin, Gandalf and Radagast all have their own prominent themes in AUJ and we can hear this approach expanding with each new film with new characters central to the plot making apperances. Similarly Shore's cultural themes that were relatively isolated in the Lord of the Rings start in the Hobbit scores to travel and interact and forge connections as the dwarven company crosses the strange lands and meets all manner of creatures and races. Thus e.g. elven music and dwarven music come to share certain characteristics although they are initially drawn with a very culture specific musical brush. Some subtle hints of this appear already in An Unexpected Journey but this development becomes more and more prevalent in the sequels. The Dwarves: Shore expands the dwarven musical world significantly in this new trilogy. The musical structures that were previously heard only in isolation in Moria and in the weighty orchestrations that followed Gimli in LotR are now further explored and expanded. The musical ideas still retain the stoic, proud and steadfast progressions established for the dwarven race but now gain a living, breathing energy as the themes travel through the musical landscapes of the story. Still there is a lingering sense of antiquity to the Dwarven music and as this is a culture very much in decline at the opening of the first film it is often sombre and melancholy nature. Erebor Doug Adams describes this motif in his liner notes for the Special Edition of the soundtrack album as proud and compact figure rising in three horn calls (A-C: A-D: A-E). This thematic motto aptly depicts the wealthy, proud and powerful dwarven kingdom of Erebor, the Lonely Mountain, the shape of the musical figure ever rising upwards like the solitary peak itself, while the lower brass and string figures gracefully form its more sombre downward slope. The Erebor theme also possesses some of the unyielding spirit of the dwarven race in its stubbornly rising progression that sings out their defiant heroism. But it feels oddly incomplete and although it is a heroic exclamation, it also becomes like an ever haunting and obsessive memory for the leader of the dwarven company, Thorin Oakenshield, as vengeance upon Smaug and reclaiming of the kingdom burn ever in his mind, a yearning call of home and lost glories. At other times the Erebor Theme transforms into a heroic call to action for the entire dwarven company, rising with resolute vigour amidst the battle and remains one of the most constant elements of the dwarven thematic family throughout the three films, as the ever present memory their mountain kingdom that springs Thorin's company to action. Thorin Oakenshield A noble and longingly developing melodic line paints a thoughtful, proud and slightly melancholic image of the dwarven prince in exile, the music capturing the inherent heroism, resilience and will but also the sorrow he carries for his people and their lost realm and his duty as the prince of the noble house of Durin and the Longbeard dwarves. The theme develops in a very Dwarvish fashion yet contains more warmth and direct emotionality than the often stoic music of race. Doug Adams mentions in his liner notes that the theme’s opening contains the same stepwise motion as the Shire theme, linking Thorin’s fate together with Bilbo’s but also with the larger canvas of Free Peoples of Middle-earth, whose themes are generally built on the whole step progressions in Lord of the Rings. Thorin’s own thematic material is seamlessly wedded to Erebor’s rising figure, the exiled king and his realm indelibly linked to one another, the roots of the prince’s theme actually derived from Erebor’s. Suffering of Durin's Folk (Dwarven Suffering) A weary and grim gradually rising and falling arpeggio motif seems to revolve around the exile and subsequent degradation of the fortunes of the people of Erebor and Durin's folk and relates to the dwarven suffering and fate. It also ties strong with horin’s sense of pride and honour and often stubborn unbending will and Thorin's obstinate way of keeping of grudges born out of the endured injustice and suffering. This music is first encountered when after Smaug’s ruthless assault the young dwarf lord leads his people with his father and grandfather from the smoking ruin of Erebor into their long exile and calls in vain for the Wood Elves and their king Thranduil for help, the whole Elven race earning his eternal enmity for abandoning the dwarves in their hour of need. The theme also seems to illustrate Thorin’s duty as the heir of the Lonely Mountain and his regret for the exile of Durin’s folk and longing for their lost realm. This figure bears resemblance to the arpeggiated rising and falling figures of Weakness and Redemption motif introduced and frequently threaded into the musical fabric of Lord of the Rings and it also appeared in those scores inside several themes (e.g. Rivendell, Gollum) and at moments of defeat and sudden fortuitous turn of events as the main characters either fell to temptation or weakness or rose to victory over arduous odds, often not defeating an enemy in the process but rather their own weaknesses. The arpeggiating line also draws connections to the elven music as Shore typical to Hobbit scores starts to blur the musical lines between the cultures and here reflects Thorin's frustration over the elves' inaction and refusal to help with a long more elegant figure usually outside the dwarves' musical vocabulary. The Arkenstone (The Map and the Key) Arkenstone, the Heart of the Mountain, the most prized heirloom and treasure of the kings of Erebor, a multifaceted and magically radiant white jewel very fittingly earns in Doug Adams's words a glowing choral cluster and a stately string line in B Minor that exudes almost supernatural ethereal awe and light of its own. This motif is further developed in the sequels but in this score the tentatively introduced idea shows still only a fleeting glimpse of its true meaning and musical form. In AUJ this this same figure seems also to be linked to the key and the map that Gandalf hands down to Thorin, a gift from his late father Thráin. These two heirlooms become an integral part of the plan of the dwarves to get into the Lonely Mountain and Shore musically foreshadows their significance in winning back the kingdom of Erebor and links them to the central role Arkenstone will play in the subsequent films. These two artefacts will enable Thorin and his company to reclaim the Arkenstone for their purpose of uniting their brethren from four corners of the world. House of Durin The central dwarven thematic idea of The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies, the theme for the House of Durin makes its initial disguised major mode variation in the opening and closing sequences of An Unexpected Journey. This noble, dignified yet introspective theme is a musical hybrid that combines the attributes of both Thorin’s and Erebor’s themes, creating a longing climbing figure that speaks of the dwarven prince’s yearning for his home, the loss that the race of Erebor has endured and the unbending nobility of the dwarven company as they attempt to retake their former home. Shore makes a connection between the dwarven culture of Moria and Erebor with this theme, both grandest dwellings of the House of Durin as the theme is in part modelled after the faded glory of the Dwarrowdelf theme. It marks Thorin’s noble heritage as the heir to the throne of the Longbeard dwarves and fittingly opens the whole story of the Hobbit with a musical hint at the central element of the plot, Thorin Oakenshield and his dwarven company that sets Bilbo on his fateful Quest. It will later take on a nobler guise as the company nears Erebor but here in AUJ it is still just a musical hint of its coming prominence. Misty Mountains This theme starts as a piece of diegetic music, a song sung by the dwarves at Bag End, the lyrics adapted from Tolkien’s poem Far Over the Misty Mountains Cold, which is derived directly from the novel itself and tells of the glory of the dwarven kingdom, the dragon’s sudden attack on Erebor, the kingdom’s subsequent fall and of the noble venture of returning to the Lonely Mountain one day to wrest it all back from Smaug. The melody of the song was not composed by Howard Shore but by a New Zealand based group of musicians called Plan 9 (David Donaldson, David Long, Steve Roche, Janet Roddick and Stephen Gallagher), who handled all the diegetic music (music heard from an on-screen sound source, such as a song or instrument played by a character) for The Lord of the Rings trilogy and again for The Hobbit films. As the song had to be performed by the actors in the opening scenes at Bag End at the start of the An Unexpected Journey, Plan 9 composed it well in advance of the shooting. According to the members of Plan 9 they initially conceived several different melodies for the film makers to choose from and the final version now heard in the film emerged slowly as the clear favourite of Peter Jackson and his team. This piece also appeared in the early teaser trailer of An Unexpected Journey and gained wide popularity (including cover versions made for myriad instruments) in the internet prior to the film's release and in part created anticipation for the film. It is likely that the warm welcome of this theme and its hummable memorable nature also affected the way it was later incorporated into the actual film score. After the song’s initial appearance at Bag End in the film it migrates into variety of orchestral settings as Howard Shore integrates it into his score and it becomes a resolute thematic motto for Thorin’s company, a call to adventure and a symbol of the Quest itself. It signals the dwarven heroism and fighting spirit and follows the progress of their journey and appears at important junctions to sing out their valiant resolve to attaining their goal. This theme could be compared to the Fellowship of the Ring Theme from Lord of the Rings in its usage and style in the film, the melody fulfilling a similar role in this musical narrative and provides the audience with a melodic hook that helps them to relate to the dwarves. Doug Adams makes this mention on his blog on 26th of August in 2013: “Plan 9 composed their theme specifically to fit in with Shore's concept of Dwarvish music, so naturally it fit well in his new score. It was a lovely way to tie everything together in terms of diegetic/non-diegetic music.” This motif comes to represent the initial optimism and heroism of the dwarven company, a familiar song of hope and resolve that slowly fades as the characters cross into the true Wilderland beyond the Misty Mountains. In a late 2013 Tracksounds.com podcast interview Doug Adams recounts that the film makers felt that this change or disappearance of the comforting leading motif would emphasize the danger, urgency and uncertainty of the second leg of the journey in the sequel, The Desolation of the Smaug, where Bilbo and his companions end up facing darker and deadlier perils before reaching the Lonely Mountain. Thus the Misty Mountains Theme is confined to the opening chapter of the story, its progression stopping at the edge of the very mountains the song title refers to. Ancient Enemies A thematic identification for the enmity between the dwarves and orcs but also specifically of Thorin and Azog that runs deep indeed. Used initially in the flashback to the gates of Moria where the grievous final battle of the War of Dwarves and Orcs took place (Azanulbizar in Khuzdûl) where young Thorin confronts Azog the Orc king of Moria and hews off his arm, turning the tide of the battle and rallying the dwarves to him. The primarily dwarven theme of chanting voices evokes the fatal unyielding spirit of the conflict while the melody advances stoically in almost staccato stanzas for male chorus and orchestra. Shore reprises this motif with even more furious drive during the final conflict in the Battle of the Five Armies as the old enemies are once again pitted against one another in single combat. The Dwarf Lords This is actually one of the early abandoned concepts for one of the dwarven themes that was never fully incorporated into the first score and subsequently abandoned. A bold and victorious melody that seems to speak of the inherent nobility of the dwarven race and their heroic stature and by its first and only appearance in AUJ Shore seems to connect this melody with the dwarf lords and the Seven Houses of the Dwarves. The openly optimistic burnished brass and marching strings call out proud and defiant but the theme seems also to denote the dreams of grand alliances and dwarven race returning to its former greatness. Even though there is certain uncharacteristic liveliness in the flowing progression of the idea it still clings to the rising structures and angular forms of the dwarven musical world. NOTE: As said above The Dwarf Lords theme is used only once in An Unexpected Journey when Dwalin mentions Thorin and the council of the dwarven families and can be heard in an expanded concertized form on the bonus track Dwarf Lords but it was never used since in these scores. None of this material pertaining to the dwarf lords theme appears in the The Desolation of Smaug but in the last movie The Battle of the Five Armies Shore creates a new thematic idea, Daín Ironfoot's theme, which shares the same optimistic and lively heroic character while never actually quoting this earlier concept in any way but in stylistic sense. Returning Themes Moria/Dwarves (Dwarven Fifths) The music of the dwarves first isolated in Moria in Lord of the Rings, the deep male voices chanting, the rising perfect fifths and the at times harsh and sometimes finely chiselled arching musical structures return in The Hobbit as part of the larger dwarven musical culture, not confined to Khazad-dûm anymore. While this musical idea is featured prominently in the flashback sequence of the battle of Azanulbizar at the gates of Moria it now assumes a more active role of a living rather than a past culture, the predominantly male choral music blooming into dramatic and heroic heights during the journey as Shore musically charts the course of the dwarven history and of our heroes. The rising perfect fifths start to appear with more frequency as well throughout the score to accompany our 13 dwarven protagonists at many turns. The Shire & the Hobbits The Shire and its inhabitants are 60 years before the tumultuous events of LotR much as they have always been: peaceful, quiet and lovers of everything that is green and good in the world. For Hobbits and their homeland Shore reprises his familiar music from Lord of the Rings, the verdant warmth of the Shire theme in different settings returning very much undiminished, the Hobbit music offering a solid appealing emotional anchor in Middle-earth. The music also bridges the gap between the frame story of Bilbo writing his memoirs and the adventures of his younger incarnation in the present Hobbit’s Tale. But Shore does not rely solely on the older themes for the Shire to underscore the new adventure and thus Bilbo Baggins’ younger days receive several brand new themes of their own, derived in part from the original Shire material but gradually covering new ground as our reluctant hero makes his way through the story and finds new dimensions to his character. Bilbo’s Adventure This optimistically ascending melody is best heard at 0:15 in the whistle in "The World is Ahead" relates to Bilbo's adventure in a form of A-B-C#-E-E-G#-G#-A-E-C#-E-D as Doug Adams mentions in his blog regarding Bilbo’s multiple thematic ideas. It is a courageous but gentle music depiction of Bilbo’s burgeoning heroism, which grows from small roots in the Shire and can only grow in significance as he travels farther into the wide world to see its wonders. The leaping melody is presented a few key times in the movie at such points where our small protagonist is made to show his true quality. It begins heavily informed by the musical contour of the Shire material but soon links itself with the dwarven musical world as the hobbit joins their company and begins the quest of Erebor with them. This music relates to Bilbo as much as it does to the dwarves and so Shore unites the Shire Theme’s stepwise melodies with the stoic and proud dwarven rising figures to create a motif that speaks to both. In the film this melody is heard only briefly, probably initially planned to reserve its true heroism and resolute excitement for the sequels. It sings for Bilbo’s initial enthusiasm to set out on an exotic quest on solo tin whistle and horn and makes few noble heroic appearances towards the end of the film and and can be heard in a boisterously heroic form in full orchestra in a concertized form on the track called Erebor, where bagpipes further add a clear Celtic dimension to the joined venture of the Hobbit and 13 Dwarves. NOTE: This theme was in the end toned down in the sequels and makes few subtler appearances throughout The The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies but never again gains the fully exciting heroic tone we glimpse in An Unexpected Journey. It has been speculated that this theme is actually Shore's answer to the Misty Mountains, a theme for Bilbo and Thorin Oakenshield and his company yet it is certainly sounds to my ears more tied to the Shire than to Ered Luin in its style but few hints of Shore utilizing it in the place of the Misty Mountais theme in alternate passages that found their way onto the soundtrack suggest it might well have been meant as his own heroic main theme for the company. Bilbo Baggins Bilbo Baggins, our stalwart if much of the time out of his depth protagonist is a model of a country squire, but he has Tookish blood in his veins, an adventurous streak that he didn’t even know was there, until it is awakened by the arrival of Gandalf and Thorin’s company. Shore treats this duality of his character with a two-part theme, one phrase calling him back to the comforts and peace of his beloved green Shire and the other drawing him inevitably to adventure. Doug Adams refers to this pair of thematic phrases a “theme-and-a-half”, which is a good way to describe this theme with dual purpose. a) Dreaming of Bag End The opening part of Bilbo’s Theme is a lovely and gentle extension of the Shire’s stepwise writing, lyrical, nostalgic yet thoughtful, full of the deep rooted Hobbit wisdom, ever calling Bilbo back to Bag End on his adventures. The melody at its mid-point bears some resemblance to the form of the Bilbo’s Song from the end of the Return of the King in its beautiful and involved lyrical emotionalism, perhaps the most sophisticated part of the Shire’s musical world. b)The Tookish Side Bilbo’s timid peace loving façade hides a secret wish for excitement and adventure. Here the Shire material after an introspective and mature bridge section arches ever higher in yearning, perhaps for adventure, perhaps for heroism, with leaping intervals and stout confident tone as Doug Adams states in his liner notes. It is this tug that finally leads Bilbo away from the comforts of home and to great deeds on his way to Erebor. NOTE: This musical idea was all but removed in the first film and the film makers replaced most renditions heard in the movie itself with various variations of the Shire theme (A Hobbit's Understanding or the Hymn Setting mostly). This was perhaps due the shifts in the way the movie makers wanted to emphasize subtexts in the film, the replacements favouring the musical depictions of the hobbits and their qualities as a race instead of singling out Bilbo specifically. Furthermore the sequel The Desolation of Smaug saw very subtle further variations on these ideas so it could be construed that Peter Jackson and Howard Shore considered Bilbo's material perhaps too mature and too well developed and independent from the Shire theme and its variations to be applicable to his character in the first two films. The Battle of Five Armies shows us the end of the journey of this maturation of the character and this musical theme makes very veiled and disguised appearances there but in the end the film makers preferred to employ the Shire theme and its various setting for him so you could say they largely discarded the notion of individual themes for Bilbo Baggins himself as a character. But we can enjoy Bilbo's beautiful and thoughtfully constructed music through the soundtrack album of the An Unexpected Journey where it is used quite extensively. Bilbo’s Antics (Fussy Bilbo) Bilbo’s fussy and out-of-his-element side is depicted by a dancing waltz-melody and rhythm that underscores his more awkward attempts to adjust to a life of an adventurer and the sudden change of his comfortable life in the Shire when the dwarves whisk him off to an adventure. There is a haltingly humorous and off-kilter quality to the theme, mirroring Bilbo’s doubts about the whole Quest and depicting his comical reaction to his rowdy travelling companions at Bag End and on the road to the East. It functions as a comedic theme throughout the first film and parts of the second but disappears by the third movie as Bilbo returns home a changed hobbit. The quirky folk tune like melody itself dances a bit uncertainly over the waltz rhythms often conjuring an unbalanced feel, Bilbo threatening to topple with his music under the sudden new responsibilities. This motif to my mind draws a connection to a pair of rather comedic rascals, Merry and Pippin, whose own humorous and a bit dangerous escapades earned the Hobbit Antics setting of the Shire Theme in The Two Towers. Doug Adams adds that this type of writing is seldom used in The Hobbit or The Lord of the Rings, the certain level of contrapuntal sophistication mostly out of bounds of Shire’s simple musical motifs. Returning Themes The Shire (The Rural Setting) The Shire is much as it has ever been with its peaceful way of life, which the sprightly Rural setting of the Shire theme conjures with vivid accuracy in the music the gait of the unhurried and homely life, the steady heartbeat of the Shire. The Shire (The Pensive Setting) This serene and bucolic setting of the Shire theme also accompanies the opening scenes in the Shire and provides the title card of the film its warm glow, the deep rooted warmth and gentleness of the idea again providing level headed Hobbit sense to our smallest of heroes on his way in the wide world and even offering comfort to Gandalf in his moments of doubt. The Hobbit Outline Figure & the Hobbit End Cap The rhythmic Shire accompaniment figures return in this score and once again follow the life of the Hobbits in the Shire and hurry along Bilbo’s awkward capering when the dwarves invade his abode but the End Cap figure does travel with Bilbo further afield when he goes on his adventure. A Hobbit’s Understanding The simple wisdom of the Hobbits and the courage that springs from it guides Bilbo even when he is thrust in the middle of events far greater than he is and the wizard Gandalf also teaches him some worthy lessons along the way and so A Hobbit’s Understanding appears again at the most pivotal moments of decision in the story as our small hero shows his mettle, the gentle and honest way of life of the Shire, Hobbit nature and Gandalf’s wise words guiding his actions. The Shire Skip-Beat This motif illustrating the hobbits at their most boisterous, playful and energetic follows Bilbo's exploits through the first part of his journey and adds a musical spring into his step especially in the opening scenes in the Shire weaving through Bag Eng as Bilbo tries to wrangle his rowdy dwarven guests. The Elves: Howard Shore represents the elven cultures of Middle-earth with their unchanging musical idioms, both Rivendell and Lothlorien themes appearing in their most traditional forms, still unaffected by the coming War of the Ring and the tides of the Age, taking the guise they had when the listener first encountered them in Fellowship of the Ring. Both themes exude almost youthful grace in their original settings, the composer capturing in The Hobbit their original sense of wonder and mysticism and expanding upon it. Also a fleeting hint of the music of the Elves of the Woodland Realm is introduced in the first score, choral voices subtly introducing a central theme of the sequels in the prologue of the first film. The Woodland Realm The Elves of the Woodland Realm of Mirkwood appear fleetingly in the prologue of the film and here Shore has a chance to introduce an embryonic form of their music. Thranduil, the king of the Wood Elves and his followers are underscored by a slightly exotic Eastern tinged female choir phrase but it disappears almost as soon as it entered, offering a tantalizing hint of things to come. This music seems to reflect the general aesthetics of the Elven music with its clear lined, flowing and lyrical approach and the Eastern musical inflections that inform the ancient cultures of Middle-earth such as Lorien and Mordor also appear in the theme for the Woodland Realm. Although its appearance is a mere fleeting glimpse, this leitmotif becomes one of the central themes of The The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies as the wood elves play a large role in that part of the story. Returning Themes Rivendell Imladris the refuge of the Elves, the Last Homely House West of the Sea, is still unchanged at the time of The Hobbit and Shore brings back the glowing, majestic and nearly jubilant tones of the Rivendell Theme, this time perhaps even more sumptuous than before, female choir, tolling bells and harp glissandi expressing wonder and beauty, while the Elven arpeggios rise and fall in a calming and reassuring fashion as Elrond welcomes the company to the refuge of Rivendell. This is music of a vigorous and vibrant culture but slowly the arpeggio lines receive a patina of melancholy and darker cast seems to forebode the growing evil in the land, the theme becoming more subdued and serious as the White Council convenes, the orchestration favouring lower registers and fragmented readings of the theme. It also crosses paths with the dwarven music as Elrond, a renowned lore-master, aids the company in deciphering the mystery of the Moon Runes and in this fashion helps them on their quest. Lothlorien Galadriel, the Lady of Lorien, takes part in the White Council's meeting and she is introduced by the more exotic of the Elven themes. The mystical glow of the Middle Eastern maqam hijaz scale suggesting the theme seemingly radiates from her persona, the ethereal presence of Galadriel earning a choral incantation of the material complemented by the specialty instruments and orchestrations emblematic of her realm and culture. Later a beautiful lyrical woodwind setting of the Lorien Theme underscores her discussions with Mithrandir, to whom she offers her support over Saruman the White. Necromancer and the Forces of Evil And what would our heroes be without their opposing force, which in this story is represented by a multitude of threats. First there is the shadowy figure of the Necromancer, a mysterious sorcerer who has set up his lair in an old fortress of Dol Guldur in Mirkwood, and is now spreading his corrupting evil influence upon the forest and the world from his awful dwelling. Also a huge pale Orc hunts Thorin’s company with packs of fierce gigantic wolves, wargs, and an oafish trio of Stone Trolls threatens to devour our heroes on their journey from Bag End to Rivendell. The caverns of Misty Mountains are teeming with disease ridden, violent and horrid Goblins and looming far away beyond countless leagues in the East is the fearsome dragon, Smaug the Golden. Shore constructs thematic material for all these menaces that effortlessly exists beside the similar music of the LotR trilogy. In fact many of the motifs for the forces of Evil seem to be directly linked to the past thematic constructs and do indeed present embryonic or initial forms of many familiar themes from LotR. Not only do they provide a sense of continuity but work as musical hints and direct links to the rising Shadow and gradually shift through this trilogy towards their final guise in The Lord of the Rings. Dol Guldur Descending Thirds A simple pair of descending major thirds seems to be the most apparent of the three themes associated with the Necromancer, and forms a constant brooding, obsessively repeating menace that haunts the thoughts of the White Council and the Wizards. It bears very strong ties to the Mordor Descending Thirds accompaniment figure, which hunted Frodo and the Fellowship and trailed in tow of the Nazgûl and the Orcs in LotR, but this new low register growl is usually performed portentously and slowly in AUJ and thus loses some of the drive of the Descending Thirds. It could be surmised that this motif represents the early and still mysterious threat and thus the theme feels incomplete in The Hobbit but despite of this it carries the same inevitable sense of doom even if in somewhat more lugubriously static form. The 4-note form is often completed by one or two extra notes that sink lower and lower into the orchestra, creating a sense of finality and completion that the pair of descending thirds naturally lacks when they repeat obsessively time and time again. This is music with a dark promise which the Mordor Descending Thirds fulfils in The Lord of the Rings as Sauron’s threat becomes fully apparent and Shore gradually begins to shift the motif from its origins and closer to the Mordorean incarnation during the Hobbit trilogy. This motif is also clearly the root of Azog's theme and offers a very audible hint at the Orc king's true allegiance. The Threat of Dol Guldur Doug Adams musically characterizes this theme as A rising three pitch figure that avoids a downbeat and it seems to present a more active threat, bursting forth when the evil sorcerer displays his power as when he attacks Radagast in Dol Guldur or menaces the wizard’s home at Rhosgobel but it also appears to signal the slow growth of this evil, rising ever upwards to trouble the councils of the Wise. The motif is urgently insistent, Shore using a repeating variation to emphasize approaching danger and is most closely associated with Necromancer himself and his dark abode. As with the Dol Guldur Descending Thirds, The Threat of Dol Guldur seems to form the roots of the Mordor Skip Beat that so often set a frantic, nervous pace for chases and enemies hunting our heroes in LotR and the new motif essentially takes the first six pitches of the Mordor Skip Beat and plays it through its transpositions over 3 keys (F minor, A minor and C minor) to achieve an urgent, imperious presence whenever it appears. The Necromancer The mysterious evil sorcerer, who is actually the Dark Lord Sauron in disguise, is represented again by The Evil of the Ring/Mordor, which he can’t shed even in his shadowy form in Dol Guldur. Shore quotes the material a scant few times but offers a strong musical clue to the identity of this new Evil that has risen in Middle-earth. The composer truncates the ending of the melody so that it trails off into an exotic new coda but this creates a feeling of absence, the musical idea not quite fulfilled. Shore unveils the fully formed Eastern tinged melody of the ancient era of Middle-earth, when the mystery is finally solved and the Enemy reveals itself in The Desolation of Smaug where a thunderously imperious variation recalling its mightiest appearance at Minas Morgul in The Return of the King assaults Gandalf when the Grey Wizard finally uncovers the truth about the master of Dol Guldur in The Desolation of Smaug. In The Battle of the Five Armies the theme is treated to a lugubrious and wicked organ led readings as the Dark Lord confronts the White Council. Azog the Orc King Azog, the orc king of Moria (in the films receiving the epithet The Defiler), whose arm Thorin hewed off in the battle of Azanulbizar and who was thought long dead, mysteriously survived and is now burning with vengeance and hunting down Thorin Oakenshield and his company with his pack of Warg riders. Shore provides him with a straightforward, aggressive and ominous motif that according to Doug Adams is formed out of a pair of descending thirds (G-Eb-F-D) that is finished by a chromatic barb (Eb-D-Db) which exudes brutal rage and malice. The theme also holds a clue to Azog’s true allegiance and motives as its form seems to be closely associated with the Dol Guldur Descending Thirds, clearly hinting that the evil of the Orc is just an extension of Dol Guldur’s growing shadow. Wargs The gigantic ferocious demonic wolves that the Orcs use as mounts receive a theme of rolling, sleek and fast paced series of figures that Doug Adams’ describes thus: “over repeated eight notes, four-note patterns in E minor simultaneously rise and fall... Tromping figures for piano and taiko underpin snarling brass fanfares”. The fugue-like repetition creates a sense persistent pursuit, a breathless presto that threatens to overcome the weighty music of the dwarves. There is surprising melodicism in this music for the wargs and their riders, the stomping repeated phrases creating a gleeful and persistent hunting presto. Here and there subliminal nods to Mordor music, especially the ritualistic clotted harmonies of the Ringwraiths, can be heard in the pressing staccato rhythm and sharp string stabs that drive the piece forward and the idea seems to bear subtle traces Cruelty of the Orcs, another motif hearkening back to LotR, forming the backbone of the 4 downward surging clotted chords that symbolize the terror of these creatures. Smaug the Golden The last but certainly not the least of the villains in the story is the fire dragon Smaug the Golden, the greatest and most horrible of all terrors of the Age, who laid waste to the kingdom of Erebor and desolated the town of Dale and all the lands surrounding the Lonely Mountain. Reportedly Shore’s approach incorporates both the Eastern tinged musical ideas related to the past ages of Middle-earth heard e.g. in the music of the Lothlorien elves and Sauron/Necromancer but also gives a slight nod in orchestrations and the form of the musical ideas to the music of Far East, where dragons prominently figure into many legends and myths. The great fire drake is depicted by a collection of musical ideas derived from same basic colours: a) Smaug's Breath/Dragon-sickness: As Doug Adams describes in the liner notes A searing pair of chords (F-major-F-minor-F-major-F-minor) pulses and heaves underneath Smaug's pair of themes, almost like a furnace or gigantic bellows. As many of the composer’s themes it attains an organic almost breath-like pattern, rising and falling naturally and fatefully as we see the great beast on-screen providing almost subliminal tension to these scenes. This music appears in isolation in the prologue of the first film but effectively drives the latter of half of The Desolation of Smaug and continues to harry the Free Peoples in The Battle of the Five Armies. This simple motif of alternating chords also denotes chiefly of all Smaug's thematic ideas the dragon-sickness, a malady of the mind that takes hold of any who start to covet the massive hoard of wealth the wyrm has piled into his abode from the dwarven kingdom. Same madness and lust for treasure runs in the line of kings of Erebor as Thrór was as susceptible to it as the dragon itself and now his grandson shares the same affliction. This will cause the music of the great drake to realign itself in a most unusual fashion with another characer, a unique shift in Shore's Middle-earth scores, as it migrates to Thorin and takes over his mind in The Battle of the Five Armies. b) Smaug's 1st Theme (Smaug the Golden): A sinuous, cruel and sharply angled melody seethes on top of it and worms through chromatic intervals with an exotic gleam is Doug Adams' apt description for this theme in conjunction with the two-chord motif mentioned above. This is the first thematic identity of the fire dragon and appears during An Unexpected Journey’s prologue when we see fateful glimpses of Smaug laying waste to both Dale and Erebor, the music exuding imperious aggression, rage and violence. It is short and to the point and thus can be easily and quickly quoted in a short space of time but Shore provides the great drake of the North with a second theme as well. c) Smaug's 2nd Theme (The Malice of Smaug): The complexity and wicked cunning of Smaug’s persona led the composer to complement his manipulative evil with a musical mirror image of the first theme, a longer melodic line that is actually an inverted variation on the first idea, which complements the wyrm’s multifaceted persona with dangerous cold cunning. This subdued and more ominous variation of Smaug's music appears once in An Unexpected Journey when Bilbo is first told of the Great Calamity, the ghostly clang of Tibetan gongs and bass drum pulsing together underneath as strings and woodwinds play an inverted version of the reptilian main theme for Smaug, a horror Bilbo can scarcely even imagine. This third idea also holds a key to the central instrumentation used for the great drake as in The The Desolation of Smaug the dragon is depicted by a whole host of exotic Far Eastern gamelan percussion instruments and subtle incorporation of erhu, a Chinese stringed instrument. In The Battle of the Five Armies the theme expands its palette further as it becomes an insidious musical barb in Thorin's mind when keening strings and ticking metallic percussion haunt him as this motif for Smaug's wicked persona now latches onto the heir of Erebor. Returning Themes The Witch King of Angmar Another subtle foreshadowing musical connection of the first score relates to a Fourth Age theme from The Lord of the Rings, Witch King/the Orcs of Mordor that ever imperiously rose to crush the World of Men in RotK. In The Hobbit Shore hints at the dark revelations to come, when Gandalf tries solve the mystery of the Morgul Blade, the theme appearing as a quiet but none the less uncomfortable whisper at the tombs of the long dead servants of Evil and their sorcerer king at High Fells. NOTE: The music containing this theme was composed for an early version of the scene that was finally removed from An Unexpected Journey and moved to The The Desolation of Smaug. The bonus track on the Special Edition of the AUJ soundtrack containing the theme (The Edge of the Wild) is an earlier draft of the piece used for the scene and in DoS this sequence was entirely re-scored and while the opening musical idea is reprised in the revised cue (High Fells on the DoS soundtrack) the Witch-King of Angmar/The Orcs of Mordor theme was discarded. A new Nazgûl related thematic idea, a ghostly choral chant simply named The Nine, is used in its place instead. And it has to be said that while the thematic nod to the Return of the King might have been a nice gesture, the Fourth Age theme does not really sit easily into the thematic architecture of the piece. The Wizards The Hobbit’s tale features unusually many of the Istari, the Wizards, of whom three appear in this film series. The composer offers each their own musical devices. Most notably Gandalf the Grey, who was a mediator and mover of things in The Lord of the Rings and to whom Shore didn’t assign a particular motif in that trilogy (Gandalf the White was another matter though), receives in the first part of this earlier adventure two prominent leitmotifs, which work both independently and together. Radagast the Brown has a snapping and whispering forest of orchestral sounds all to himself and peculiar collection of percussive sounds propelling him forward in his curious but at times dead serious work. And lastly Saruman the White seems to harbour grave concerns and dark thoughts behind his heavy lidded eyes as his familiar theme from The Lord of the Rings trilogy announces his presence at the White Council. Gandalf the Grey Doug Adams calls Gandalf the Grey’s theme a musical nudge out at the door, which sends Bilbo on his adventure and indeed Gandalf’s compact little theme seems to be closely related to the music of the Shire, a place the Grey Pilgrim holds dear to his heart. This small whole step melodic turn is insistent, always ready to peek through the fabric of the score and as Mr. Adams says it is indeed unassuming yet subtly disruptive. It denotes the wizard’s presence and his helping hand, whether meddling into the affairs of the dwarves or hobbits, appearing at the nick of time to bail them out of trouble and sending them on their way, showing the wizard’s powerful but often subtle influence. Gandalf the Grey presents subtle references to the music of the Shire and Bilbo specifically, the whole step wise movement attaching itself to this concise idea and this theme wanders through the score and seems to be forming a musical ties to the other themes it meets along the way. Gandalf’s 2nd Theme/The Istari The order of the Wizards, The Istari, is also depicted by a thematic idea, which in the course of the Hobbit trilogy becomes most strongly attached to Gandalf's presence and his friendship , a searching lyrical melodic line that moves initially in an up-and-down figure but then it ascends ever higher in graceful leaps. It alternates with the more active primary theme as a musical identity for the wizard in the first Hobbit film. The primary motif and this lyrical longer secondary melody form a tightly knit pair in the same way as the two parts of Bilbo’s Theme do, each seemingly part of one longer music idea. It appears most often when Gandalf is giving counsel or rallying his comrades, imparting a sense of confident strength tempered with wisdom and most importantly often underlining his friendship with the dwarves and the hobbit. While this theme, which Doug Adams commented to have a broader usage than just a secondary melody for Gandalf and initially was meant to depict the whole order of the wizards (it does indeed make its first appearance when Gandalf is recounting the names and colours of all the Five Wizards) is largely absent in The Desolation of Smaug (as the wizard is largely away from Thorin's company too), the idea returns at the end of The Battle of the Five Armies as both the Grey Pilgrim and the hobbit meet in the aftermath of the battle and return home from their journey although the music appears in a heavily transformed guise, perhaps to show us the change in the characters. Radagast the Brown Radagast is a wizard, who was always more fond of the natural world than the affairs of the Free Peoples and took upon himself to protect the plants and animals of Midde Earth. He makes his home in Mirkwood, where he lives under the eaves of the great forest at Rhosgobel, a house built around a living tree. There he keeps watch over the woodlands and is surrounded by his animal friends, birds being his most loyal and dear companions. He is a hermit of a strange sort and of wizardly powers, who one day senses the evil spreading through the forest and decides to act and alert the Wise of this threat. Musically this befuddled and absent minded quirky nature wizard is depicted by a collection of musical devices: a constant pattern of nervous up-and-down haltingly swaying and sawing figures in the strings and woodwinds, a closely related sinuous solo violin line that weaves into this curious collage of sounds and a steady tapping of a collection of percussion instruments that underscore his nervous and jittery personality Radagast's 2nd Theme The brown wizard also has a secondary idea tied to him, but it is very closely knit into the collection of his other musical sounds. Radagast’s often nervously busy music surrounds an eerie choral and orchestral motif, which contains references to the nervous rising and falling string figures of his music wedded with another long lined melody winding on top of it, creating in the process a new motif. This music is according Doug Adams (commentary on his blog) also tied to the Brown Wizard and his powers. Its initial apperance in the orchestra and boys choir seems to suggest some subtle connection to Nature in the pure tones of the choral accompaniment but it later appears when Gandalf conveys his dark news and findings to the White Council where this musical motif underscores their grave conversation, the theme expressing both Radagast's message and the ominous weight of his news, now transported into the more mature sound of a female chorus. NOTE: Radagast's musical tree of effects was severely cut in the final film and much of the nervous percussion and violin work was left out of the picture, the composer instead using a less thematic approach to the nature wizard's initial introduction. Similarly the boys chorus was largely left out of the orchestrational palette of the theme, Radagast's music becoming largely orchestral. Returning Themes Gandalf’s Fireworks A recurring motif for Gandalf’s fireworks appears in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey to draw a connection to The Fellowship of the Ring and providing another ancillary musical phrase related to Gandalf as he first meets Bilbo, the excited leaping motif rekindling memories of this wandering conjurer in the mind of our protagonist, who when he was just a small lad admired the wizard’s splendid skill at creating the most marvellous rockets. Saruman the White (Isengard Theme) Saruman the White is once again represented by the ominous Isengard theme, whose appearance is tempered only by its brevity in the film, Shore offering us a savvy musical reminder but also observing thematic continuity. Nature Nature is a strong force of Good in Middle-earth where purity and inherent rightness of things dwells and its servants appear also in The Hobbit to battle the enemies of the natural world and save our heroes from a certain doom. The Great Eagles represent a lofty incarnation of Nature’s power, while the music of Radagast the Brown bears traces of Nature’s benevolent will working in Middle-earth through the wizard. The Eagles of the Misty Mountains (The Eagle Rescue) The Giant Eagles of the Misty Mountains, previous treated as an ally of Nature and always appeared underscored by the Nature's Reclamation have now gained a new motif related specific to them and the aid they bring to their friends. This new theme is heard in AUJ only in the film itself as it was another revision done to the score and Shore initially composed a very different finale for the film, which can be found on the AUJ soundtrack album. The new rescored ending contains a haunting chorus and soloist theme which is then reprised in The Battle of the Five Armies as the noble avians arrive to turn the tide of the battle, the soaring but lyrical lines annoucing elegantly their timely arrival. Returning Themes Nature’s Reclamation The proud and lyrical Nature’s Reclamation appears with majestic purity as the Eagles arrive at Gandalf’s behest to safe the dwarves from the hands of Azog and as they carry our band of adventurers away, the choral and orchestral forces celebrating as much the last minute rescue as they do the vanquishing of the evil Orcs that have pursued Thorin’s company. Shore’s theme for Nature is unchanged in the Hobbit, carried by pure choral sound that ascends gracefully to lofty heights, the power of the natural world as timeless as the Elves. The theme makes a brief appearance on the soundtrack album on the track Out of the Frying-pan and originally Shore wrote a very different choral setting for the rescue sequence using entirely different thematic material but in the end the film makers ended up using a full fledged version of Nature's Reclamation for the scene. Monsters of Middle-earth The Mirkwood Spiders These giant arachnids that thrive in the now darkened Greenwood are seen in AUJ assaulting Radagast's home at Rhosgobel and earn a suitably spidery 8-note tone row that rumbles with a taut rhythmic threat. Taking its lead from the music of Shelob in the RotK which also built on a similar 8-note row, the Mirkwood Spiders motif is heard only once in the first film when Radagast finally perceives them assaulting his abode. While Shelob's motif implied cunning intelligence and had an evasive, stalking quality, the music for the giant spiders is much more exclamatory, a piece of true old fashioned straightforward monster music. The Trolls Bill, Bert and Tom, the three pony stealing Stone Trolls, who have come to lowlands after some sweeter meats, are represented according to Doug Adams by a waltz humoresque, a plodding figure suitable for their dull wit, slow gait and tough hides that skirts Bilbo’s burglarious activities in a careful dance that begins with light humour, but ends in a ferocious fight as the swaying theme receives its heaviest setting when it battles with the dwarven music for supremacy. The Goblins of the Misty Mountains Denizens of the endless tunnels under the Misty Mountains the goblins of Goblin Town, distant cousins of Orcs of Gundabad, Moria and Mordor are a sordid and disease ridden bunch of creatures that capture Thorin’s company as it is crossing the peaks and seeks shelter from a storm in a shallow cave. Shore’s music for these horrid creatures is a series of jarring aleatoric figures, malevolent low brass exclamations that ooze evil glee and plodding mix meter rhythms as they overwhelm the dwarves with their sheer numbers and drag them to their king, the Great Goblin. Shore again stays true to the spirit of his previous music for the Orcs, which is sharp edged, brutal, hard and unpredictable, the orchestra snapping and slashing at different directions all at once in near manic chaos, which rises to fever pitch when they give chase to the dwarves through their subterranean kingdom. At the heart of the driving gnashing music is a repeated 3-chord construct that forms the main component of the threatening Goblin Theme. The mixed meters of roiling rhythms contained in the Goblin music present quick references to the 5 Beat Pattern, that was associated with the Orcs and their oppressive and most organized evils in LotR but here the rhythms do not stay in one pattern for long, lopsidedly rushing forward in disorder, while the aforementioned repeated 3-chord core of the Goblin theme holds the music together. It is the music of brutal malevolent chaos. Gollum Gollum makes his first appearance in the tales of the Third Age in Bilbo’s adventure and his dual musical persona established in The Lord of the Rings appears the instant he peers through the gloom in the tunnels under the Misty Mountains. Pity of Gollum This melancholy and altogether sad melody accompanies Gollum’s Smeagol side, the wretched creature’s almost childish fancy for riddles often underscored by slinking variation or hints at the harmonies of the this theme. This pleading, winding melody also awakens Bilbo’s gentler nature as he sees the ruined creature’s sad and lonely plight when it has lost the Ring and decides to spare its life. It is also the music that constantly shifts between the History of the Ring theme as Gollum's slavish need for it and the actual object go hand-in-hand in all their scenes together. Gollum’s Menace Gollum’s evil and animalistic side once again creeps in with the help of a jittery cimbalom, the theme’s instrument of choice, but now it also subtly climbs into the string section, the Dies Irae-like readings suggesting deadly and murderous danger to Bilbo’s life as the schizophrenic creature plots to make Bilbo his next meal. The One Ring: The Middle-earth has not known the woe of the Ring of Power in millennia, yet now it appears into the histories of the world once more and with it arrives its signature theme. Only one thing is certain. It now has a fateful clang to it and it foreshadows our hero’s steps as he innocently becomes the newest owner of this magical ring whose origin is shrouded in mystery. The History of the Ring What originally was inarguably the central theme of the Lord of the Rings, appears now in the Hobbit as a musical harbinger, flitting in an out of the score in quick variations, the composer often hinting at its opening pitches but veering to other directions, teasing the listener, the theme here a musical equivalent of a wink at the viewer/listener, its appearances always full of meaning. As the Ring finds a new bearer the theme is there to chart its progress, another new chapter in its long woeful history but interestingly Shore refrains from presenting the motif in its most traditional static guise heard so often in Lord of the Rings, the slightly askew versions heard on the soundtrack album suggesting perhaps the Ring’s active purpose to abandon its former bearer and get back to its true master and also that for the moment its history is in flux in the Hobbit. This is the primary theme that is used for the Ring throughout AUJ and its sequels whenever the magical Ring is somehow referenced and none of the other themes that are associated with the One Ring in Lord of the Rings are used directly to refer to the artefact. The influence of the baleful treasure is subtle and its hold only growing on Bilbo and thus its passage through the story earns only the theme that has carried it from one hand to the other and from one time period to the next. While the Evil of the Ring theme does appear in the score it is only associated with the Necromancer whose link to the Ring is yet to be revealed. CONTINUES IN PART 2 © Mikko Ojala
  20. Below is a link to my brief analysis of thematic transformation in Rozsa's monumental score for Ben-Hur. There's just so much to talk about in this score, I could have been here writing this post all year. Instead, I focused on three of the main leitmotifs in the score: Esther, Friendship, and Hatred. Enjoy! http://www.filmmusicnotes.com/thematic-transformation-in-rozsas-score-for-ben-hur/
  21. I posted this in the War Horse and Tintin subforum first but for the sake of clarity post it here separately as well. The Adventures of Tintin the Secret of the Unicorn – An analysis of the Original Soundtrack Album Here is a thematic analysis of the soundtrack album. Feel free to comment and those who have a better knowledge of the music please make correction suggestions. The following is a track-by-track review of the music which contains some spoilers concerning the plot. My first few listens of this score were a pure joy, just relishing in the colour and energy of a new Williams score but then I began to find the layers and complexities and Maestro’s great interplay with the themes and ideas he has crafted. It has all the spirit of adventure, the charm and wit, the comedy and the youthful energy one could hope from a JW score. First of all what was apparent from the first listen was that Williams has provided this adventure with a lot of themes. Colorful, goofy, eerie, noble, heroic and ominous, this score has it all. The unifying attribute in these melodic identifications is that they are relatively short each, offering the composer a chance to juggle several of them in one scene in quick succession and he does that extremely adeptly. Aside from the main ideas which number around 10 the underscore never descends to mundane fare but retains aural interest throughout with either incidental melodies or interesting orchestral moods. Sense of humor and fun is very much all encompassing in this score. Secondly the orchestration and instrumentation of the score is colorful and quite unique even though the stardard ensemble employed is a large symphony orchestra. Williams utilizes accordion, piano, clarinet and saxophone with unusual frequency to a great effect. Accordion e.g. provides local colour and humour but also surprisingly functions in supporting role creating subtle textures underneath many of the tracks. Piano provides Snowy’s character his fast gait and underscores the more humorous moments and adds cold eerie edge to the suspence music. Saxophone retains very little of it’s jazzy sound most people associate with it outside the track Adventures of Tintin but rather joins the rest of the woodwinds, lending its husky tones to mystery, intrigue and action but most importantly becomes the musical voice for Captain Haddock in many scenes. The Themes: 1. Tintin’s Theme: A straight forward adventurous leaping melody consisting in its basic form of 5 note opening phrase and a complementing 6 note phrase. Williams extends the melody further during Tintin’s journey, the character earning the lenghtiest fanfaric development during his chase of the falcon. In the grand tradition of leading hero’s themes it is optimistic, youthful and positive. 2. Tintin’s Secondary melody: A close relative to the main theme this melody is a bit more playful, curious and probing with a dose of humor to it, perhaps to do with Tintin’s investigations throughout the film. It also complements the main theme and provides a slightly more danger laced take on the young reporter's escapades. 3. The Unicorn Theme: The musical identification for the eponymous ship that is at the center of the film is almost like a darker musical mirror image of Tintin’s main melody although mostly of the 5 opening notes, linking indelibly the treasure and the hero. This is longest thematic idea Williams wrote for the score, mysterious, a bit ominous and ranges from subtle to operatically grandiose during the course of the adventure. There is a definite "McGuffin" feel to the theme as it evokes feelings of long ago mystery, legend and adventure in one stroke, the ocean vessel being a goal of Tintin's and Haddock's journey but also an artifact in itself. The composer creates a subtly nautical atmosphere to some of the variations in the flashback sequences, the theme backed up by a slowly swaying orchestral writing. It could be said that the Unicorn theme is the second central theme along with Tintin’s which is fitting since it is at the center of the mystery in the film and appears throughout the score up to the last moment in the Finale. 4. Snowy’s Theme and Chase Motif see track 2 for a further analysis. 5. Captain Archibald Haddock: Haddock, the drunkard sea captain, who is often down on his luck, inebriated and foul mouthed but a stalwart ally to Tintin receives a sea shanty styled melody in which saxophone and other woodwinds play a major role in most of its appearances. This theme ranges from the buffoony drunken renditions as we first meet the character who has given himself to drink and self pity to noble and warm as the character goes through the adventures with Tintin finding his thirst for adventure and leaving spirits alone for a while. 6. The Thompsons’ Theme: Waddling and bumbling melodic identification for Interpol’s most inept pair of detectives is pure comedy in its back and forth swaying style, a little march that succeeds in being a bit pompous and officious but this effect is diluted by the dandified ungainliness of melodic idea, enhanced by the instrumentation, often presented on woodwinds and accordion. 7. Red Rackham’s Theme: A rhythmic march-like idea that battles with Sir Francis’ Unicorn theme in the film. Dark, insistent and threatning, the ostinato finds ever expanding orchestration and drives the pirate battle forward with relentless drive. This becomes the theme for Sakharine by the end of the movie, denoting their joint lineage. 8. The Treasure Theme: An eerie exotic sounding motif that is keyed to the treasure of Red Rackham. It makes several appearances throughout the score on solo flute under a cold sparkling mark tree effect as if to illustrate the glinting of gold and treasure. 9.Bagghar Theme: The Middle Eastern locale where part of the adventure takes place receives an exotic theme of its own that appears a few times in the film. On the soundtrack it appears twice, the second reading a grand and opulent one performed by the whole orchestra in the best Williams travelogue fashion. There is a slight resemblance between the Treasure Theme and Bagghar theme that might be Williams' subtle way of linking the treasure and the location where Tintin goes to find the answers to the mystery of the Unicorn. 10. The Dueling Theme: Another pirate battle theme, which is perhaps not a fully fledged theme but rather music for the scene where Red Rackham and Sir Francis Haddock face each other in a duel. All the dexterity, agility and tension of a sword fight is captured by the aptly quick and kinetic motif that is busy and energetic. Williams elaborates this material further in the piece called The Adventure Continues which is the finale of the End Credits. It represents in a way the sea faring music of the old Hollywood, Williams own take on sophisticated balletic dueling music, a spiritual cousin to the works of Korngold, Steiner and Rózsa. 11. Scrolls/Secondary Mystery motif: A secondary sleuthing motif revolving around the investigations that Tintin undergoes to unravel the secret of the Unicorn linking perhaps to the mysterious Scrolls that hold the clue to the ship’s whereabouts. Very much a natural continuation of the Unicorn theme, which it usually accompanies this melody consists of a small figure that rises and falls in curious and exploring fashion, winding ever onwards towards a resolution it never seems to find. 12. Mystery Solving motif: Rhythmic and adroit little motif mainly on woodwinds and pizzicato strings follows Tintin's mystery solving in the film. It is whimsical and curious depicting our hero's quick thinking while he trails after the mystery of the Unicorn. 13. Sakharine/Karaboudjan danger motif: A threatning short motif for Sakharine and the crew of Karaboudjan that is after both Tintin and Haddock is featured a few times on the ship before our protagonists escape. On the album it is heard only on Escape from Karaboudjan. TRACK-BY-TRACK ANALYSIS 1. The Adventures of Tintin: Jazzy and light, full of rather masked appearances of Tintin's main theme although it is repeated a few times quite distinctively. The music accompanies a classic Saul Bass styled main title in which our eponymous hero goes after a villain, giving chase while the credits roll and introduce elements from various Tintin comic books, offering a small 3 minute Tintin adventure of its own and Williams responds in kind. The piece is energetic, rhythmic, mischievous and has a nervous edginess to. It is orchestrated for saxophones, drum kit played with brushes subtly providing a beat, and orchestra with harpsichord making regular comments, the music having a feel of intrigue and quick wit at the same time. The music opens with a curious small thematic idea (0:00-0:03), which seems to form the backbone of the whole piece. This is then developed further, the leaping motif scampering curiously forward like the eponymous reporter after a scoop, the sharp harpsichord mirroring here perhaps the sounds and typing of the type writer. At 0:34 Tintin’s Main theme is heard for the first time on quirky harpsichord here still without heroic connotations. A sudden stop with a tubular bell solo comes as a unusual surprise after 1 minute mark underscoring a Vertigo like shot of Tintin falling down into a spiral after being knocked unconscious, muted trumpets and accordion adding further unique colouring to the proceedings. At 1:38 accordion starts a quasi improvisation on the previously mentioned leaping motif from the beginning of the piece which is then actually repeated at 1:50-58 with clearer melodic contour as Tintin is seen aboard a train fighting villains, the drums providing subtle "train on tracks" styled rhythm. This flows through a jazzy interlude to the Tintin main theme again in 2:16 and in quick succession to the leaping thematic idea that is repeated twice (2:22-2:46) the hero following the bad guy on a plane. This quirky and nervous motif quite oddly, despite being quite distinctive in this piece, disppears from the rest of the score which perhaps illustrates the singular nature of the prologue music. And before the piece ends Tintin’s main theme makes a quick appearance on quirky muted trumpet (2:48) when the hero is victorious and harpsichord dances into a dexterous and good humored ending, the adventure concluded, the villain captured and the treasure reclaimed. Yet this musical adventure is just beginning. The piece presents Tintin's main musical idea in what sounds almost like a suite where you can really say the composer was Tinker-tin to his heart's content. Closest comparisons stylistically are the Knight Buss from POA and the similar opening credits of Catch Me If You Can with its deft and dexterous passages. A great way to open the album, leaving people intrigued for more. 2. Snowy's Theme: Williams captures the quick, agile and not to mention fast thinking Tintin's best canine friend Milou (or Snowy) with an excited up-and-down figure for strings and fast solo sections for piano that receives an extended concert performance here with Gloria Chang on piano. This piece recalls the flow, energy and enthusiasm of Williams’ most famous scherzos, Maestro spinning effortlessly a feather light orchestral dash full of heart and energy. The composer provides Snowy with two figures, the first is the excited up-and-down motif and the secondary idea consists of a string ostinato and a slightly nervous and tense sounding string motif that can be heard here at 1 minute mark which features prominently in a couple of chase sequences in the score that. In this concert version of Snowy's theme pizzicato strings, delightful piano passages and of course light woodwinds present a bouncy dance that is a fast dash that leaves a smile on your face after you have heard it. This is truly a theme that captures the spirit of adventure and the dog to a T. The piece is featured in the film as the first part of the End Credits. 3. The Secret of the Scrolls: The piece opens with the Unicorn theme most uniquely voiced by dusky saxophone with gentle piano accompaniment that has an air of pure mystery when Tintin first sees the model ship at the flea market, the music captivating us as much as the ship does him. This flows into the swaying Secondary Mystery theme at 0:24 which complements the Unicorn theme, first heard on solo flute and accompanied by accordion and then explored on double basses and tremoloing strings take over, climbing to a small peak as Sakharine appears (1:33). The music cuts to the scene where Tintin has taken the model ship home and Snowy's theme pops up on flute and accordion (1:33-1:58), orchestra dashing through a sprightly variation as he chases a cat that has entered through the window, knocking over things and causing havoc until the Unicorn model falls from the cupboard and breaks. As Tintin is intrigued by the Unicorn a subtle quote of the Tintin Main theme (2:16-2:26) appears as he heads for the library to do more investigations to the history of the vessel. The theme is quickly over taken by the Unicorn theme on saxophone and string section again (2:28) accordion and flutes with shimmering synthetic accompaniment in the background follow quickly with the Secondary Mystery theme (2:46) which ends the piece with the sense of unanswered question, the secrets still unlocked. 4. Introducing Thompsons and Snowy's Chase: Thumping low piano chords march with clarinet and accordion in a slightly jazzy, lazy mode presenting a rather befuddled Theme for the Thompsons which suits their characters extremely well, being a mix of self important pomposity and comedy. Clarinet interjects and the theme continues on tuba and low woodwinds a bit more pompous. Then a clarinet and accordion interlude appears, almost a brief dance to the beat of a drum kit, offering perhaps a moment of local colour to the escapades of the bumbling detectives. From this befuddled dance a new thematic idea appears at 1:11, a bouncy and playful variation of Secondary theme for Tintin himself that is repeated at 1:29 only to end soon in queasy strings that lead into a rather masked reading of the Unicorn theme. Then at 1:48 the previously mentioned Secondary Tintin melody returns, here joined by the Mystery Solving motif at 1:57-2:10 suddenly lead into dramatic deep brass chords that clearly announce trouble at 2:16 and start off a chase sequence featuring Snowy. His theme makes a spirited appearance, the music here making it clear that Tintin needs his help, the Snowy's secondary string idea of the theme transformed into an urged action motif that peppers the track with suspence as well as dexterity of the animal as the main idea plays on the dog's indomitable spirit to save his master and Snowy gives chase, the Secondary Tintin theme making a quick appearance at 2:59. Colorful orchestrations dot the whole pursuit, catching what must a lot of on-screen sync points. The closing of the track reprises the dramatic ponderous brass chords as we obviously reach some dark conclusion when they appear towering threatningly ahead and ending the music abruptly. 5. Marlinspike Hall: The Secondary Tintin theme heard in the previous track returns here in murky mysterious guise on double basses as if to announce that there is some sleuthing to be done (0:00-0:14). Horn figures wander smokily around in a dark atmosphere until a quick threatning passage suddenly pops up with staccato brass and screaming strings but Snowy's theme comes to the rescue once again at 0:55-1:11, dispelling the sense of dread with its sprightly character and light dazzling orchestrations. At 1:18 Williams repeats the Secondary Tintin theme on pizzicato double basses and clarinet which gives away to a sense of suspence and finally at 1:50 to the Unicorn theme on horns, woodwinds providing accompaniment, saxophone lending its voice to the arcana as suspence mounts, the Mystery Solving motif 2:14-2:24 accentuating the sleuthing until Tintin's Main theme appearing in quick fragment (at 2:31), the score going into more exploratory suspence music that is colorful and atmospheric. At 3:20 a fast and rhythmic brass and strings take on the Secondary Mystery motif makes an appearance followed by exclamatory horns as if something bad was happening to our protagonist. 6. Escape from Karaboudjan: Pizzicato basses rise into a quick accordion and orchestra reading of the Secondary Tintin theme (0:00-0:05 and 0:11-0:16) that leaps over to quick strings sawing away furiously and to the first heroic rendition of Tintin's Main theme (0:18) here tempered by the brevity of the appearance Tintin leaping to action, escaping first from the radio room of the ship and then trying to reach the life boat where Haddock is waiting him with Snowy. The string and brass material continues fast and furious with woodwind section making classic Williams runs, Snowy's theme flitting amidst the quick paced score (0:41). A heroic and busy rendition of Tintin Main theme sounds, the music full of urgency and triumph (0:49), reaching its fullest variation yet. Brass screams, cymbals crash, relentless strings continue mercilessly and a muted trumpet version of Tintin Main theme appearing in their midst, obviously underscoring rather dire straits (1:23). Flutes and xylophones strike up a quick alarm (1:43) and the ensemble grows into a fantastic dramatic full orchestra crescendo of turbulent trumpet and horn exchanges when Tintin, Snowy and Haddock are about to be run over by Karaboudjan. The string section continues to keep up the drive playing suspencefully, informing that Tintin and Haddock are not in the clear yet, the tension slowly giving away as Tintin's Main theme rears its head on relieved flutes (2:19). A rhythmic motif on stopped horns (2:26), what seems to be a temporary identification for Karaboudjan/Sakharine, briefly menaces our protagonists and a new exotic theme for Bagghar plays (2:46) informing us most likely of the destination of Karaboudjan but the horns soon interrupt continuing their pinched and menacing musical idea for Karaboudjan/Sakharine (2:55) until crescendoing with cymbal crash and calming the situation down, the music rumbling into a murky finish, leaving Tintin, Snowy and Haddock to an unknown fate. 7. Sir Francis and the Unicorn: Dark deep brass and low strings rumble but are surprisingly met by a cool sheen of synthetic chorus (0:09-0:24) like an appartion manifesting from the past. Oboe soloes over plodding low string figures until a sizzle of cymbal leads us to the mysterious slowly stirring strings and a solo horn sings out the Unicorn theme that is slowly taken up by the rest of the orchestra and the theme rises to operatic proportions with pounding timpani, cymbal crashes and brass fanfares, the slow swaying of the music certainly having a nautical feel to it. Here Williams has created a quintessential sea faring motif with mythic connotations very well capturing what I assume is a mirage type of reminiscence that Haddock experiences in the desert. A flute rendition of the Unicorn theme at 2:02 (revealing a close connection between the Unicorn theme and Tintin’s own musical identification since it is difficult to read whether the theme here is a light and bright reading of the Unicorn or a darker reading of Tintin’s theme) is interrupted by a purposeful, rhythmic strings and brass march of Red Rackham’s pirate theme at 2:14, starting what sounds like a sea battle in music form, Rackham’s theme and Unicorn theme alternating as if to tell us which side is winning at any given moment. The Rackham string material is insistent and kinetic, growing in intensity, the brass, woodwinds, timpani and strings having each their own moment in the fracas. You can easily picture a sword fight to this music, the brass making old fashionedly unabashed swashbuckling exclamations, timpani backing them up. The rhythmic Rackham motif flows into a wonderful variation of the Unicorn theme at 2:54 full of drama and pathos. But yet again Rackham’s theme comes back to the fore and continues at 3:06 with brass section backing the string motif with fanfares and wicked playing. The Unicorn theme answers again at 3:40 here embellished with percussion and unique rhythmic woodwinds. Something of a intermediate motif between Rackham’s angular and Unicorn’s flowing idea plays for a moment as the battle rages on until melodramatically deep chords and an eerie quote of the Unicorn theme (4:46), almost like a mirage disappearing, sweeps us to an ominous finish. 8. Captain Haddock Takes the Oars: Tremoloing high strings follow saxophone as it performs a befuddled and broken up version of Captain Haddock's theme. At 0:39 in a swaying sea shanty style the contra clarinet, accordion, strings, selected woodwinds and tuba repeat this rather inebriated sounding theme that has a certain swagger, comedy and determination to it, yet another deft musical portrait. The orchestra repeats Haddock’s theme and then Tintin's main theme makes a small helpful sounding appearance at 1:41 when the music starts to rise into a alarmed crescendo, presumably for Haddock's drunken antics in a life boat. 9. Red Rackham's Curse and the Treasure: The rhythmic motif I assume to be the Red Rackham's theme (from track 7) returns threatningly and is soon joined by a new menacing string motif. This gives away to an exotic, eerie flute rendition of the theme of Red Rackham's Treasure under the shimmer of mark tree at 0:46 but the moment quickly passes, dramatic brass chords rising, quoting subtly the Unicorn chords heard at the end of track 7, Captain Francis coming to challenge the pirate. A new theme takes hold of the score at 1:20, a classically flavoured string based motif, lithe, athletic, nervous, rhythmically intense, strings making quick licks full of suspence until with woodwind trills and horn section opening the material further Williams presents at 2:20 Dueling theme (not a theme in the strictest sense since it is confined to this scene in the film yet it is further developed by Williams for the End Credits. See track 18 The Adventure Continues) in the string section that follows the classic form of the yesteryear of Hollywood sea faring epics, being melodically captivating yet rhythmically oriented. Here the music seems to capture the sharpness and dexterity of the duel between these two seafarers. Every orchestral section contributes to this melody, strings providing the basis, woodwinds and brass giving each a rendition of the melody of the theme in turn, cymbals accenting the melée at regular intervals to comment on its twists and turns. Suddenly this light but kinetically charged piece is interrupted for a moment as if for a decision or quick contemplation until at 3:41 the Unicorn theme makes another ghostly appearance which builds into a string and brass lead crescendo full of tragedy, the Unicorn theme sounding on pained horns at 4:18. Cold and eerie piano notes grow into the Red Rackham's Treasure theme again at 4:39 on flute under the same mark tree haze as before but this time followed by timpani and cymbal crash as Unicorn theme is performed thunderously for what must be the demise of the great ocean vessel. The rhythmic and suspenceful Dueling Theme continues after this tugging insistently at the listener, carrying with it the Red Rackham's Treasure theme at 5:14, which repeats in the same cold orchestration of flute and mark tree but this time building into a grand crescendo of the Bagghar Theme full of exoticism and opulence, cymbals crashing, brass and string joining in a great celebratory rendition evoking foreing lands and Middle Eastern exoticism in the best spirit of Indiana Jones adventures. 10. Capturing Mr. Silk: Woodwinds, clarinet the foremost, accordion and muted trumpet offer a rather comic air to the opening of the piece, Captain Haddock in a new predicament. And soon enough Haddock’s theme appears at 0:47 on saxophone and flutes, quite unsteady on its footing, piano, bassoon and clarinet underlining the precarious situation as drunken Haddock has lit a "wee fire" in the life boat to keep Tintin warm. At 1:17 muted brass, piano and accordion all perform with a wry smile the Thompson and Thomson theme again, officious but awkwardly befuddled accented by off-beat drum hits. Williams develops the material, clarinet going on a longer comedic solo with accordion and bassoon before the piano, and the already much utilized clarinet and accordion return to finish the track to the good natured waddling of Thompsons’ theme. With this comedic dash it most certainly remains a mystery if they ever capture the elusive wallet thief Mr. Silk. 11. The Flight to Bagghar: Saxophone begins a jumpy humorous rhythm, presenting a climbing little motif which appears throughout the track, joined soon by fast string and woodwind runs and the rest of the orchestra. Williams builds up a rapidly forward lunging comedic ballet of sorts with Haddock's theme on the saxophone alternating with the orchestral forces as the score propels what must be a bumpy ride through the air, made apparent by the queasy brass and strings that give the flight its unsteady feel. At 0:50-1:03 a new swaying sea shanty styled motif appears briefly on humorous accordion as if to illustrate Haddock's goofy antics and possibly drunkedness that soon gives way to Tintin's Main theme at 1:13 where it makes a fleeting optimistic appearance as our main character offers us a show of his flight prowess, his knowledge of flying limited to having interviewed a pilot once after all. But soon the music again dances forward with Haddock's theme appearing regularly, heroic brass fanfares punctuating the adventure as jittery string writing receives slightly more dire cast. Despite these arduous circumstances Haddock's thematic idea prevails and trumpets and saxophone climb and dip into a deft orchestral hit that closes the piece with a musical wink of an eye. Williams never forgets the comedy of the moment and has composed here one of those humorous pieces that only he can, projecting this humor through the orchestra and getting away with it due to his unique skill and writing providing us a wonderful orchestral romp in the process. 12. The Milanese Nightingale: Harp and expectant tremoloing strings present a delightful and elegant violin solo that conjures up romance and a touch of high society, being almost like an homage to the style of the film music masters of the Golden Age so sweet and unabashed it is. Strumming of guitar and accordion with muted trumpets enhance the air of elegance further, offering opulent and urban stroll music with Parisian flavour. Another string solo dances forwards, waltzing in the string section warm and glamorous but stopped short by a sudden intrusion of an ominous reading of the Unicorn theme at 1:16. Tintin is still has a mission to accomplish. 13. Presenting Bianca Castafiore: A stately opening presents our opera diva with an orchestral prelude from the cavatina of Gioachino Rossini’s opera The Barber of Seville. Soprano soloist of the highest caliber Renée Fleming then standing in for the famous opera soloist of the Tintin's world, Bianca Castafiore, sings Je veux vivre from Charles Gounod’s Romeo et Juliette to a rather drastic effect, the finale of the piece inducing shattering glass and chandelier sound effects as she brings the house down so to speak. It is a somewhat appropriate inclusion in the film because of her appearance but the effect a bit less funny on the album for the casual listener even if it brings smile to your face as a sonic gag if you know the personality of this particular song bird. 14. The Pursuit of the Falcon: And then we are off to chase after a bird of another kind. Williams extends, tongue firmly in cheek, the operatic comedy as he weaves quickly the Je veux Vivre melody into the orchestrations of the opening of this thrilling action set piece. But soon solo flute flits back and forth between orchestral sections, assuming the role of the fleeing Falcon in this rapid chase through the streets of Bagghar, Williams presenting the fast animal an instrumental idenfitication instead of a clear melodic one. Strings take foreground enhanced subtly by marimba, providing momentum and nervous energy, brass offering needed bursts of power and adding dramatic punctuation as the heroes follow the villains on motorbike. At 1:15 a new leaping fanfare sounds in the brass heralding the heroics of our protagonists, the timpani and deep rhythmic brass and strings presenting a dire hammering motif that sets after them, the leaping fanfare idea reprised at 1:36. Snowy's theme gives a steady rhythm and thematic continuity to the piece as the motoric up and down figure of the theme is woven into the momentum of the music, beginning at 1:53. The heroic fanfare for our main characters sounds comes back yet again at 2:02, the string writing intensifying all the more after this. At 2:22 a bright rapid fire fanfare sounds and Tintin's Secondary theme follows on deeper orchestral forces as if to announce that he is firmly after the bird and the bad guys. The rapid fanfare and Tintin's Secondary theme continue to punctuate the hunt for the elusive avian when the score plunges into skillfull fast string playing of Snowy’s chase motif. Soon Williams brings us back to the flute idea for the Falcon at 3:16 where the virtuoso flautist does amazing job with the material. Orchestra takes the idea up briefly from the flute but as Tintin catches up his theme makes an attempt to catch the Falcon at 3:36. He is stopped short by a mounting brassy and percussive orchestral crescendo. Then brass and timpani push the music into a new gear at 3:54 where the orchestra rolls relentlessly forward, the pace quickening, flute solo of the Falcon appearing in the middle of the tumult as our protagonist is hot on the trail of the bird. When Tintin is finally victorious the orchestra rewards him and us the listeners with the most extended and developed heroic fanfare treatment of Tintin's main theme at 4:16 the music blossoming joyously into a grand rendition of the theme. This celebration of victory is suddenly cut short as momentum ceases and fades into deep strings in 4:36 and timpani blasts pound, woodwinds making a subtle quote of the opening of the Secondary Tintin motif at 4:46, repeating it with snarling horns and timpani backing but the tension shifts into a sudden dramatic and brassy exclamation of Tintin's main theme at 5:13 complemented by cymbal crashes that ends the piece with a sense of finality in its last soft notes on flutes and tubular bells which seems to signal that the adventure is not over yet. 15. Captain’s Counsel: Tentative woodwinds and deep pizzicato try to form Haddock's theme, flute snatching the opening of it, here somber and emotional, Williams changing its characteristic comic stance into a one of friendship, thoughtfulness and rueful sadness. As the strings offer support, the flute succeeds on the second try to voice Haddock’s theme, warm, comforting and hopeful, horns leading into a delicate reading of Tintin's main theme on muted trumpet and clarinet. Mystery Solving motif appears with renewed spirit at 1:36-1:49 on its customary woodwinds and pizzicato strings, and muted brass, suddenly accordion marching in with the Thompsons’ theme at 1:49 and hopeful brass swell and low strings leave us with a feel of anticipation. All is not lost. 16. Clash of the Cranes: Woodwind run and likewise furiously racing strings start things off energetically, presenting an action motif, snarling and growling brass and heavily hitting timpani and cymbals hammering away in what must be the most creative duel in ages. Williams offers a heavy, almost mechanically plodding angular motif for the crane fight, each side of the orchestra presenting hammering blows, Tintin's theme sounding intense and determined amidst the battle (0:34). Williams underscores both the duel and the fist fight where Haddock fends off Mr. Alan, his treacherous first mate while trying to capture Sakharine. Snowy comes to the aid once more and his theme dazzlingly scampers forward, embellished by heroic bright brass (0:44) as he topples a few thugs with a well places box. The mechanic swinging string motif of the cranes returns but is soon joined by another musical idea, the equally rhythmic Red Rackham's theme from tracks 7 and 9 (0:58) which grows in intensity as it rises to a brass and percussion laden crescendo that does not bode well to any of the participants in this melée as a mounting deep orchestral crash silences the battle for a moment, Haddock flying out of the toppled crane. Low register woodwinds and strings seem to proclaim tragedy but Snowy's theme or a slightly altered variant appears again from the orchestra (1:52), now more like in Snowy's first chase on track 4, a hint of danger in its orchestration, harpsichord a unique sharp color here as Haddock and Sakharine face each other off in a real duel, the music illustrating the sharp edge of the confrontation. The similar humorous rising, leaping chords that charted Haddock's and Tintin's flight on track 11 return at 2:20 and sure enough Haddock's theme is not far behind (2:32-2:43) backed up by chirping flutes, the captain gaining upper hand in the fight, throwing bottles of alcohol on his nemesis. A sudden eerie musical moment follows, a ghostly reading of Haddock's theme making a quick appearance as Sakharine taunts his enemy while trying to burn the scrolls but with triangle’s clear glint and harp the intrepid and optimistic Tintin's theme returns on accordion and clarinet and the protagonist snatches the precious papers from Sakharine's hands. So as the bad guy is finally defeated Tintin's theme is soon repeated on muted trumpet and harp, accompanied as ever by Snowy's bouncy thematic idea, Thompsons' theme making a closing statement for the escapade with resounding orchestral hits. 17. The Return to Marlinspike Hall and Finale: The Unicorn theme on saxophone over tremoloing strings brings us back to the mystery of the ship here as Tintin finally unravels the secret of the scrolls, finding coordinates in their cyphered layers. Our heroes head for the location of these coordinates underscored by an optimistic appearance of first Tintin's and then Snowy's themes full of energy, flitting from saxophone to flute to clarinet, Williams spinning it through the orchestra with deft skill as the trio speeds through the countryside in their car and arrive to Marlinspike Hall. After cold expectant string lines we transition to a noble horn statement of Haddocks' theme (1:24) that is coupled with a short quote of Tintin's main theme on flute and clarinet. As the trio goes on exploring the house of Haddock's ancestors dark rumbles from piano and the orchestra follow (1:50-), high strings complementing the music of extreme ranges, woodwinds in full musical exploration mode here, slowly but surely closing in on some secret as they rhythmically plod forward, strings accompanying tentatively. When a doorway to the secret cellar is found at 2:35 a solo oboe sings out a unique lyrical melodic line full of mystery and beauty with strings and shimmeringly cascading harp backing it subtly, lower strings repeating the idea when all of a sudden the Unicorn theme appears yet again in the very same enigmatic spirit in 3:08-3:20, flute taking its customary role as the soloist for this particular theme, slightly eerie but alluring. Horn line (3:21) clearly related to Haddock's theme yet having a sense of antiquity is followed by a somber reading of that particular theme on flute but the music quickly encounters the Unicorn theme (3:42), the secrets finally unravelling perhaps. Glinting cold piano and strings weave into the texture of the score, welcoming Red Rackham's Treasure theme that eerily raises its head with solo flute in the shimmer of the mark tree at 4:08 it's most common guise. It's companion one might say, the Unicorn theme follows with wistful longing on horns, the theme's melody actually transforming into the lyrical one heard beginning at 2:35 on oboe. At 4:38 rhythmic high string figure supports a determined Haddock's theme on saxophone as the music builds, something decisive happening, the Unicorn theme dancing again to the fore, repeating as the swaying string figure now augmented by brass blossoms into a fateful sounding full ensemble crescendo, announcing clearly that the adventures might not be over yet, Williams presenting a sort of To be continued in musical form. 18. The Adventure Continues: Williams has written an extended concert arrangement of the fast and agile Dueling theme heard on track 9 which according to reports serves as the final part of the End Credits (The other material in the credits being the reprised track Sir Francis and the Unicorn (track 7) and Snowy's Theme. While not one of the major themes of the score it imparts a sense of drive and adventure, evoking the swashbuckling spirit of our heroes' escapades. It could be said it prepares the listener for another adventure to come. The original Dueling theme is embellished and developed through the orchestra, the piece containing several false endings, almost like pauses in a duel. Here Williams adds certain contours of the Tintin’s main thematic idea subtly into the mix, most prominently the rising leaping figures associated with our heroes in the middle section of the suite. This piece ends the album with a satisfying note yet leaves you wanting for more of these adventures if not for any other reason than to hear a new Williams score of this spirit and magnitude. © -Mikko Ojala-
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