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  1. This is just a theory, so don't take anything I'm saying here as fact - but Mark Graham recently posted on Instagram this picture: https://www.instagram.com/p/CvdIKBiSt4Z/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link&igshid=MzRlODBiNWFlZA. I recognise the cue as being Riding the Lizard from Revenge of the Sith. The recent date in the bottom left seems to imply that this version of the score has been prepared recently (and that he's not just looking in the archives for fun). (Keep in mind I have no idea how the JKMS library is set up - this could mean nothing). Perhaps this part of the score is being prepared for a future concert (which seems an odd choice), or maybe even an LTP performance of Revenge of the Sith (though the formatting is a little different to other LTP scores I've seen).. Any thoughts?
  2. By golly...I feel like I'm about to vote YES! It's already shot up to the top ten of my iTunes play counts.
  3. Check it out: http://fpdownload.adobe.com/strobe/FlashMediaPlayback.swf?src=http://collections.mun.ca/videos/extension/image/2603.mp4 I found the link via Lukas Kendall at Film Score Monthly: http://www.filmscoremonthly.com/board/posts.cfm?threadID=100763&forumID=1&archive=0
  4. One of my favorite film score topics is film score what ifs. What would've happened if this composer hadn't quit or was replaced. What would've this score sounded like had the composer not declined due to creative differences? What would it be like if this composer did this score instead of that composer? On the topic of John Williams, there's only very few occasions where John Williams couldn't do a score. None of which was due to him being fired (who's stupid enough to do that?). All these instances were due to timing. The one I think about is X-Men. Bryan Singer revealed in 2006 that he had offered Williams the gig only for him to decline due to commitments to Saving Private Ryan (at least that's the movie Singer mentioned). Would've been interesting to hear what an X-Men score by John Williams could've sounded like. Would it have been just as iconic as other Marvel movie themes like Spider-Man, The Avengers, or Black Panther? Would he have created leitmotifs for Magneto, Rogue, and Wolverine? Would his theme have been carried through different movies even if he didn't score them? Something to think about. So my question is what's a score that John Williams almost did would you like to have heard? Or is there just any movie you wanted Williams to do? Did ever want him to score a Star Trek movie? A Pixar movie? Transformers? Just anything you can dream of. Love to hear y'all's thoughts!
  5. Recently, the question of how much of the CoS score was done by William Ross came up, and I said I'd do an analysis basen on what we have. Well here it is! There are also a lot of misconceptions thrown around about how much of the score is just retreading the first one, I hope my final numbers can put an end to that. Any thoughts and corrections on calculating errors, typos and unnoticed references are most welcome! I'm using the leaked PS and CoS sessions, so the main analysis will only take into account the final intended version of every cue so far known to be recorded for the movie, no unused/not recorded music from leaked sheets and no tracked cues. I will assume satisfactory knowledge of the movies and all major themes at least. I've also decided to have a look at the OST and recommend the best cues not on it, and also to break down the major tracked cues appearing in the cue list, just for completion's sake - look for the Appendix at the end of this post. The Analysis My custom terminology OM - Old Material, used in PS, similar tempo, similar orchestration - will reference PS session cues, slates and timecodes if relevant, won't if unnecessary (I don't have to point out where Nimbus 2000 is in Hedwig's Theme) AM - Adapted Material, themes/specific cues used in PS or other movies, but adapted/orchestration and tempo changed significantly enough (like Nimbus 2000 in Cakes for Crabbe and Goyle, for example) NM - New Material, thematic and melodic material first heard in CoS From Reel 3 onwards, I'll be using contractions for frequently reappearing themes with long and tedious names : 3NL - 3-Note Loop (original Philosopher's Stone motif here repurposed as a generic danger/mystery theme) HWWO - Harry's Wondrous World Opening N2 - Nimbus 2000 Reel 1 Reel 1 Old Material: 05:52 Adapted Material: 03:19 New Material: 06:07 Complete: 15:18 Reel 2 Reel 2 Old Material: 5:56 Adapted Material: 3:22 New Material: 8:40 Complete: 17:58 Reel 3 Reel 3 Old Material: 2:49 Adapted Material: 3:51 New Material: 5:43 Complete: 12:23 Here I must also stop to say the movie must have been criminally overspotted, because a lot of good and new bits have been left out. Normally, lots of bits and pieces go missing, because the picture gets trimmed after the recording takes place, so the music goes with them, but here most scenes are intact and the music is taken out from under them, for example the beginning of Transformation Class (I guess they wanted the 3NL to be more sudden and dramatic in its appearance?) or the Whomping Willow and some Spiders material (probably tension and "jumpscare" reasons). This could potentially be forgiven had most of Reel 8 not been tracked - a lot of important action score, mysteries and big revelations to never see the light of day because JW had to spend his time writing minutes of unrecorded music, and writing and recording several more minutes that were not used. Kind of like The Arena vs. The Battle of Geonosis all over again! Reel 4 Reel 4 Old Material: 3:40 Adapted Material: 1:54 New Material: 8:46 Complete: 14:20 Reel 5 Reel 5 Old Material: 2:05 Adapted Material: 4:57 New Material: 7:20 Complete: 14:22 Reel 6 Reel 6 Old Material: 2:40 Adapted Material: 1:27 New Material: 3:31 Complete: 7:38 Reel 7 Reel 7 Old Material: 4:56 Adapted Material: 1:54 New Material: 9:58 Complete: 16:48 Reel 8 Reel 8 Old Material: 00:00 Adapted Material: 2:16 New Material: 9:35 Complete: 11:51 Reel 9 Reel 9 Old Material: 4:13 Adapted Material: 3:24 New Material: 4:14 Complete: 11:51 Conclusions Standout NM cues: All Dobby material, Magical Household, all Lockhart material, all Flying Car material, all Fawkes material, Writing on the Wall, Transformation Class, Petrified Colin, Dueling Club, The Spiders Pt.2, Ginny Gets Snatched, Reel 8 Standout OM cues: Escape from the Dursleys, Letters from Hogwarts, Harry meets Lucius, Introducing Colin / Mail, Flying Pixies, Dumbledore and Harry, Reunion of Friends Total Numbers: Complete: 2:02:29 Old Material: 32:11 (26.27%) Adapted Material: 26:24 (21.55%) New Material: 63:54 (52.17%) Discrepancies between the final numbers and the cue list numbers can come down to podium changes, or the fact that I couldn't be bothered to count the seconds of silence on the beginning of every sessions track or in the middle of some cues. The final percentages would not be impacted in any significant way. So on an expanded 2-disc release, counting with 78 min. max per disc, there would be at least 36:40 left for bonus material, probably a few minutes more, since the aforementioned silences and properly joined tracks would make the score shorter than my estimate. I believe we have no idea how many alternates exist/were recorded/were even written, if not many, this could probably house the Children's Suite (24:11 if we count Harry's Wondrous World as the finale, 18:50 if we don't). We'll 100% get HWW as the HP1 Credits, so on HP2 it'll either be the Credits or the Suite (and thus the CD2) finale, if the suite or even the HWW is on there, of course. Appendices Appendix A Reel 10 (Additional material, I don't consider these part of the score) Appendix B The tracked cues - what do they consist of? (An editing guide) Appendix C A complete intended score editing guide This includes every single sessions cue (even ones removed from the movie) and tracked cues. Note: this is simply a guide to my preferred way of listening to the score, not an attempt at a complete film edit recreation with all edited out bits and pieces tracked down; that exceeds even my patiance and tolerance levels, it's work for another year - and probably another user. (A Remixed and Restored trilogy á la Jurassic Park based on the Black Friday John Williams Harry Potter Collection, perhaps? :P) I consider two types of edits: hard and soft. A hard edit means two cues were written to be joined/overlapped, but recorded separately. Listening to them separate worsens the listening experience because you get a buildup to an unsatisfying climax, a few seconds of silence, then a sudden out-of-nowhere climax and continuation. Temple of Doom, for example, is filled with these types of transitions. A soft edit just means one cue is winding down/a note is held, while the other starts or winds up without there being a gap between these. Not joining these cues does not necessarily worsen the listening experience. Hard edits I always recreate, this means I had to split a few tracked cues in half in Reel 8 to avoid overstuffed, non-focused 15 minute tracks. Soft ones I'm more liberal with - if it makes sense musically and thematically as one track, I'll even join cues separated by seconds of silence in the movie. Since there are way more soft edits than hard ones, I'll only indicate hard edits (+ and +h instead of +s and +h). The final track names are my own creations, sometimes I'd reference the edit I've listened to for years, sometimes an original session name since I like it better, sometimes it's completely made up. Appendix D So what is on the OST? Personal comments incoming, feel free to ignore them if you happen to like inexplicably random and non-chronological presentations! OST Old Material: 22:26 (31.83%) Adapted Material: 6:44 (9.55%) New Material: 41:19 (58.62%) Complete: 70:29 Appendix E Which unreleased cues can I look forward to most in a future expansion if I don't touch bootlegs and session leaks? (Personal favourites, recommendations) Yes, I've got way too much free time.
  6. Found this on instagram, looks like Across the Stars was arranged for her. This is especially interesting since the Yo-Yo Schindler's list one was more of a transcription probably.
  7. There it is. The Original Trilogy plus The Force Awakens, live to projection! http://nyphil.org/concerts-tickets/explore/1718/star-wars
  8. So by my calculations, there's almost 45 minutes of unreleased music heard in the final film, though it's still unclear how much of that is old recordings tracked in... (Apologies to mobile phone users, this chart only looks right on a desktop or tablet.... if you are on mobile, turning your phone sideways helps somewhat) # Title Length On FYC? Length On OST? Length Unreleased 1 Main Title 1:26 01A [0:00-1:26] Fanfare and Prologue 1:26 2 Prologue 1 0:12 tracked in from TFA's "Starry Night" 0:38 01A [0:00-0:36] Prologue 0:36 02B [1:02-1:40] Journey to Exegol 0:38 0:20 01A [0:36-0:56] Prologue 0:20 02D [2:13-2:33] Journey to Exegol 0:20 0:32 01B [0:56-1:28] Prologue 0:32 0:10 01C [1:28-1:37] Prologue 0:09 01C [1:45-1:52] Fanfare and Prologue 0:07 0:08 01D [1:37-end] Prologue 0:08 3 Prologue 2 0:13 0:13 0:06 01E [2:52-2:58] Fanfare and Prologue 0:06 0:34 0:34 4 Prologue 3 0:06 0:06 0:17 02C [1:56-2:13] Journey to Exegol 0:17 0:53 0:53 5 Falcon Flight 2:22 02 Falcon Flight 2:22 6 The Training Course 2:10 2:10 7 Rey and Leia 0:49 0:49 8 Intel 1:58 1:58 9 We Go Together 2:33 03 We Go Together 2:10 09A [0:00-2:33] We Go Together 2:33 10 Helmet 1:17 1:17 11 Scavenger Hunt 0:09 0:09 12 Arrival on Pasaana 0:44 09B [2:33-end] We Go Together 0:44 SOURCE MUSIC 1:05 13 Rey and Nyambee 1:01 1:01 14 It's Ren 1:39 1:39 15 Wayfinder 0:56 0:56 16 The Speeder Chase 2:39 OST 05 The Speeder Chase is unused 2:39 17 Underground 0:32 0:32 18 Sith Dagger 1:16 1:16 19 Snake 0:19 0:19 20 Healing The Snake 1:19 1:19 21 The Knights of Ren 0:21 0:21 22 In The Desert 2:26 04 In the Desert 2:26 23 Transporter 1:04 1:04 24 We Gotta Go 0:24 0:24 25 A Prisoner 1:23 05 A Prisoner 1:23 26 To Kijimi 1:37 06 To Kimiji 1:37 27 Zorii Bliss 0:48 0:48 28 I Care 1:04 1:04 SOURCE MUSIC 0:49 29 My Friends 0:49 0:49 30 Report 0:18 0:18 31 Nobody Came 1:01 1:01 32 Incoming Destroyer 1:36 1:36 33 Fleeing from Kijimi 1:53 07 Fleeing from Kimiji 1:53 08A [0:00-1:33] Fleeing from Kijimi 1:33 34 Hallway Shooting 2:11 08 Hallway Shooting 2:11 35 Ren's Quarters 0:44 0:44 36 Hard to Get Rid Of 2:19 09 Hard to Get Rid Of 2:19 37 Lock Down The Ship 0:06 0:06 38 I'm The Spy 1:27 08C [1:33-end] Fleeing from Kijimi 1:18 0:20 39 Join Me 3:42 10 Join Me 2:21 10 Join Me 3:42 40 We Found Our Spy 0:21 0:21 41 I Know You 1:02 1:02 42 The Old Death Star 2:14 11 The Old Death Star 2:14 04A [0:00-1:22] The Old Death Star 1:22 43 Finn and Jannah 0:49 Could be partially "Finn's Confession" from TFA tracked in 0:49 44 Off The Waterfront 1:03 12 Off the Waterfront 1:03 04C [2:21-end] The Old Death Star 0:55 45 Another Skimmer 0:31 0:31 46 Rey Explores 1:11 "Darth Vader's Death" from ROTJ partially tracked in 1:11 47 Light Saber Duel 0:30 0:30 48 Saber Duel Continues 1:18 1:18 49 Final Saber Duel 1:38 13 Final Saber Duel 1:38 12A [0:00-1:05] The Final Saber Duel 1:05 50 Healing Wounds 2:54 14 Healing Wounds 2:49 12C [1:42-end] The Final Saber Duel 2:15 51 Advice 1:54 15 Advice 1:54 52 The Destruction of Kijimi 1:23 1:23 53 Poe and Leia 2:07 2:07 54 Destiny of a Jedi 5:12 06 Destiny of a Jedi 5:12 55 Luke's X-WIng 1:18 1:18 56 They Will Come 1:29 11B [0:57-end] They Will Come 1:54 57 Arrival at Exegol 1:18 This seems to actually be the intended placement of Journey To Exegol ??? 1:18 58 Rey To Throne Room 0:40 0:40 59 Battle of the Resistance 1:54 16 Battle of the Resistance 1:54 13B [1:12-end] Battle of the Resistance 1:39 60 Approaching The Throne 4:16 17 Approaching the Throne 4:16 14 Approaching the Throne 4:16 61 Parents 1:57 18 Parents 1:57 62 Coming Together 1:44 19 Coming Together 1:44 63 Rey & Ren Team Up 1:00 1:00 64 The One True Emperor 0:19 0:19 65 Too Many of Them 0:30 0:30 66 Lando Arrives 1:24 1:24 67 The Return of the Sith 0:58 0:58 68 Seeing Sights 3:17 20 Seeing Sights 3:17 15A [0:00-3:02] The Force Is with You 3:02 69 Destruction 0:49 At least partially "Peace and Purpose" from TLJ tracked in 0:28 70 Rescue 1:10 21 Rescue 1:10 15B [3:02-end] The Force Is with You 0:57 71 Rey's Death 0:48 16A [0:00-0:48] Farewell 0:48 72 Farewell 4:27 22 Farewell 4:27 16B [0:48-end] Farewell 4:26 73 Reunion 4:04 17 Reunion 4:04 74 A New Home 1:47 23 A New Home 1:42 18 A New Home 1:47 75 Finale 10:51 19 Finale 10:51 Total Unreleased Music: 0:43:32 There's a ton of music on the OST not heard in the film at all... besides little portions snipped out of cues that did make the film, we have: 01B [1:26-1:45] Fanfare and Prologue 0:00:26 replaced by Starry Night from TFA 01D [1:52-2:52] Fanfare and Prologue 0:01:00 01F [2:58-end] Fanfare and Prologue 1:16:00 02A [0:00-1:02] Journey to Exegol 0:01:02 I think this is actually partially heard as Rey arrives later in the film, hard to hear under sound effects 02C [2:33-end] Journey to Exegol 0:00:16 05 The Speeder Chase 0:03:21 replaced in final cut with new, much less interesting cue 04B [1:19-2:21] The Old Death Star 0:01:01 could be an early version of the trio meeting Jannah's crew? Or some of that and some of an early version of Finn talking to Jannah? 12B [1:05-1:42] The Final Saber Duel 0:00:37 could be an early version of the opening to Healing Wounds? 11A [0:00-0:57] They Will Come 0:00:57 could be an early version of the resistance discovering Rey's message coming from Luke's X-Wing? 13A [0:00-1:12] Battle of the Resistance 0:01:12 could be deleted final space battle footage? Or a special album-only opening? ~ Original main post: In this thread you can discuss the entire score, as heard in the film itself, the OST, the FYC, or anywhere else, without using spoiler tags. Of course, in the early days here, you can certain put very spoiler-y things in tags for the time being. The point of this thread is so those people who want to discuss the OST album without reading anything about the film can stay in that thread, and only come in here after they've seen the film. @Thor, feel free to copy and paste the paragraph you just posted about the score in the film thread into this thread too
  9. The Force Awakens by John Williams Complete Score Breakdown & Other Info by Jason LeBlanc I have no clue what any of Williams' original cue names are, so I made up my own names for all of them, usually just using a description of the scene or some dialogue from it rather than trying to imitate Williams' naming style. I'm sure I missed some things here and there so I welcome any at all questions and updates and corrections. Without further ado here we go! May 2020 update: We now know all of Williams' original cue titles. I will continue to edit this post with corrected info as I have time, and will put old, outdated info in spoiler-blocks until I have time to replace it with updated info. CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF OST: 01 Main Title And The Attack On The Jakku Village (6:25) 02 The Scavenger (3:39) 03 I Can Fly Anything (3:11) 08B "That Lady With The Stick" (0:35-1:05) 05 Follow Me (2:54) 07 The Falcon (3:32) 08A "What's Your Name?" (0:00-0:35) 08C "Kylo and His Sword" (1:11-end) 09 The Rathtars (4:05) 10B "Green Planet" (0:52-1:17) 10C "You Got A Name?" (1:17-end) 11A "Maz on the Table" (0:00-1:21) 10A "I Ran Into You" (0:00-0:52) 04B "I've Found The Droid" (1:10-end) 11B "I Have To Go Back" (1:21-end) 12 The Starkiller (1:51) 13 Kylo Ren Arrives At The Battle (2:01) 14 The Abduction (2:25) 15 Han And Leia (4:41) 17 Snoke (2:03) 18 On The Inside (2:05) 19 Torn Apart (4:19) 20 The Ways Of The Force (3:14) 22A "Light In The Snow and Flying Home" (0:00-2:05) 04A "Finding The Map" (0:00-1:10) 22B "The Complete Map (2:05-end) 23 The Jedi Steps And Finale (8:51) Concert Arrangements 06 Rey's Theme (3:11) 16 March Of The Resistance (2:35) 21 Scherzo For X-Wings (2:32) DETAILED OST BREAKDOWN: 1 Main Title And The Attack On The Jakku Village (6:25) 0:00-1:26 = 1M1 Main Title 1:26-1:44 = 1M1Av3 Starry Night 1:44-2:16 = 1M2A Fix 2:16-2:29 = 1M1Av3 Starry Night {continued} 2:29-2:59 = 1M2B 2:59-3:07 = 1M1Av3 Starry Night {continued} 3:07-3:27 = 1M3C I've Seen Too Much 3:27-4:07 = 1M3D The Attack on the Village 4:07-4:52 = 1M3BR The Attack on the Village 4:52-6:03 = 1M4R The Arrival of Kylo Ren 6:03-end = 1M4B Landing 2 The Scavenger (3:39) 0:00-0:54 = 1M5 Alt 2R The Scavenger 0:54-1:02 = 1M5 Alt 2 The Scavenger 1:02-2:21 = 1M5 Alt 2R The Scavenger {continued} 2:21-2:40 = 1M6 Alt R One Quarter Portion 2:40-end = 1M7 Lunchtime With Rey (Flute Version) 3 I Can Fly Anything (3:11) 0.00-0.57 = 2M14R I Can Fly Anything 0.57-end = 2M15R The First Escape 4 Rey Meets BB-8 (1:31) 0:00-1:10 = 8M72 Finding The Map 1:10-end = 4M37 I've Found The Droid 5 Follow Me (2:54) 0.00-1:07 = 2M18B Who's Luke Skywalker? 1:07-2:24 = 2M18CR Follow Me 2:24-2:36 = 2M18C Insert II 2:36-end = 2M18CR Follow Me {Continued} 6 Rey's Theme (3:11) 8M79 Rey's Theme 7 The Falcon (3:32) 3M20R The Falcon Still Flies! 8 That Girl With The Staff (1:58) 0:00-0:35 = 3M21R What's Your Name? 0:35-1:05 = 2M18A That Lady with the Stick 1:05-end = 3M22R Kylo And His Sword 9 The Rathtars (4:05) 0:00-1:01 = 3M24R Hiding Under the Grate 1:01-1:22 = 3M27 Rathtars Appear 1:22-2:47 = 3M28 The Rathtar Attack 2:47-end = 3M28AR Old Falcon To The Rescue 10 Finn's Confession (2:08) 0:00-0:52 = 4M36R I Ran Into You 0:52-1:17 = 4M32R Green Planet 1:17-end = 4M33R You Got A Name? 11 Maz's Counsel (3:07) 0:00-1:21 = 4M35R Maz on the Table 1:21-end = 4M39R I Have To Get Back 12 The Starkiller (1:51) 8M81 Sunbeam Strings 13 Kylo Ren Arrives At The Battle (2:01) 0:00-0:15 = 5M43R (Fix) Find Rey! 0:15-0:43 = 5M43A (Fix) Maz’s Treasure Chest 0:43-end = 5M44 Kylo Arrives at Battle 14 The Abduction (2:25) 0:00-0:56 = 5M46R Kylo Stalks Rey 0:56-1:18 = 5M48 We’ve Got What We Need 1:20-end = 5M49R The Abduction of Rey 15 Han And Leia (4:41) 0:00-1:12 = 6M50R Han & Leia Reunion 1:12-2:52 = 6M51R Finn and Poe, United 2:51-3:23 = 6M52 R2 In Hibernation 3:23-end = 6M53R Parental Discussion 16 March Of The Resistance (2:35) 8M77 The Resistance Theme 17 Snoke (2:03) 0:00-1:02 = 8M78 Snoke 1:02-end = 6M54AR Bring Her To Me 18 On The Inside (2:05) 0:00-0:45 = 7M62A On The Inside 0:45-0:54 = 7M62A Insert 0:54-end = 7M62A On The Inside {Continued} 19 Torn Apart (4:19) 0:00-2:26 = 7M65B Father and Son 2:26-2:32 = 7M65C Leia Fix 2.32-3.40 = 7M65 Father And Son 3.40-end = 7M66 The Control Room And Ren In The Forest 20 The Ways Of The Force (3:14) 0:00-0:12 = 7M67R It Is You 0:12-0:47 = 7M67BF Rey Catches Sword 0:47-end = 7M67A Rey vs. Ren 21 Scherzo For X-Wings (2:32) 8M80 Scherzo For X-Wings 22 Farewell And The Trip (4:55) 0:00-1:16 = 7M68A Light In The Snow and Flying Home 1:16-2:05 = 7M68 Flying Home 2:05-end = 8M73 The Complete Map 23 The Jedi Steps And Finale (8:51) 0:00-2:12 = 8M74 Climbing the Mountain 2:12-end = 8M75 Finale (11/11/15) QUICK FYC BREAKDOWN: Simple FYC/OST Combo Playlist, no Editing Required Longer Chronological Edit of OST + FYC, In-Track Editing Required: THE RAW NUMBERS: All comments welcome!
  10. As seen on the main page, here is the track list and list of soloists: http://www.jwfan.com/?p=4950 Here is the pre-order link on all the various Amazons http://www.amazon.com/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.ca/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.es/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.de/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.it/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.fr/dp/B009A9EPLM/ http://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/B009A9EPLM/
  11. JAWS 3-D (1983) – Music Composed and Conducted by Alan Parker ***** out of ***** The complete score is arguably the more varied and “bigger” (in terms of number of themes and scope) Jaws score of them all. It could never reach the high level and effectiveness of the John Williams scores but it is a fantastic score on its own deserving a 5 star rating, with an incredible number of themes and motifs and some variations on the Jaws theme. The uncredited borrowings from the “Rite of Spring” can be a bit distracting to people very familiar with that piece, but do work very well in the movie. TV Producer Alan Landsburg made a lot of bad decisions while producing Jaws 3-D (such as scraping the superior electronic composites from PSE and replacing them by hastily prepared poor optical effects and keeping in the movie some unfinished shots like in the underwater tunnel attack scene to meet its release date), but in the music department he did great by hiring composer Alan Parker (no relation to the homonimous movie director) and then calling back Parker alowing him to adapt and rerecord most of the score when the movie was extensively reedited before release. The score was released on LP and tapes at the time of the film release in 1983 as a 35 min. album including several tracks that differed a lot from the music heard in the film. There was some speculation if the album was a rerecording, as the first Jaws was, but in fact the album contained music from the original version of the score, before a lot of the tracks had to be modified and rerecorded for the reedited/shortened version of the movie. More than 36 minutes of rescored music had to be completed by Parker in a very short 6-day period (and these new versions generaly improved on the energy and exitement of the music compared to the original versions). First released on CD in 2007 by Intrada Records as straight reissue of the 35 min. MCA LP program the complete score was finally released by Intrada Records in 2015 as part of their Jaws series releases that year, including all tracks that were recorded for the original cut of the film and for its reedited version, plus the source music, overlays and alternates recorded by Parker with a total time of 108 min. (longer than the 98 min. picture). The 2015 Intrada Release is a fantastic release that I thought I would never see happening. Sound quality is great even if unfortunately, a few tracks present some damage (due to the degradation of the tapes since its recording in 1983). According to the press release on the 2-CD 2015 edition the presentation opted to follow as closely as possible the film sequence, but that is not exactly precise and the main issue I have with this release is the sequencing. In fact the main program at CD 1 includes tracks out of sequence, unused tracks and alternate versions (while some of the actual film versions are at CD2 instead of CD1). So, before I do a track-by-track breakdown of the score, I will do it in the way I preferred to sequence the tracks, to match the film sequence, prioritizing in the main program the music that is actually used in the film, then an alternate program with the original/alternate versions, stingers, unused tracks and keeping the source music separated from the main program. My sequencing in two separated iTunes “albums” (tracks with * are from CD2*): I - JAWS 3-D the film score: 1, 2, 3, 4, 2*, 7, 8, 9, 12, 8*, 14, 16, 17, 11*, 29, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 16*, 35, 37 Used source music: 5, 25*, 31*, 27*, 28*, 18, 19, 30*, 20, 29*, 32*. CD 1 track 11 “Dolphin Chase” is not used in the program as it is an oddly edited version (omitting a section with the shark theme) of “Dolphin Chase (Telex Version)”, which is the actual track used in the movie. II - JAWS 3-D original versions, alternates & unused 1*, 6, 4*, 5*, 6*, 10, 7*, 10*, 16, 25, 12*, 13*, 14*, 18*, 15*, 34, 17*, 36, 37 Unused music/alternates: 20*, 3*, 13, 15, 18, 19, 27, 21*, 22*, 23*, 24* Unused source music: 26* Before doing a track-by-track comment it is convenient to do a summary of the main themes and motifs used through the movie: 1) Jaws theme: John Williams classic Jaws theme is somewhat underused in this film, several tracks include portions of the theme (Parker uses only the main two note motif, but not any of the other parts of the theme like the horn melody, the bridge and the "Orca" theme). In some key sequences Parker opted to use different action/suspense music (including a new three-note shark motif). As in the film there are two sharks (a baby shark and a big mother shark) Parker applied different orchestrations to differentiate the sharks: “two horns, woodwinds and the strings” for the baby shark and “six horns and the entire trombone section” for the big mother shark. 2) Three-note shark theme: A new motif used several times during the movie, sometimes in association with the Jaws theme - it kind of replaces the Jaws theme horn melody. 3) Sea World Theme: A beautiful theme used extensively during the score (also used in association with adventurer/photographer Phillip Fitzroyce) and with a powerful rendition for the end credits. The theme is playful and happy but very flexible being also used in sad ominous tone during the score. Interestingly its three-note refrain is similar to the three-note shark motif used in the film (but altering the emphasis from the third to the second note). 4) Love theme: A lovely theme used several times during the movie for the love between the two protagonists Mike Brody and Kay. 5) Ski Theme: A playful and infectious theme that plays over the second half of the main titles and was supposed to be used in other tracks of the movie (Kay Meets Phillip [original version], Sea World Opening Day [original version]) but ended being dialed out of the movie. 6) Dolphin Theme: Another playful theme used for the dolphins, it is used several times in conjunction with the Sea World theme and first appears in the track “Kay Meets Phillip”. 7) Attack motif: Modernistic brass and string clusters that the liner notes refer to as a kind of precursor of similar techniques that Elliot Goldenthal would use in Alien3. It is used during some of the shark attacks in tracks like “Attack”, “Shark Attacks Skiers”, “Shark Attacks Kelly” and “Phillips Demise”. 8) Music derived from Stravinskys’ “Rite Of Spring”: It is said that Rite Of Spring inspired some of John Williams music for Jaws, in Jaws 3-D however there are several passages that are directly quoting almost note for note Rite of Spring, as further detailed in the track-by-track description and on the attached video: I - JAWS 3-D the film score: http://store.intrada.com/core/media/media.nl?id=11145&c=ACCT67745&h=4aa3f1529e62c8d826d2 1) Jaws 3-D Main Title (film version) – CD1 Track 1 In the previous Jaws movies the Universal Logo was left unscored with some sonar/underwater sounds used. For Jaws 3-D an unique 3-D Universal logo was used (AFAIK the only time that logo was used). No music was composed by Alan Parker for the logo, but in the theatrical version a portion of the track “Baby Shark Dies” was tracked and it is edited in this “film version of the track”. The actual score begins with a string crescendo, then the Jaws theme briefly plays with the underwater shark POV followed by a three note horn motif that is incorporated as a new shark motif for this movie frequently used in conjunction with the Jaws theme, the scene continues with the POV but this time it is not a continuous shot (which strongly diminishes the effect of the POV shots) but several cut shots clearly intending to display the 3-D effects with several fishes swimming around out of the screen with coral reefs in the distance, the music including strings and harps reflecting the underwater environment until it accelerates as the POV approaches a big grouper and bites it with a curtain of blood filing the screen and changing to a shot of the grouper head floating out of screen still opening and closing its mouth (this shot – one of the few electronic composite effects that remained from PSE [much superior to other opticals in the movie] - was extended after the original cut and an insert “Grouper Head” music was added to the film version of the track comparing to the shorter original version in disc two). The POV returns with a fast-paced arrangement of the shark theme with a different punctuation that is much closer to Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring than to the original Jaws theme (see Rite of Spring Part I, 2. The Harbingers Of Spring, Dance Of The Adolescents) and a brass fanfare plays when the title appears in 3-D and “bites” out of the screen. The cut shots of the POV continue as the actor names are displayed with the lovely “Sea World theme” playing and then returning to the shark theme as the POV spots a boat with skiers passing above and starts to follow it. A playful and infectious “ski theme” plays as the camera shows the Sea World skiers rehearsing a pyramid formation (the kind of theme the audience can easily whistle). As the POV continue following the boat the shark theme plays underneath the ski theme and, in the end of the film version of the track, an insert with the shark theme plays as a shot shows the shark fin in the distance. 2) First Underwater – CD1 Track 2 The skiers fall in the water and an underwater POV shows they swimming - only the first 7 seconds of this track plays in the movie (the last 12 seconds are used later for the Overman’s death scene). In the movie as the shark POV approaches (but very slowly – undermining any suspense the sequence could have as the POV camera appears almost static) a tracking of “Shark Thru The Gate” plays and when the boat pulls the skiers and they are safe a tracked version of the ending of the Main Title plays. Interestingly the music does not include the shark theme for the shark POV approaching. 3) Shark Thru Gate – CD1 Track 3 The shark follows the skiers as they enter the Sea World lagoon through a sea gate. As the sea gate starts to close the fin appears and proceeds through the sea channel until a noise of “something” hitting the gate is heard and the gate breaks. This track follows the shark fin moving until it hits the gate. Again, contrary to expectation, Parker does not use the shark theme in this scene. 4) Kay Rides The Whale – CD1 Track 4 After inspecting the broken sea gate, park chief engineer Mike Brody (Dennis Quaid), the eldest son of Sheriff Brody from the first two films, goes to meet his girlfriend Kay (Bess Armstrong) to inform that his brother Sean (John Putch) will arrive that afternoon and they will have dinner together. Kay is the park’s senior biologist and is riding Shamu as Mike appears. In the first part of this track the Sea World theme plays as Kay is riding the whale. The second part of the track (as of 45 seconds) is dialed down in the movie and introduces the love theme for Kay and Mike as they talk while feeding the whale. This is a great track introducing two of the score main themes, unfortunately it is one of the tracks on which some deterioration can be perceived (specially as of the 25 seconds mark when the strings and percussion show some flutter). 5) Attack (telex version) – CD2* Track 2 Against Mike’s orders park employee Overman decides to dive alone that afternoon to lock the broken sea gate. As he locks the gate the shark suddenly appears and eats him. His severed arm floats out of the screen in 3-D and the shark is now locked into the park lagoon. This track fits the theatrical cut of the scene but went unused (the music included in CD 1 “Overman’s Last Dive” was the original version of this track that do not fit the theatrical cut but fitted the original “workprint” cut of the scene). The music consists on sustained strings suspense music with some percussion effects to increase tension and then modernistic brass and string clusters for the attack itself (which Parker will use also for subsequent attacks in the film such as the attack on Kelly and Phillip’s Demise). Again, Parker does not use the shark theme. In the movie this track was replaced by tracked music from the ending of “Underwater Kingdom and Shark Chase” and from the last portion of “First Underwater”. 6) Love Scene – CD1 Track 7 Alan Parker’s personal favorite theme for the film (and the only love theme in the Jaws series). This rescored version is very similar to the original version (Kay and Mike’s Love Theme – CD2 track 4) but, as he had to record a slightly shorter version it is interesting that he opted also to modify the orchestrations, highlighting the piano instead of the clarinet and horns. It is a lovely bittersweet theme for Mike and Kay who are concerned because Mike will move to work in Venezuela. I prefer this version to the original version available at the original LP and CD2. Again, some minor tape deterioration can be perceived in this track. 7) Boys In The Raft – CD1 Track 8 Two guys break-in the park at night to steal some coral from the lagoon. While one is diving the other waits in an inflatable raft. The scene is largely left unscored (no shark theme music even when the flashing light of the guy who is diving disappears indicating he has been eaten) and this very short track consists of two stingers, the first is used in the film when the guy in the boat is pulled into the water and the second (dialed down in the film) should score the guy being dragged underwater by the shark. A "score restore" of this short track: 8) Kay Meets Phillip (Revised) – CD1 Track 9 Kay is training the dolphins when adventurer/photographer Phillip Fitzroyce (Simon MacCorkindale) appears, mocks the training and invites Kay to dinner, which she refuses. This track introduces the dolphin theme, a fast paced “happy theme” that mimics the dolphins spins, then some brief humorous underscore for Fitzroyce mocking the training and continuing with the uplifting Sea World music. It is very good track with an energic version of the dolphin’s theme and a beautiful rendition of the Sea World theme in its final portion. 9) Sub Search (Revised) – CD1 Track 12 The sequencing of the Intrada release is a bit odd with respect to this portion of the movie. It includes the unused original version of this track (CD 1 Track 10 – “Underwater Kingdom And Shark Chase”) then an edited version of the “Dolphin Chase” (while the used unedited version is included in CD2 track 8), then it returns back to the music used in the film with this track. Kay and Mike go down in the lagoon to search for the missing park employee in a small submarine, when they reach the sunken “Spanish galleon” they go out of the sub to investigate. The dolphins are extremely nervous as they go out of the sub. This is the revised music that differ the most from its original version. Alan Parker mentioned in the interview for the liner notes to the Intrada’s release that only one track had to be modified by request of the producers to “make it scarier”. For sure it was this track, as the original version focused on the wonders of the undersea kingdom and this one has a different tone - much more suspenseful (while retaining only one “wonder” moment from the original version for the 3-D shot of the submarine making a turn and the finale of the track). The music begins with ominous low strings as the submarine starts to dive in the lagoon (another track clearly inspired by The Rite of Spring – see the second portion of Rite of Spring Part 2 - 1. Introduction), as the submarine passes in front of the underwater control room a powerful statement of Sea World theme plays, the track returns to suspense music as the submarine continues its search (with Parker’s three note horn shark motif playing in the background), more ominous low strings are used when the submarine passes by the lagoon filtration pipes foreshadowing that the shark is in there. Suspense intensifies when Kay and Mike leaves the submarine to explore the sunken Spanish galleon and the dolphins are very nervous. In this portion a moray eel “scare” (not very effective, comparing to the similar effective scare in Jaws The Revenge) is scored with CD 2 – track 24 [Sting4] but that overlay is not mixed in this track. This is a highlight of the score, a very suspenseful track with several mood variations on which the tension increases gradually. 10) Dolphin Chase (telex version) - CD2* track 08 A shark hits the sunken Spanish galleon and starts chasing Mike and Kay, they hold on the dolphins to swim away and manage to get out of the water. This is another highlight of the score with an exciting action theme for the escape based on Parker’s three note horn motif for the shark, then the more traditional version of the Jaws theme plays for the shark fin rising above the water returning to more dramatic action music for the finale of the chase. As this scene involves the “baby shark” the lighter orchestration of the shark theme is used. 11) Night Capture (Revised) – CD1 track 14 Kay convinces the park owner Calvin Bouchard (Louis Gosset Jr.) to allow them to capture the shark to display it as an exhibit at Sea World. As Kay, Mike and Phillip Fitzroyce go out on a barge at night to capture the shark a suspenseful take on the Sea World theme plays in conjunction with the shark theme, some suspenseful music plays as the team dives and waits for the shark. The shark appears suddenly biting the air tank of Kay and exciting action music follows with the shark theme and powerful statements of Parker’s three note shark motif interpolated until they manage to shoot the shark with tranquilizer and capture it. Another score highlight. The film version is shortened from the original version mainly omitting a middle portion with the shark theme and with an abridged ending. I personally prefer the film version which is more concise and exciting and has more prominent drums in the mix when the shark is attacking Kay. 12) It’s Alive/Sea World Opening Day – CD1 track 16 Kay and Mike are in a tank keeping the tranquilized shark oxygenized when it suddenly awakes and the two have to leave the water quickly, as the situation calms the Sea World theme plays and then a park opening montage starts (a similar sequence to the “tourists on The Menu” montages from the first two Jaws) with a crowd entering the park on its opening day. This track includes an early version of the park opening montage which is longer featuring a playful version of the Sea World theme for the tourists entering the park then moving to the dolphins theme, the ski theme and closing with a more epic take on the Sea World theme for the “Silver Bullet” skiers acrobatics, ending softly with the Sea World theme. It is a very good track summarizing the main Sea World themes, it was replaced in the movie by “Park Opening (Revised)” (but as it is attached to “It’s Alive” I kept it in the main program and placed the used version “Park Opening” after “Baby Shark Dies”). 13) Baby Shark Dies – CD1 track 17 Kay learns that the baby shark has been transferred to an inadequate small display pool. As she arrives there she sees that the shark is dying from lack of oxygen and jumps in the water in an attempt to keep it moving and save him. This tense track plays with ominous strings mimicking the shark’s heart beats slowing down until it stops and the shark is dead, then a sad version of the Sea World first three notes plays as Kay leaves the tank frustrated. 14) Park Opening (revised) – CD2* track 11 This track replaced the original “Sea World Opening Day” as the park opening montage was shortened and split in two different sequences – the two tracks of the film version are joined in this track. The first part starts with a fast-paced version of the dolphin theme and then the Sea World theme (including the playful version of the Sea World theme for the tourists entering the park and a faster version for the glimpse of the dolphins and whales shows), the second part starts with a short version of the ski theme and the Sea World theme for a dancing show (both not used in the movie that replaced it with source music - from the track “Country Music Show”), the used music returns to the more epic take on the Sea World theme for the “Silver Bullet” skiers acrobatics, similar to the original version but “better” with added violins swirls in the backing and with a stronger finale. A "score restore" with this track following It's Alive: 15) Shark Loose – CD1 track 21 The park owner, Calvin, is informed on a malfunction in one of the park water filtration pipes. He orders it to be switched off. As the pumps are switched off and the water flow stops, a giant shark tail starts to move out of the pipe. In the film the shark theme (edited from track CD 1 – track 31 “Shark Wants Out”) plays mixed with this string suspense track as the big shark swims out of the pipe towards the underwater restaurant where Kay is explaining Calvin that, based on the bite radius at Overman’s body, a much bigger shark around 35 feet in length must be inside the park (Calvin: “Are you talkin’ bout some damn shark mutha?” Kay: “Overman was killed INSIDE the park, the baby was caught INSIDE the park, it’s mother is INSIDE the park!”). 16) Shark Attacks Skiers – CD1 track 22 This track actually includes several tracks merged together, it starts with the shark theme for the scene on which the shark fin rises behind skiers performing a show, as the skiers see the shark and loose balance falling in the water a “triumphant” version of the Jaws theme plays (that same music will be tracked at the end of Phillip’s Demise). The ending of that track is cross-faded with the music for the previous scene in the film, on which the shark approaches the underwater restaurant and is seen for the first time, then the music is again cross-faded with an unused fast-paced version of the shark theme (it is difficult to identify which would be the application of that portion of the track, it seems it could be alternate versions for the ending of “Shark Attacks Kelly”). A score restore including the final section of this track in the film: 17) Shark Attacks Kelly – CD1 track 23 Kelly (Lea Thompson in her screen debut) and Sean are in a bumper boat and fall in the water, as they swim the shark rises and starts to attack her, hurting her leg. The shark then bumps on a nearby pier knocking several people in the water and swims away. This is very good action track using the shark theme and then the modernistic brass and string clusters for the attack itself (as used in “Attack” and “Phillip’s Demise”). 18) Shark Rams Tunnel (Revised) – CD1 track 24 As the underwater tunnels are being evacuated the shark is spotted and panic ensues, with tourists running away as the shark rams the tunnel and water starts to flood it. Safety doors are activated leaving the tourists trapped in a small section of the tunnel. This is an action track bookended by the shark theme, this revised version a bit more energetic than the original version in CD 2. 19) Live Bait – CD1 track 26 With the tourists trapped in the underwater tunnel with a limited air supply it becomes necessary to set a rescue plan. Phillip Fitzroyce proposes to trap the shark into the filtration pipe while Mike repairs the tunnel to release the tourists. Phillip proposes act as a “live bait” to lure the shark into the pipe. An ominous version of the Sea World theme plays as Phillip and Mike boards a barge to perform their plan. Kay joins Calvin in the underwater control room where she spots the dolphins in the lagoon and gets concerned with them. 20) Phillip’s Demise (revised) – CD1 track 27 Phillip dives with his associate Jack and uses fish blood and noises to attract the shark. The shark appears, follows Phillip into the pipe and is locked inside the pipe. The safety line Phillip is using to get to the exit breaks and the shark gets him. In the more famous scene of the film (other than the “infamous” scene of shark breaking the control room window) the camera shows Phillip struggling from inside the shark’s mouth. As a last act Phillip tries to ignite a grenade but is chomped with the grenade in his hands. This lengthy track composed of two parts starts with some diving music clearly inspired by Rite of Spring (Part 2: 1. Introduction, in fact the beginning of the track is identical to the Rite of Spring music, even more in the original version of the track), as the shark appears and follows Phillip into the pipe the shark theme is used and then the modernistic brass and string clusters play for the attack itself, as the shark manages to chomp Phillip a sad version of the Sea World theme is used – in the film this final portion was replaced by the triumphant fanfare from “Attack On The Skiers” changing the original mood of the scene from the ‘loss of Phillip’ to the ‘victory of the shark’. 21) Pull The Pin (Revised) – CD1 track 30 As Jack learns that Phillip has not came back he desperately tries to call him and realizes that he must be dead, he them hears the pumps being turned off and concerns that the gates will not be able to hold the shark. A mournful version of the Sea World theme plays as Jack cries and whishes his boss had pulled the pin of the grenade, then some suspense strings as the scene moves to the shark tail pressuring the gate. 22) Shark Theme (Utility No. 2) – CD2* track 19 The shark manages to break the gates with the pressure of its tail, as the Jaws theme plays. 23) Shark Wants Out – CD1 track 31 Mike and Kay are repairing the tunnel as the personnel in the barge are trying to inform them that the shark is approaching. This is a short track with the Jaws theme for the shark swimming towards Mike and Kay. 24) Shark Chases Mike and Kay – CD1 track 32 Mike manages to complete the repair on the tunnel as the shark arrives. The dolphins appear and start to attack the shark. While the shark is fighting the dolphins Mike and Kay swim toward the underwater control room. The shark then start to pursue them and they manage to escape just as the shark was reaching them. This is a very good action track for the fight between the shark and the dolphins and the following pursuit, it is very similar to the original version at CD 2 (track 15 “Saved By The Dolphins”) but with a modified faster tempo finale and using more the Jaws theme as a backing. 25) We’re Saved – CD1 track 33 With the underwater tunnel repaired air pressure is equalized and the safety doors open, releasing the trapped tourists. As they escape a happy version of the Sea World theme plays. 26) Shark Thru The Window (Telex Version) – CD2* track 16 This is a slightly shorter revision of the track for the shark coming towards the control room window. The shark theme starts slowly and accelerates as the shark approaches and breaks the window. 27) The Shark’s Gonna Hit Us – CD1 track 35 The control room floods, the shark chomps a control room technician and gets stuck in the window. Mike and Kay spots the body of Fitzroyce still stuck in the mouth of the shark with the grenade in its hands. They manage to pull the pin of the grenade and the shark explodes. This is an exciting action track, again based on The Rite Of Spring (see Part 1: Dance Of The Earth). 28) Jaws 3D End Titles – CD 1 track 36 The love theme plays as Mike and Kay swims to the surface. They became concerned if the dolphins survived and Kay starts to call for them. As the dolphins jump out of the water a powerful rendition of the Sea World theme plays and continues for the end credits alternating the Sea World theme with the dolphin’s theme. Source Music: 29) Sean Arrives – CD 1 track 5 This track is used in several moments of the movie as park “source music”. It plays first when Mike meets his brother Sean at the park gate. It’s a playful “happy theme” but like other source music in the film it becomes a bit repetitive, with no dramatic progression (reason why I prefer to leave the source music out of the main program). If you want to hear it in film order place it after “Kay Rides The Whale”. 30) Rock Bar Source – CD2* track 25 Sean meets a park skier, Kelly (Lea Thompson), at a Bar were they play a strange game called “stand-off”. The source music is this instrumental rock track. If you want to hear it in film order place it after “Attack (Telex Version)”. 31) Exterior Bar Source – CD2* track 31. This track, a kind of country instrumental, plays after the previous Bar source as Mike, Kay, Sean and Kelly leave the bar. 32) Apartment Source – CD2* track 28 Another light country style source. It plays while Mike Kay and Sean are having breakfast. If you want to hear it in film order place it after “Boys In The Raft”. 33) Lunch Restaurant Source – CD2* track 27 A kind of easy listening source for guitar, flute and drums that plays while Calvin is dining with Phillip and is informed that a shark chased Mike and Kay in the lagoon. Not my favorite among the source cues. If you want to hear it in film order place it after “Dolphin Chase (Telex Version)”. 34) Country Music Show – CD2* track 30 A section of this track plays during the Opening Day montage. It is a fun track with guitar, drums and piano. If you want to hear it in film order place it after “Sea World Opening Day” (in fact it replaces the start of the second half of Opening Day – but it would require editing to place it chronologically) 35) Restaurant Source (Flute & Harp) – CD1 track 20 This source track alternates gentle versions for flute of the dolphin theme, the love theme and the Sea World theme. It is a lovely track but being over 4 min. it becomes a bit repetitive and too long, dragging a bit, reason why I prefer it out of the main program. If you want to hear it in film order place it before “Shark Loose”. 36) Guitar Show – CD2* track 29 Another country style source that plays as background music for the scene of the ski show, while Mike is trying to warn the skiers to get out of the water after the big shark first appeared. In the film it plays right before “Attack On The Skiers” but, as that track also mergers some tracks from a previous scene of the shark appearing on the window of the restaurant, it is not possible to actually place this track chronologically. 37) Hawaiian Drums – CD2* track 32 In the movie this brief drum track plays before “Guitar Show” while Mike is running to the ski show stadium. As it includes a long pause and a stinger in the end it is more appropriate to use it to end the program. II - JAWS 3-D original versions, alternates & unused http://store.intrada.com/core/media/media.nl?id=11146&c=ACCT67745&h=86e2640fc99a30183d9c 1) Jaws 3D – Main Title (original version) CD2* track 1 The original version of the main titles does not have the insert of tracked music for the Universal Logo, the extension of Grouper Head scene and the extension of the finale. Is a bit more straight forward version omitting these additions. 2) Overman’s Last Dive CD1 track 6 The original edit of Overman’s death was different, including an approaching shark POV before the attack. For this different edit Alan Parker applied the Jaws theme (absent from the revised version – “Attack - Telex Version”). Also the ending of the track is shorter as the original version of the scene did not included the “severed arm” 3-D effect. I made a “compare” video of this track and the revised version: 3) Kay And Mike’s Love Theme (Original) CD2* track 4 This original version of “Love Scene” (CD1 track 7) is slightly longer and has a different orchestration with the piano less prominent in the mix with the melody carried by the clarinet. 4) Boys In The Raft (Revised) CD2* track 5 This alternate version is similar to the music used for the theatrical version with a slightly extended second stinger. 5) Kay Meets Phillip CD2* track 6 This original version is extended comparing to the theatrical revised version. The main difference is the use of the ski theme in the middle of the track, possibly scoring some extended acrobatics from the dolphins that was deleted from the movie. 6) Underwater Kingdom and Shark Chase CD1 track 10 This original version of “Sub Search” has a very different tone, emphasizing the wonders of the Undersea Kingdom instead of the suspense. The suspense only starts at the final portion of the track after Mike and Kay leaves the submarine to explore the sunken Spanish galleon. This original version includes variations on the Sea World theme and the dolphin’s theme. 7) Shark Chase And Dolphin Rescue CD2* track 7 The original edit of the scene was shorter without the edited portion of Kay almost getting bitten by the shark. The first part is similar, with the action music based on Alan Parker’s three note shark motif but the final part is completely different, omitting the jaws theme and using a fast paced action music based on Rite Of Spring (see Part 1: Dance Of The Earth) that will be used again at the climax of the movie (“The Shark’s Gonna Hit Us”). 8) Night Capture CD2* – track 10 This extended original version of the track is very similar to the theatrical version but has as the main difference a section (2:45 to 3:10) including the shark theme before the music for the attack on Kay starts. I speculate that in the original cut of the film the shark was spotted approaching / the shark POV approaching was used before the attack started (and when the movie was reedited they opted to take this portion out so the attack would start more as a surprise). The mix is slightly different to the film version with the percussion less prominent. 9) It’s Alive/Sea World Opening Day CD1 – track 16 This and the End Titles are the only tracks I repeat in both programs, as the start of the track (It’s Alive) is used in the film and the Sea World Opening montage is the original version replaced in the film by the revised “Park Opening”. 10) Shark Breaks Loose CD1 – track 29 This is the shark theme for the big shark first appearance, when it leaves the filtration pipe and swims towards the restaurant, in the Intrada’s sequencing apparently it was confounded with the track for the shark breaking loose after being captured by Fitzroyce (Shark Theme Utility 2). In the film this track is edited and mixed with “Shark Loose”. 11) Panic At Sea World CD1 – track 25 This unused track apparently scored a deleted scene of panic among the Sea World tourists with the appearance of the shark. It is based on fast paced variations of Alan Parker’s three note motif for the shark. For the sequencing I opted to place it before the original Shark Rams Tunnel, as it was edited in a track of the original LP. 12) Shark Rams Tunnel CD2* – track 12 This original version of the track is slightly longer than the revised version, with less emphasis on the jaws theme. 13) Phillip’s Demise CD2* – track 13 This original version of the track is longer than the revised version with an extended opening (quoting Rite Of Spring - Part 2: 1. Introduction) and slightly slower sections of the jaws theme. Its final portion is almost identical to the revised version. 14) Pull The Pin CD2* – track 14 A very similar version to the film version omitting the final suspense portion. 15) Shark Theme (utility 1) – CD2* – track 18 Similar to “Shark Theme Utility 2” used in the film for the shark escaping the filtration pipe I decided to include this in the same place chronologically for the alternate score. 16) Saved By The Dolphins CD2* – track 15 This original version has a very similar first part to the revised “Shark Chases Mike And Kay” but a slower second half. Apparently the music was revised to make it faster/more exiting in its second half. 17) Shark Thru The Window CD1 – track 34 This original version of the track is longer than the film version (this alternate included in CD1 while the film version is included in CD2), the main differences being that the shark two note theme repeats twice in the beginning (instead of three times as in the theatrical version) and this version has an extended final section. 18) Finale (alternate) CD2* – track 17 After 30 seconds of some string suspense music an alternate take on the final portion of “The Shark’s Gonna Hit Us” plays with a slightly faster tempo at the finale (same track inspired by Rite Of Spring Part 1: Dance Of The Earth) 19) Shark Guts CD1 – track 36 I opted to include this track in the original/alternate version of the score because it was not used in the film. It should score the 3-D effect of the shark’s jaws floating in 3D after the shark’s explosion. A "score restore" of this very short track: 20) Jaws 3D End Titles CD1 – Track 37 To close the alternate score program I included the End Titles also in this program. Unused music/alternates 21) Grouper Head (alternate) CD2* – track 20 An alternate of the insert for the extended grouper head scene during the Main Titles 22) Attack (Revised) CD2* – track 3 Slightly longer version of the Overman’s “Attack Telex Version” track. 23) Sub Search (Short) CD2* – track 9 A very short track that sounds like a TV bumper (using the Love Theme) 24) Phillip’s Gear CD1 – track 13 Another very short unused track similar to the previous track (Sub Search Short), as it is a short track unused in the film I prefer to include it at the extras section. 25) Shark Drop CD1 – track 15 A short unused track. It is a kind of humorous take (possibly associated with the Fitzroyce character) on the Sea World theme. As it is unused and IMO does not plays well with the main program I prefer to include it at the extras section. 26) Tunnels And Tentacles CD1 – track 18 Apparently, this track should be used as source music for the “Captain Sink” cave attraction in fact a very short section of it is used when the fake tentacle attacks a visitor. As this is source music almost completely unused I prefer to include it as an extra. The Underwater Tunnels sequences were some of the most harmed by the late hour changing of the electronic composites for opticals, this sequence in the finished film is much shorter than the music. A "score restore" of this scene (only the very beginning and end of the music fits the sequence that remained in the movie): 27) Almost But No Bite CD1 – track 19 Another track mostly unused, the final portion briefly used for the Overman’s body discovery. As it is mostly unused and a very short stinger I prefer to include it as an extra. 28) Ready To Dive CD1 – track 27 A short unused track. Like the previous track (a kind of humorous take on the Sea World theme). As it is unused and IMO does not plays well with the main program I prefer to include it at the extras section. 29) Sting 1 CD2* – track 21 A short unused stinger sounds like an abridged version of the stinger used in “Boys In The Raft” 30) Sting 2 CD2* – track 22 Short unused stinger similar to Sting 4 31) Sting 3 CD2* – track 23 A stinger similar to the one used for discovery of Overman’s Body (Almost But No Bite 0:16) and the first appearance of the big shark at the restaurant window (Attack On The Skiers 0:38) 32) Sting 4 CD2* – track 24 This stinger was used as an overlay in “Sub Search Revised” for the Moray Eel scare. 33) Rock Bar Source (alternate) CD2* – track 26 An unused alternate for the source bar music. I prefer the version that was used in the film. ***** To finalize I think the movie is a missed opportunity, it had the potential to be so much better - it had a great premise, great talent in the writing department (Richard Matheson[Duel], Carl Gotlieb), a good cast, but poor direction, editing and special effects diminished its potential. Alan Parker score when listened on its own however is an example, among many others, that even mediocre films can inspire great scores.
  12. The little bits I shared of my insights into this seemed to sit well with the community, so I decided why not make an article of this? This article will deal primarily with the antecedents and sources of the Star Wars series. Of course, if one so wished, one could read absolutely anything and everything into it, look no further than Vincent Canby's review of the original film: "Quo Vadis?, Buck Rogers, Ivanhoe, Superman, The Wizard of Oz, The Gospel According to St Matthew, the legends of King Arthur." But what are the actual, concrete inspirations of Star Wars? George Lucas, himself, of course, had since March 1980 pointed increasingly towars high-brow sources like Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai and Sir James Fraser's The Golden Bough. But what are the influences we can actually observe through the movie and its evolving drafts (and Williams' score)? And how do they stack up against each other? Galactic Patrol The most major source for the Star Wars series (perhaps less so the original film by itself) is not Flash Gordon and certainly not Kurosawa or Joseph Campbell: its a 1937 pulp novella by "Doc" EE Smith called "Galactic Patrol", part of his Lensmen series, which Lucas' biography Skywalking credits him with reading.1 Indeed, Lucas owns a paperback of the popular Panther edition, which was out in 1973 and 1972, just in time to be referenced in his very earliest notes for the films.2 In February 1973, Lucas started sketching (and soon abandoned) a synopsis for "The Journal of the Whills", and concomitant lists of character and planet names. Most of his reading of pulps seems to have been concentrated at the time leading right up to the writing of this document. The list of names already contains Aldeeran, a clear paraphrase on Smith's Aldeeraban, and two characters called Skywalker, seemingly based on the name of another Smith character, Sklark of Space. While it seems Lucas didn't read this novel, its title is given in the paperback as part of detailing Smith's bibliography. Far more importantly, the planet-hopping premise hinted at in the unfinished document is closer to Smith's intergalactic adventures than to Flash (whose adventures take place almost entirely on the planet Mongo) or John Carter (who adventures purely on Mars). In the intermittent drafts, Lucas mentions a food called Thantha, which is clearly paraphrased from Smith's Thionite. Even the concept of the Republic and how it became sickly through the influence of inept politicians and drug trade resembles Smiths' description of "The Civilization," with its "Galactic Council." Also in all those early drafts (and in those of Raiders of the Lost Ark), a character is revealed to be more machine than man: in early drafts, its the hero's father Kane. This was briefly passed to Ben Kenobi, then rejected and only applied to Darth Vader in post-production, and then briefly to Toht in Raiders of the Lost Ark. Kane's description is almost verbatim that of Smith, describing the comandant of the space cadets in the academy (another concept borrowed by Lucas). Even the idea of blowing up planets has its antecedents in Smith, although its only brought to effect in the later Lensmen novels, which we don't know for a fact that Lucas read. Most importantly, while "The Force" has antecedents in a whole host of space operas (themselves all taking a page from Smith), none hits close to the mark than EE Smith: in Lucas' second draft, the Jedi emerge as intergalactic policemen (like Smith's Lensmen) who harnass the power of the Kaiber Crystal (Smith's Arisian lenses) to use The Cosmic Force (Smith's "Cosmic All") and fight the evil Sith pirates - called Boskone in Smith's book. In fact, Lucas briefly named the Dark Side "Bogan" which sounds a lot like Smith's Boskone. This concept was rejected in later drafts - neither Luke nor the Jedi are depicted as superheroes in the finished film - but it starts creeping back into the sequels and prequels (including a discarded sequel plot released as the novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye, which features the crystal, now renamed Kaibur to denote Excalibur), along with more of Smith's nomenclature: Smith's eighth chapter is called "The Quarry Strikes Back." The Force was still called "The Cosmic Force" in the shooting script, and Lucas kept referring to it as such as late as 2019,3 and the microscopic lenses are also the antecedents of the later idea of the Midichlorians. The Lensmen being the product of a breeding program (much of its eon-spanning history is described in prequels of Smith's) feels like the germ of the idea of the "Clone Wars" and perhaps even Anakin's immaculate birth. In the 1977 film, what mostly remained is a tremendous amount of Smith's plot: Smith's hero, Kimbal Kinnison, flies the fastest ship in the fleet, The Britannia, which the hero uses the blast off into the fourth dimension to evade his pursuers. When they finally do catch him in a tractor beam, he passes the ship for scrap. Early on, he infilitrates the enemy's ranks and steals data spools about the enemy's deadly space station "The Grand Base", escapes the premises in a space lifeboat with just another Lensman to keep him company before landing on a desolate planet. Spending his free time sensing a remote while his blast shield is down, he later has to rescue his love interest (with whom he bickers constantly) from his pirate kidnappers, and finally, he flies low in a one man fighter over "The Grand Base" and blows it up with a well-placed shot. John Carter of Mars The second source is still not Flash Gordon: its John Carter of Mars. Seemingly while editing American Graffiti, Lucas started researching the space fantasy genre dating back to 1968. Its here that he probably looked into Smith and a few other sources we'll get to later, but also says (in an interview later reprinted in the film's souvenir programme) that he discovered his childhood hero Flash Gordon drew "inspiration from the works of Edgar Rice Burroughs (author of Tarzan) and especially from his John Carter of Mars series books."4 Lucas' favourite artists, Hal Foster and Frank Frazetta, were famed for illustrating Burroughs' stories, and Lucas could scarcely have missed that Buster Crabbe who played Flash and Buck also played Tarzan. Lucas had a Frazetta illustration of Burroughs' "The Rider" hanging in his office,5 and owns a copy of Burroughs' "The Moon Maid." In 1977, Lucas repeatedly said his film is in the genre of "Burroughs and Heinlein",6 that he wanted to "make a space fantasy that was more in the genre of Edgar Rice Burroughs,”7 that Alex Raymond "took his character from Edgar Rice Burroughs",8 that he wanted to perpetuate genre trappings that were laid down “primarily by Edgar Rice Burroughs.”9 Even more damingly, when he was first developing the film, he told Joseph Gelmis that he was working on a low budget space opera "in the tradition of Edgar Rice Burroughs."10 In fact, his third draft synopsis - the first true version of the film as we know it - is actually prefaced as being "in the grand tradition of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter of Mars, and Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon." Lucas further asserts that Burroughs was "sparked" by "Gulliver on Mars, written by Edwin Arnold and published in 1905."4 That (spurious, as it happens) suggestion first appeared in Richard A. Lupoff's Master of Adventure: The Worlds of Edgar Rice Burroughs (revised 1968). Lupoff will have led Lucas to the originals, which he at least parsed through, because he clearly wrote "The Journal of the Whills" with Burroughs on his table, being that it basically amounts to a paraphrase on the opening of Burroughs' A Fighting Man of Mars: George Lucas, The Journal of the Whills, February 1973 Edgar Rice Burroughs, A Fighting Man of Mars, May 1931. This is the story of Mace Windy, a revered Jedi-bendu of Ophuchi, as related to us by C.J. Thorpe, padawaan learner to the famed Jedi. I am Chuiee Two Thorpe of Kissel. My father is Han Dardell Thorpe, chief pilot of the renown galactic cruiser Tarnack. As a family we were not rich, except in honor, and valuing this above all mundane possessions, I chose the profession of my father, rather than a more profitable career. I was 16 I believe, and pilot of the trawler Balmung, when my ambitions demanded that I enter the exalted Intersystems Academy to train as a potential Jedi-Templer. It is here that I became padawaan learner to the great Mace Windy, highest of all the Jedi-bendu masters, and at that time, Warlord to the Chairman of the Alliance of Independent Systems. Never shall I forget the occasion upon which I first set eyes upon Mace Windy. It was at the great feast of the Pleabs. There were gathered under one roof, the most powerful warriors in the Galaxy, and although I realize my adoration of the Master might easily influence my memory, when he entered the hall, these great and noble Warlords fell silent. It was said he was the most gifted and powerful man in the Independent Systems. Some felt he was even more powerful than the Imperial leader of the Galactic Empire. This IS the story of Hadron of Hastor, Fighting Man of Mars, as narrated by him to Ulysses Paxton: I am Tan Hadron of Hastor, my father is Had Urtur, Odwar of the 1st Umak of the Troops of Hastor. He commands the largest ship of war that Hastor has ever contributed to the navy of Helium, accommodating as it does the entire ten thousand men of the 1st Umak, together with five hundred lesser fighting ships and all the paraphernalia of war. My mother is a princess of Gathol. As a family we are not rich except in honor, and, valuing this above all mundane possessions, I chose the profession of my father rather than a more profitable career. The better to further my ambition I came to the capital of the empire of Helium and took service in the troops of Tardos Mors, Jeddak of Helium, that I might be nearer the great John Carter, Warlord of Mars. [...] It was thus that I met Sanoma Tora, daughter of Tor Hatan, Odwar of the 91st Umak. [...] because here in the capital of Helium riches count for more than they do in Hastor, Tor Hatan is a powerful man, whose influence reaches even to the throne of the Jeddak. Never shall I forget the occasion upon which I first laid eyes upon Sanoma Tora. It was upon the occasion of a great feast at the marble palace of The Warlord. There were gathered under one roof the most beautiful women of Barsoom, where, notwithstanding the gorgeous and radiant beauty of Dejah Thoris, Tara of Helium and Thuvia of Ptarth, the pulchritude of Sanoma Tora was such as to arrest attention. I shall not say that it was greater than that of those acknowledged queens of Barsoomian loveliness, for I know that my adoration of Sanoma Tora might easily influence my judgment, but there were others there who remarked her gorgeous beauty which differs from that of Dejah Thoris as the chaste beauty of a polar landscape differs from the beauty of the tropics, as the beauty of a white palace in the moonlight differs from the beauty of its garden at midday. This draft is incomplete, but based on later drafts and the effort Lucas put into certain names on his lists of character and planet names, there's reason to belive the story was to revolve around rescuing a princess (a stock Burroughs plot) on the desert planet Aquilae (i.e. Barsoom), inhabited by the "Hubble" people led by Han Solo (i.e. the Green Martians led by Tars Tarkas) and the Bebers (i.e. red martians) led by Lord Annikin (i.e. Tardos Mors) and Luke Skywalker (his son, Mors Kajak) and culminating in a Flash Gordon-esque space battle. A lot of the nomenclature derives from Burroughs: "padawaan" here (and later, possibly Obi-Wan?) clearly derives from "Padwar", which suggests "Jedi" derives from "Jed" and "Jeddak." Even the device of the "Journal of the Whills" though which the story is supposedly relayed to us, is a paraphrase on "The Girdley Wave" of Burroughs. Furthermore, its from A Fighting Man of Mars (and, to a lesser extent, Dune as we shall see) that Lucas decided to set his story with no point of reference to earth. In contrast to Tad Hadron, Paul Atreidis and then the characters in Star Wars, the heroes of other space operas including Gullivar Jones, John Carter himself as well as Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers, are from earth. While writing his first proper draft, Lucas may have read the actual Mars novels beyond just the opening of A Fighting Man of Mars. My bet, however, is that he turned rather to Coleman Burroughs' comic strip adaptation of A Princess of Mars and Warlord of Mars, which was called "John Carter of Mars" and was republished in 1970. The resulting rough draft/first draft is the closest to Barsoom, with princess Leia clearly based on Dejah Thoris (the heroes even have to rescue her from implicit rape by alien "trappers" like Carter does Thoris countless times) and the "green" Han Solo on Tars Tarkas. Even Chewbacca could be said to be like Woola, a Barsoomian hound. Most importantly, Tatooine is a straight port of Barsoom: the twin suns, especially, are either a play on Barsoom's twin moons or Lucas genuinely confused the illustrations in the strip for two suns: The beasts of burden in the above strip are clearly the forebearers of the Dewbacks and the Banthas: in fact, as Lucas' biography openly admits, Banth is a term from A Warlord of Mars1(which appears in the strip) describing a many-legged alien feline, which ultimately was pretty much lifted for Episode II's arena battle. In a conference with Lucasfilm's Carol Titelman in 1977, Lucas imagined many-legged girafees, also clearly based on Burroughs' knack for giving his alien bestiary multiple limbs.11 Sith, too, is a term from Burroughs', referring to giant insects. Lucas had wanted to feature flying steeds, of a kind described by Burroughs, in every entry beginning with The Empire Strikes Back before finally appearing on Kamino in Episode II, and they probably influenced the flying creatures glimpsed on Dagobah and Naboo, as well as the Mynocks and perhaps even Watto. Burroughs even has his own snow-monster, the Apt, but it doesn't appear in this strip and its unclear if Lucas had it in mind. This first draft was the basis for the screenplay to The Phantom Menace, and so the situation between the Naboo and Gungans is clearly based on the dichotomy that Lucas' took from Burroughs between the Red and Green martians, with the Gungans and especially Jar Jar and Boss Nass based on Tars Tarkas. While their role in the trilogy was clearly cut short due to scathing fan reaction, Burroughs' influence persists, with Geonosis based even more closely on Barsoom that Tatooine was, replete with an arena battle and an attack of insect creatures (also used in an early draft of Willow).12 Return of the Jedi is also influenced by Burroughs: the entire opening Jabba "short" is in the style of Frazetta, Lucas' favourite Burroughs illustrator, with Slave Leia the spitting image of his illustrations of Thoris, and Jabba's sail barge a dead ringer for a Barsoomian light ship. Flash Gordon Lucas was influenced by the Flash Gordon comics - which influenced C3PO and Luke's landspeeder. He could have seen the 1955 Flash Gordon TV series, later edited into a film, which took place in the 33rd century, the setting of Lucas' first story treatment for the film. But he was mostly influenced by the serials, which were still globally popular with kids on local TV programming going into the 1980s. Lucas remembers seeing them circa 1956 on "Adventure Theater" airing at 6 on KRON, but that programme didn't air on KRON until 1960, and played at 2:30. Rather, its more likely he saw it, retitled as "Space Soldiers", on “Super Serial”, reportedly the top-rated show for that time slot in the central valley area, which aired at 6 on KTVU.13 Although Lucas later denied to Charlie Rose that he wanted to make Flash Gordon at all, insisting that Star Wars emerged as an original concept dating back to his days in community college, in 1977 he was empathic that he wanted "to make Flash Gordon, with all the trimmings."4 After the failure of THX-1138, he had inquired Universal only to find out the rights reverted back to King Features. When he visited Coppola's Godfather shoot en route to Cannes, he clearly intended to visit King Features ahead of a meeting with United Artists, so he could pitch them Flash Gordon as a two-picture deal with American Graffiti, in which they showed interest. However, the creative and financial terms offered by producer Dino Di Laurentiis (who was eyeing bigger fish) were too onerous for Lucas, and he decided to make an original space opera instead. In terms of influence, it most inspired the tone, the wipe-transitions and some visuals: a city in the clouds; and ice planet, an underwater city, and a woodland planet: all appearing on the serial as different parts of the fictional planet Mongo. Flash even went to Mars in the second serial, which offers a link to Burroughs. The ramshackled visuals, created from shooting on sets and with props and music from other films shooting on the studio backlot with mostly unknown actors, are a precedent to Star Wars "Kitbashed" approach. However, the main characters have little in common with their serial counterparts. Luke is far too much of an underdog to be equated to the muscular, superhero of Flash, and Leia is not reconisably like Dale Arden. Guinness' wizard-like Ben is not at all like Zarkov. However, the Rebel Alliance has some antecedents in Flash's attempts to rouse the inhabitants of Mongo against the tyrannical Ming, who in turn is something of a model for both Tarkin and the Emperor. Of the three Flash serials, the most influential seems to have been Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe, which featured Queen Fria (who had buns in her hair) and was the only Flash Gordon serial (notwithstanding a previous Buck Rogers serial) with a text crawl in the style of Lucas' film. The Films of Akira Kurosawa Beginning March 1980, Lucas started pointing towards more high-brow sources for his film, and donwplay its sources in pulps: I quoted many instances from 1977 when Lucas cited John Carter, and one can make a similar list of him referring to Flash Gordon, and his biography also mentions Lensmen, Dune and films like Forbidden Planet. However, after 1980, many of these sources are scarcely mentioned again. Instead, Lucas turned rhetorically towards high-brow scholarly sources (see below) and towards sources that hold some catchet with cineastes, like the films of Akira Kurosawa. The title I chose for this fourth influence is a the title of Donald Richie's The Films of Akira Kurosawa. The Kurosawa film that Star Wars has most in common with is, of course, The Hidden Fortress. But that movie is actually not one of Lucas' favourites and was not a popular succes in the US at the time, in which it was presented with heavy cuts. To recall the plot in sufficient detail, Lucas had written his synopsis with Richie's book open on his desk. Also taken from Richie's book are a few beats from Yojimbo and Sanjuro. The recurring imagery of severed hands has its genesis in Kurosawa's Sanjuro. Donald Richie, The Films of Akira Kurosawa, 1965 George Lucas, The Star Wars: Synopsis It is the sixteenth century, a period of civil wars. A princess, with her family, her retainers, and the clan treasure is being pursued. If they can cross enemy territory and reach a friendly province they will be saved. The enemy knows this and posts a reward for the capture of the princess. She is being guarded by one of her generals and it is he who leads her on the long and dangerous journey that follows. They take along with them the sixteen hundred pounds of gold and also two farmers whom the general has captured. The farmers' accidentally discovering the gold (accompanied by percussive and Noh-like sounds on the sound-track) is the first indication, and Mifune's splendid entrance is another. They are rummaging around the rocks, pushing and pulling each other, each trying to find the next piece. [...] The princess, just like Yoshitsune, is disguised as a porter [...] ... and the farmers would have been comic relief, inserted among the general seriousness. [...] The setting is a narrow road in the forest. [...] Mifune cannot curb his horse in time; we have hardly time to see what has happened when the momentum both of horse and of camera movement, carries him directly into the enemies' hands. [...] At the end—as at the end of the Noh play— she is revealed as her goddess-like self. The farmers, like the porter in They Who Step on the Tiger's Tail come to realize that they have been adventuring with demigods. [...in Yojimbo] The young men laugh with relief, anticipation. Laughter continues and they look around in consternation for none of them are laughing. Out of the inner sanctuary ambles Sanjuro (Toshiro Mifune), yawning, scratching himself, thumping his shoulders, stiff with sleep. The youngsters reach for their swords. He barely glances at them. The contrast between the spick-and-span boy-samurai with their terse nods, their meaningful glances, and Sanjuro, a real samurai, a real man, could not be greater. [...in Sanjuro] Snick-snack—the sword is out, an arm lies on the ground, one of the men lies doubled, cleft from chin to groin, and Mifune is with quiet dignity replacing his sword in its sheath. It is the thirty-third century, a period of civil wars in the galaxy. A rebel princess, with her family, her retainers, and the clan treasure, is being pursued. If they can cross territory controlled by the Empire and reach a friendly planet, they will be saved. The Sovereign knows this, and posts a reward for the capture of the princess. She is being guarded by one of her generals, (Luke Skywalker) and it is he who leads her on the long and dangerous journey that follows. They take along with them two hundred pounds of the greatly treasured "aura spice", and also two Imperial bureaucrats, whom the general has captured. The two terrified, bickering bureaucrats crash land on Aquilae while trying to flee the battle of the space fortress. They accidently discover a small container of the priceless "aura spice" and are rummaging around the rocks pushing and pulling each other trying to find more... [...] The princess and the general are disguised as farmers [...] The two bureaucrats are essentially comic relief inserted among the general seriousness of the adventure. [...] Skywalker and his party race along a narrow pathway [...] Skywalker cannot curb his "jet-stick" in time and the momentum carries him directly into the enemies' hands. [...] The princess’ uncle, ruler of Ophuchi, rewards the bureaucrats, who for the first time see the princess revealed as her true goddess-like self... After the ceremony is over, and the festivities have ended, the drunken bureaucrats stagger down an empty street arm in arm realizing that they have been adventuring with demigods. [...]The boys laugh in anticipation of the blow they will strike the Empire in the name of the princess. They all stop laughing, but the laughing continues and they look around in consternation. Into the sanctuary ambles Skywalker, scratching himself, amused at the idealism of the youths. He barely glances at them. The contrast between the boy rebels with their terse nods, their meaningful glances, and Skywalker, a real general, a real man could not be greater. [...] With a flash of light, his lazer sword is out. An arm lies on the ground, one of the bullies lies double, slashed from chin to groin and Skywalker, with quiet dignity, replaces his sword in its sheath. However, this all happened during the writing of the initial treatment: this influence would dissolve over the various drafts. The empire uses the symbol of the Yamana from the film, but far more prominent in their depiction are allusions to Nazi imagery. The archetypes for the general, the villian and the princess appear in Kurosawa's film, but were primarily shaped by pulp sources. Even though Lucas did consider casting Toshiro Mifune as Old Ben, his notes show that he was thinking more of Mifune's turns in Seven Samurai and Yojimbo than in Hidden Fortress, where Mifune bears little resemble to Guinness' Old Ben. There's something of the headstrong princess Yuki in Leia, but not much. Rather, its main influence is in the two Droids, the samurai-trappings of the Jedi and the Japanese flair of both the Tatooine robes (later retconned as Jedi robes) and Vader's helmet: McQuarrie remembers Lucas giving him a book on "Medieval Japan" but he's probably referring to Richie's book, whose title is scrolled on one of his sheets.14 Some plot points for The Empire Strikes Back come from Kurosawa's 1975 film Dersu Uzala: The Hunter, which takes place in the Russian tundra and features a diminutive, eccentric wise-man. Since Return of the Jedi and The Phantom Menace pull on the first draft, they owe something to Hidden Fortress: in particular, Vader's turning on the Emperor having some precedent in Takodoro breaking ranks with the Yamana. Willow also strongly resembles Hidden Fortress, and early drafts even had gold concealed in the tree branches on Razel's island, like in the Kurosawa movie. However, Episode I is actually by far the most Kurosawa-like of all of Lucas' films: although no Star Wars film uses telephoto lenses like Kurosawa (for that look instead to THX-1138, and even there it probably derives from other sources of inspiration), the imagery of that film owes something to Ran and Seven Samurai, favourites of Lucas.15 Nevertheless, even that film owes more to Lucas' pulp sources. Secondary Sources: Literary Lucas' biography suggest he read Frank Herbert's Dune, which was reissued in 1969.1 Inasmuch as his original "Journal of the Whills" is a paraphrase on A Fighting Man of Mars, some of the nomenclature in it derives from Herbert: Ophuchi is a star in Dune, and Lucas' tentative name for the Emperor, Alexander Xerxes XIX of Decarte, is a clear paraphrase on Padishah Emperor Shaddam Corrino IV. The Jedi are given here as Jedi-Bendu, recalling the Prana Bindu technique from Dune. This suggests the city planet of Aldeeran described here has more in common with Geidi Prime than with Isimov's Trantor: there's reason to take Lucas at his word regarding his dislike of Asimov. Furthermore, it was the combination of Dune and A Fighting Man of Mars that led Lucas to put his story in "a Galaxy far, far away." Burroughs led the way: A Fighting Man of Mars, along of the Barsoom novels, takes place entirely on Mars, but it still mentions earth, whereas the principal planets of Dune are in some remote region of the known universe. While Tatooine derives from Barsoom, some of what populates it - crawlers, bedouin-like sand people, moisture farms, spice, worm-like creatures - derive from Herbert. Guilds, which are first namedropped in The Empire Strikes Back and then feature prominently in the first two prequels, come from Dune. Likewise, the siege on Utupau in the First draft (and subsequently in The Phantom Menace, in whose first drafts Naboo was still Utapau) might recall the Harkonnen attack on Arrakeen. The increasingly-messianic tones of Star Wars beginning 1980, with Luke and then Anakin being turned into "chosen ones", probably come from Herbert: In the second draft, Luke is the "Chosen One", who in the film's epigraph (itself designed on quotes from Irulan's diary in Dune) is called "The Son of Suns." This would be replaced by a Tolkien-esque "everyman" angle in the third draft, and subsequently in the movie, but gradually return to the series in 1980. Its hard, however, to pin specific beats in the story on Herbert's influence: By way of specific scenes, the original film has one small scene, in which Ben uses the Force to compel the Stormtroopers to let them go, which smacks of how Jessica and Paul use "The Voice" on the Harkonnen henchmen. Another specific influence doesn't come from Lucas but from the design team: back in 1981, the Emperor's decrepit appearance was not yet the result of blunt trauma (and wouldn't be until 2003: cf. Palpatine's sickly makeup in Attack of the Clones) and his makeup artists gave him a cranium split, thinking of Dune's space navigators. Lucas rejected some sandworm-like designs for Jabba.16 I mentioned Tolkien, which was a secondary but important source, at least on the original film. Lucas seems to have read The Hobbit before the Third Draft, because here Luke turns into an everyman who's father had died offscreen, like Bilbo, while Old Ben is clearly based on Gandalf, a characterization later transferred to Yoda. McQuarrie's concomitant designs for the character started shifting from a Toshiro Mifune-like Saumrai to a wizened old wizard, with Lucas approaching Sir Alec Guinness with this draft, which Guinness himself noted for its "borrowings from Tolkien." In fact, the draft contains a clear paraphrase on Bilbo's and Gandalf's first meeting: JRR Tolkien, The Hobbit, 1937 George Lucas, The Star Wars: Third Draft "Good morning!" said Bilbo, and he meant it. The sun was shining, and the grass was very green. But Gandalf looked at him from under long bushy eyebrows that stuck out further than the brim of his shady hat. "What do you mean?" be said. "Do you wish me a good morning, or mean that it is a good morning whether I want not; or that you feel good this morning; or that it is morning to be good on?" "All of them at once," said Bilbo. "And a very fine morning for a pipe of tobacco out of doors, into the bargain. BEN: Good morning! LUKE: What do you mean, ‘good morning’? Do you mean that it is a good morning for you, or do you wish me a good morning, although it is obvious I’m not having one, or do you find that mornings in general are good? BEN: All of them altogether. Its impossible to say whether Lucas made Ben more Gandalf-like to suit the casting of Guinness, or turned to The Hobbit once he started thinking about Guinness for the role (having been turned down by Mifune) but ultimately it doesn't matter. Nor is this the only influence of The Hobbit on the film: After this draft, Lucas started scouting north Africa for desert locations, finally choosing Tunisia, and renaming his desert planet afte the local place-name Tatooine. John Barry remembers Lucas picking Tunisia because he "liked Matmata, where people live in these holes in the ground", which Lucas fondly recalls as reminding him of a "Hobbit village."17 His choice of location (including grain stores that would later appear as Shmi's hovel in Episode I) surely owes something to Tolkien: in the third draft, Luke's homestead was still a set of buildings, not the Smial-like place it would become: In fact, Lucas explains that deciding to shoot the homestead in one of those underground hotels made the shoot costlier. This choice is echoed later in the series in Yoda's hut. It was drawn by Ralph McQuarrie shortly after he bailed on Ralph Bakshi's Lord of the Rings, and its not stretching anyone's imagination then that his concept of the wizard's hut and of a Hobbit hole would become mingled, or that Lucas, already fired up by *The Hobbit*, would warm to such a design. Although Lucas already fond of having short-statured creatures in his story like R2D2 and the Jawas, he now considered casting a short person in the role of Luke.18 Maybe even the fact that the sabers glow blue (in artwork, they're plain white) and even the round interiors of the Falcon owe to Tolkien. Lucas later made An Ewok Adventure and Willow, both heavily indebted to The Hobbit. The lightsabers themselves, however, predate this and seem to derive from a Frank Kelly Freas artwork that appeared opposite from a story of Harry Harrison, a favourite pulp author of Lucas', in a March 1973 issue of Analog. Indeed, many of Lucas' other pulp sources are visual: the final design for Chewbacca, replete with the bowcaster, comes from a July 1975 cover of Analog: neither design of Chewbacca, nor any of his descriptions in the drafts of by Lucas belie a similarity to dogs, casting doubt over the autobiographical spin that he is based on Lucas (actually, Marcia's) dog Indiana. Meanwhile, Lucas' notes explicitly cite19 the cover to another Harrison novela from 1973, The Stainless Steel Rat, as the source for the TIE fighter and, subsequently, Darth Maul's ship. Harry Harrison also wrote archetypes similar to Lucas': on the back cover of The Stainless Steel Rat you can see a description of the main character, Jim DiGriz, very much along the lines of Han Solo, while his Bill, the Galactic Hero stars a farmboy. In 1979, Lucas cited his love of the work of Moebius,20 whose illustrations feature similarly "used" sci-fi worlds to Lucas'. However, Moebius' work on Metal Hurlant wasn't published in America until early 1977: Lucas could have learned about it during the prep period in England, or even before that via his friend Edward Summers who did business with comics enthusiasts in Europe, but its not a noted influence on the original film: even the "used look" is not appearant on the early work of McQuarrie and Cantwell, and seem to have only arouse later out of a practical necessity as the realities of the budget were hitting home. Lucas only contacted Moebius in 1977 to work on promotional material for the film's European debut, and his art influenced the animated segment of The Holiday Special, as well as The Empire Strikes Back. While it was mostly confined to the art-deco Cloud City, it also inspired the design of the Rebel freighter. While the Imperial Walkers were inspired by War of the Worlds and industrial artwork by Syd Mead, Moebius' art was used as a reference when Lucas asked to bulk the Walkers up.21 Jack Kirby's Fourth World comics are sometimes cited as an influence: Lucas was actually accused of this in a 1975 dinner with an associate of Kirby's, although Edward Summer who was present assigns no significance to this.22 Kirby's comics feature a hulking villain who's the hero's father, but Lucas didn't "hit" upon this as a plot point until March or April 1978. Kirby's other creation, Doctor Doom, also resembles Vader, but beyond the influence of Richie's book on the design of the helmet, it seems Vader's design grew organically from the space suit McQuarrie gave him. If he's based on any preexisting work at all its more likely to be The Lightning from The Fighting Devil Dogs serial (who shoots lightning, like Vader does in Splinter of the Mind's Eye)23 or even Frazetta's illustration of "The Rider" which used to hang in Lucas' office. Frazetta met Lucas circa 1980 and remembers Lucas telling him he was inspired by some of his illustrations. Secondary Sources: Cinematic Other movies, which Lucas usually caught on TV, mostly influenced only specific segments in Lucas' film. Some fifty World War II movies, especially The Dam Busters, influenced the trech run, and contributed to the Nazi trappings of the Empire and WWII trappings of many of the spaceships. The Searchers inspired Luke finding the burnt homestead (and possibly the blunt characterization of Owen, especially in the third draft) and later Anakin finding his mother, and Lucas' shooting style is closer to John Ford's than to that of Kurosawa's or of the Flash Gordon serials. Gone With the Wind is a noted influence on the love story in The Empire Strikes Back. While Lucas enjoyed the epic films of the 1950s and 1960s, they weren't a noted influence on his films initially. 2001: A Space Odyssey influenced the mechanical, NASA-like look of some of the spaceships, but its cinematic style couldn't be further removed from Lucas' and homages to it are few and far in between. Perhaps the most overt is in the medical facility in Revenge of the Sith: having spent years by this point talking about how Star Wars takes "from the epics" (see later), and after his abortive attempt to make a large-scale historical picture, to be realized later as Red Tails, did he turn to 2001 and other 1960s widescreen spectacles, alongside the more large-scale films of Kurosawa's. The influence is all over the prequel trilogy, but all in all is fairly unsubstantial, influencing only isolated shots and setpieces, like one or two big ground battles, a podrace in the style of Ben Hur, a shot composition (of Anakin, R2 and Padme) out of Lawrence of Arabia, and a procession out Cleopatra. Gradually, too, the influence of contemporary epics starts coming to the fore: the arena battle is as indebted to Gladiator as to anything in Spartacus, an influence also borne out of the soundtrack for Revenge of the Sith (see later). The latter film also incorporates "flyover" shots straight out of The Lord of the Rings. Other than that, the influence of other movies is mostly on designs: C3PO is designed after the Metropolis robot, and while R2D2 is an original design, Lucas first intended him to be based on the robots from the recent Silent Running.24 The description of Han or his ship as "Corellian" (which Lucas said in 1977 means its "Krell make") seems to derive from the Krell of Forbidden Planet, a childhood favourite of Lucas which recently reissued and which Lucas later screened for his crew.25 Casablanca left its mark on the Cantina (Lucas notes say he's making Han "like Bogart") and perhaps set Lucas on the road to develop what would become Raiders of the Lost Ark around the same time.26 That film, however, whose premise Lucas developed significantly for Splinter of the Mind's Eye, owes more to the Zorro serials (which Lucas was shown by a friend in film school) and Secrets of the Inca. From Casblanca Lucas' also took the appearance of Jabba, first as a "salivering hulk" played by Declan Mullholand, and later (circa November 1979) as a "fat, slug-like creature",27 both of which resembled Sydney Greenstreet's Signor Ferrari, whom Lucas referenced. Its no stretch to say that Lucas doubling down on the Vietnam war subtext in Return of the Jedi owes something to the success of Coppola's Apocalypse Now, which Lucas almost directed. When Lucas started writing his first draft of the original film, he intended to present it to some extent as a Vietnam War parable, but that was downplayed in the writing process, and is all but wholly absent from The Empire Strikes Back. In Return of the Jedi, however, even the suggestion that in striking the Emperor down in anger, Luke would succumb to evil recalls the dynamic between Kurtz and Willard. In Episode I, the Gungan sacred place recalls Kurtz' compound, and when he was involved in development for Episode VII, Lucas described the hermit Luke as a "Colonel Kurtz type."28 A considerable aspect of Lucas' cinematic sources were sources that showed what he didn't want to do: in keeping with the "high brow" angle, Star Wars is often presented as an answer to the 70s "American New Wave" movies, but commercially its rivals were rather the big-budgeted disaster films of its day. However, for his part, Lucas conceived of it as a response to what he saw ON TELEVISION, mentioning Kojak and The Six Million Dollar Man, as well as his disappointment with the static spaceship imagery of Star Trek.29 The name "The Force" resembles a conversation captured in an experimental short film by Arthur Lipsett that Lucas watched in film-school and had wanted to homage in THX-1138. Lucas suggests his early filmography in and immediately after film-school comprised of experimental, non-narrative "tone poems" a-la Lipsett, but actually of his nine non-feature-length projects, only two (Herbie and 6-18-67) can be described as such: the others are either exercises in montage ("LOOK at LIFE"); narratives, obscure though they may be, like Freiheit, Anyone lived in a pretty [how] town, and THX-1138-4EB; documentaries like 1:42.08, The Emperor and Filmmaker, not to mention the abandoned mockumentary Five, Four, Three. In fact, it seems Lucas didn't see Lipsett's film until near the end of his term in USC, and his early interest in montage work was rather sparked by the work of the faculty's former dean, Slavko Vorkapich.30 Secondary Sources: Scholarly An earlier biography of Lucas says he "read Grimms’ fairytales and CS Lewis’ Narnia Chronicles, JRR Tolkien, Frazer’s Golden Bough. He also read Greek, Islamic and Indian Mythology and the works of modern mythologists like Campbell and Castaneda.”31 Many of these claims are dubious at best. Ahead of the third draft, Gary Kurtz showed Lucas Carlos Castaneda's recent The Tales of Power. The draft's synopsis specifically compared Old Ben to Castaneda's Don Juan: the quirky, Don Juan-like characterization was filed-back to a more dignified Gandalf-like character at the insistence of Guinness, but returned for Yoda, who speaks as Don Juan does of "luminous beings." Even the concept of "Life Day" from the Holiday Special has a Castaneda-like ring to it. The name "Force", however, appears in Lucas' drafts since before it does in Castaneda's books. When he began writing the fourth draft, Lucas revised the film's epigraph to "A long time ago, in a Galaxy far, far away", which he later said32 was inspired by a book of Bruno Bettelheim, who analysed ten Grimms' fairytales. The book wasn't published until 1977, but Lucas did read a long excerpt published in the New Yorker in December 1975. If anything, Lucas previous draft was even more fairytale-like thanks to The Hobbit, but now he started thinking of the film rigorously as a fairytale. The plot didn't change, and even the designs were mostly locked at this point, but it motivated Lucas to give the cinematography of the original a slight gauziness (which he then removed with sharpening tools for the Special Edition)33 and, as we shall see, perhaps dictated some of his music choices. Possibly, a more significant influence came in March 1978, via a review of Star Wars by Conrad Kottak for Psychology Today,34 which compared it with Bettelheim's theorem. Kottak suggests Darth Vader is the image of Luke's "Dark Father": Lucas earlier notes suggest the correct etymology was "Dark Invader",35 but now he adopted Kottak's post-hoc etymology in notes from circa 1980, as well as identifying Ben with the image of Luke's good, idealized father. It can therefore be that the idea of Vader being Luke's father, which Lucas wrote down in March or April 1978, comes from Kottak. Kottak suggested the boy must slay the evil father, and Lucas' first title for the third film, Revenge of the Jedi, may suggest he was originally going to head down that road. However, it seems Kottak's review drew him back to Bettelheim. His notes now quote extended passages, not just from the column but from the unabridged book. This was also the first that he mentioned Bettelheim to the press, and when he started ceaslessly talking to his cast and crew about the movie being a fairytale: that was his reasoning for making the Ewoks as cloying as they were, and for refusing to let Lawrence Kasdan kill-off Lando. In fact, in Lucas' first treatment for Return of the Jedi, even the deceased Ben and Anakin return at the end in the flesh, but this wasn't done in the finished film, tempering with the influence of Bettelheim. Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment (1977, excerpt published 1975) George Lucas' notes, circa late 1980 The fairy tale presented in a simple, homely way; no demands are made on the listener. This prevents even the smallest child from feeling compelled to act in specific ways, and he is never made to feel inferior. Far from making demands, the fairy tale reassures, gives hope for the future, and holds out the promise of a happy ending. [...] Fairy tales, unlike any other form of literature, direct the child to discover his identity and calling, and they also suggest what experiences are needed to develop his character further. Fairy tales intimate that a rewarding, good life is within one’s reach despite adversity—but only if one does not shy away from the hazardous struggles without which one can never achieve true identity. [...] children are innocent and love justice, while most of us are wicked and naturally prefer mercy. [...] It seems particularly appropriate to a child that exactly what the evildoer wishes to inflict on the hero should be the bad person’s fate [...] At this age, from four until puberty, what the child needs most is to be presented with symbolic images which reassure him that there is a happy solution to his oedipal problems [...] The good fairy godmother watches over the child’s fate, ready to assert her power when critically needed [... little Red Riding Hood] tells him, the wolf is a passing manifestation—Grandma will return triumphant. [...the sister in Seven Ravens] travels to the end of the world and makes a great sacrifice to undo the spell put on them." Present [story] in a simple, homely way … This prevents even the smallest child from feeling compelled to act in specific ways and he is never made to feel inferior … Reassures, gives hope for the future, and holds out the promise of a happy ending … Discover identity and calling … Intimate that a rewarding, good life is within one’s reach despite adversity—but only if one does not shy away from the hazardous struggles without which one can never achieve true identity. Children are innocent and love justice. While most of us are wicked and naturally prefer mercy … Need symbolic images which reassure them that there is a happy ending, solution to the Oedipal problems … What the evildoer wishes to inflict on the hero should be the bad person’s fate.” [...] Somewhere the good father (Ben) watches over the child's fate, ready to assert his power when critically needed. Father changes into Darth Vader, who is a passing manifestation, and will return triumphant. Luke travels to the end of the world and makes sacrifice to undo the spell on his father. [... later, in story conferences with Kasdan and Marquand:] The whole concept of the original film is that Luke redeems his father, which is the classic fairytale: a good father/bad father who the good son will turn back into the good father.36 This leads us to Campbell. Even if Lucas had read Campbell, it was by his own account at the time of the third draft, by which point the basic plot and designs of Star Wars were already laid down, so its influence on the film had long been disputed as inconsequential. However, there's also reason to doubt Lucas' reading of the book, which is a far denser tome (which is to say nothing of the >900-page The Golden Bough). Says Michael Heileman: Ontop of Heileman's doubts of Lucas' erudition, the truly damning evidence (ex silentio though it is) that Lucas probably never read Campbell is Lucas himself: in notes and story conferences - where Castaneda and Bettelheim are clearly mentioned - Campbell's writings are nowhere to be found, and none of the people who knew Lucas during the writing period attest to his reading of Campbell. One could expect Lucas to at least cannibalize Campbell's book for outlandish names, but the only possibilities are Dannen from Willow; and Masassi and Brunhuld, both from Star Wars drafts that predate Lucas' supposed reading of Campbell, the latter supposedly derived from a book of baby-names.38 Another piece of damning evidence is what little insight Lucas has into mythology. Although he supposedly wrote Return of the Jedi with Campbell's book on his desk, the only insight Lucas gave to Mark Hamil on the set is one that any ten year-old could offer: “in a fairytale, its always being nice to the little bunny rabbit on the side of the road that [results in it having to] give you the magic.”39 Furthemore, this banal piece of insight is exactly the same as Lucas used for Yoda in The Empire Strikes Back, and derives far more readily from Bettleheim and, even more to the point, from The Hobbit. Lucas is similarly inobservant about religion, ignorantly claiming that the Abrahamic religions stem from the same origins as Buddhism (a statement that belies 1970s New Age spiritualism more so than a student of anthropology) and Zen-like turn of the Jedi in the prequel trilogy is very much a Westerner's picture-postcard fascimilie of Buddhism and Zen. Furthermore, Lucas' film doesn't really resemble Campbelll's "Monomyth" very well: Luke leaves the "Normal world" before meeting his "guide", and gets his "talisman" before he refuses the call. At no point in his quest is Lucas presented with the kind of temptations to abandon the quest described by Campbell, and even across the entire trilogy, Luke never "crosses the return threshold" and comes back home. Anakin's journey is even less Campbell-like than Luke's. Indeed, unlike the other sources we examined, its hard to pinpoint anything specific in Lucas' films and his evolving drafts and say it came from Campbell: even those beats that do resemble fairytales seem to derive from Bettelheim and especially Tolkien. Ironically, while citing these scholars was seemingly done to give Lucas' film an air of intellectual legitimacy, all three authors would later prove to be hacks to some extent: Castaneda's works, though immensly popular, were already believed in his time to be works of fiction. Bettelheim had outright forged his academic credentials, and his book is a pastiche of Heuscher's Psychiatric Study of Fairy Tales. Campbell, like Bettelheim, was also a graduate of Literature, not anthropology, and has drawn heavy criticism from later folklorists for cherry-picking his examples, and for dubious authority: while citing a lot of examples from Indian mythology, he was not proficient in Sanskrit. Lucas himself, who admitted he never met Campbell or heard any of him talk until AFTER Return of the Jedi, gives him the backhanded compliment of being better lecturer than writer (he was neither), and later in life said he moved on from Campbell's Jungian views to "neuro-psychology."40 Secondary Sources: Autobiographical Star Wars is, not, ultimately, a very autobiographical film. Chris Taylor notes that Modesto is not a good model for Tatooine, being "verdant" and about a meagre hour's drive from both San Francisco and Hollywood. Even the ranch Lucas spent most of his teens growing in was ultimately five miles down the road from downtown, a far-cry from Owen's remote moisture farm. Its clear Lucas named Luke after himself, but he's ultimately best seen as a projection of Lucas, not as a self-portrayal. Lucas' stern father perhaps resembles Uncle Owen moreso than Anakin, and even at that Owen probably owes just as much to Western characters. The name "Vader" may or may not relate to an older jock who is believed to have bullied Lucas in junior high, named Gary Rex Vader. The most autobiographical scenes, of Luke hanging with his friends in Ancorhead, were only added at the insistence of Lucas' friend Hal Barwood and summarily cut from the film.41 In the intermediate drafts, Han Solo does strongly resemble Francis Ford Coppola. This would get filed-down in the final draft and in Harrison Ford's performance, but there's reason to assume Coppola's influence on Lucas' entire filmography is rather enormous: It was Coppola who first planted in Lucas' head the idea of making a filmmaking hub in the countryside, finally realised in Skywalker Ranch. It was Coppola who first turned to make films with the big studios, when he decided to direct The Godfather, paving the road for Lucas and American Graffiti. Lucas likes to take credit for convincing Coppola to take The Godfather to recoup debts from a screening of THX-1138, but that screening occured in November, while Coppola accepted the gig in September.42 Coppola also made a sequel, and even presented it as an integral "Part two" rather than a patched-on sequel, long before Lucas did so, and even the flashback sequences in Coppola's film can be seen an antecedent of sorts to Lucas' pursuit of prequels. Even the turn to gloomy, soap-opera-like melodrama in The Empire Strikes Back, as well as the talk of high-brow inspiration, is perhaps a reaction to The Godfather and the way Coppola's posse derided Star Wars as "twerp cinema." Small wonder that Jabba is described as a gangster ("Like Michael Corleone") or that Lucas considered stunt-casting Pacino as Han Solo. A strong argument could be made that Lucas turn to high-brow sources, as well as his insistence that the series was planned in advance, do impact the series. In the story conferences to Return of the Jedi, Lucas earnestly defends his story choices as being "the original story," which seems to have convinced Lawrence Kasdan. This turn, along with stories that make the film more of a "little engine that could" that it had been, and many affectations regarding what Lucas tried to do with the shooting style of the film, could be argued to affect Lucas' subsequent entries. We've already noted the (fairly superficial) turn to the visuals of 1950s and 1960s epics in the prequel trilogy, but just as importantly, we must ask the question: can a filmmaker who thinks so little of his audience's intelligence as to believe they'll fall for his tendetious stories of how he concieved Star Wars, make films that don't talk down to the audience as a film like Attack of the Clones indeed does?43 Secondary Sources: Musical Lucas claims to have written the script envisioning the music. This is a little dubious, since the only mention of music in the script is for the crawl, which merely calls for "war drums." In the event, the cut film was temporarily scored with Rosza's Ivanhoe; Holst's The Planets; Dvořák's 9th Symphony; Stravinski's The Rites of Spring, and (although Williams' denied this in 2003)44 Bernard Hermann's Veritgo. Other possible pieces may include Franz Waxman's score to The Bride of Frankstein, previously pilfered by the Flash Gordon serials, and a piece from Masaru Sato's score to Hidden Fortress.45 Although Lucas later denied this,46 when he first met John Williams in 1975, he intended for Williams to only score the Cantina band (which he temped with a Glenn Miller piece). The score was to be comprised of the same pieces of music the Flash Gordon serials used like Liszt's Les Preludes.47 Williams, however, convinced him to write an original score with recurring themes, approximately like the leitmotive or "leading motive" technique of Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. In spite of that, and the fact that the film coincided with the revolutionary centenary production of The Ring, neither Williams nor Lucas cite it as an influence: Williams had heard a Ring (probably heavily cut) in Hamburg in 1966 while scoring Heidi, and not knowing German, found it inaccessible.46 His technique is only Wagnerian insofar as it derives from a generation of Wagnerian film composers (notably Korngold) that were themselves more influenced by Wagner's Lohengrin than by The Ring, and subsequently Williams' own use of the leitmotif is halfway between the mature leitmotif technique of The Ring and the reminiscence themes of Lohengrin. Any story resemblence, especially to The Ring but also to Lohengrin, is coincidental. In 1977, Lucas suggested that in a few places, he and Williams saw fit to reference the original temporary track consciously in the score:47so those places where Williams score (very seldom) steers very close to the temporary track are probably intentional. It has been suggested Williams' main titles owe to Korngold's King's Row, but Doug Adams concludes that its "may be stretching the point to dub Korngold’s theme the model",48 Williams' theme seemingly based on the Rosza piece, instead. Adams also questions whether Williams' intentionally referenced the Dies Irae plainchant in his score. Williams only quotes (albeit repeatedly) a four-note cell consisting of a halfstep down and up and then a fullstep down: a simple shape that anyone could intuitivelly hit upon by accident, especially in evoking the ominous. The scores of later entries seem to have mostly been tracked with pre-existing Williams pieces, although Williams seems to have grasped the homage to Ben Hur in The Phantom Menace and channelled something of Rosza there. Only Revenge of the Sith shows the touch of other contemporary scores, which were obviously put into the temporary track: The wailing soprano vocals in Padme's Ruminations is clearly temped with Lisa Gerard from Gladiator, while Anakin's Dark Deeds were clearly modelled on "The Treason of Isengard" from the Fellowship of the Ring original album. Footnotes Dale Pollock, Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas (Harmony Books: 1983), p. 141 ff. As it appears in the Episode I documentary, "All I need is an Idea" Webisode. James Whitebrook, George Lucas’ Plans for His Star Wars Sequels Were More Familiar Than You’d Think, Gizmodo, 12 November 2020. Staff. "A young, enthusiastic crew employs far-out technology to put a rollicking intergalactic fantasy onto the screen". American Cinematographer (American Society of Cinematographers: 1977), p. 1. Jonathan Rinzler, The Making of Return of the Jedi (Random House: New York, 2013. Enhanced Edition), p. 1566. Paul Rosenfield, Lucas: Film-Maker With the Force, Los Angeles Times, June 5, 1977. Paul Scanlon, George Lucas: The Wizard of Star Wars, Rolling Stones, 25 August 1977. Stephen Zito, George Lucas goes far out, American Film, April 1977, pp. 8-13 Rinzler, The Making of Star Wars (Random House: New York, 2007. Enhanced Edition), p. 117. John Baxter, Mythmaker: The Life and Work of George Lucas (Harper Collins: 1999), p. 33. Rinzler, The Making of Star Wars, p. 1669. Staff, Early Drafts of George Lucas’ Willow Are a Very Different Adventure, Consequence, 14 August 2018. Brian Jay Jones, George Lucas: A Life (Little Brown and Company: New York, 2019), pp. 42-45, NB 878-880. Jones biography also peels the histronics around Lucas' car-crash at 18 ("Lucas was actually in better shape than he looked", pp. 68 ff) and his community college education, noting anthropology was just one of multiple classes he took and that his grades were still "mostly Cs," p. 72). Michael Heilemann, Kurosawa, Kitbashed. Michael Kaminski, The Influence and Imagery of Akira Kurosawa, The Secret History of Star Wars, 2008. The Making of Return of the Jedi, p. 859, 93. The Wizard of Star Wars The Making of Star Wars, p. 523. Michael Heilemann, The Complete History of the Milennium Falcon, Kitbashed 2015. Alan Arnold, Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of the Making of the Empire Strikes Back (Ballantine: 1980). , p. 220 ff. Michael Heilemann, Giant Walking Machines, Kitbashed, 2015. Michael Heilemann, Edward Summer interview May 19th (Part 1), Kitbashed. Michael Kaminski, The Visual Development of Darth Vader, The Secret History of Star Wars, 2007. Michael Heilemann, The Birth R2D2, Kitbashed. Heilemann, "Amazing! Nothing Like it Ever!", Kitbashed. Heileman, Casablanca, Kitbashed. Michael Kaminski, Jabba the Hutt: "Wonderful Human Being", The Secret History of Star Wars, 2008. Andrew G. Why Did George Lucas Say His Ideas for Episode VII Were Abandoned?, Medium, 19 October 2021. Chris Taylor, How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise (Perseus Books Group: New York, 2017), p. 172 ff. A survey of Lucas' filmography is given by Michael Heilemann, The Early filmography of George Lucas, Kitbashed, but seems to have jumbled the order of the films and overstated Lipsett's influence. According to Jones (pp. 92-150) the order of the films was "LOOK at LIFE", Freiheit, Herbie (all 1965), 1:42.08, and after returning to graduate school, The Emperor (1966), Everyone Lived in a Pretty (how) Town and THX-1138-4EB (both 1967). Jones puts Lucas' viewing of Lipsett's film around his tenure at graduate school. Gary Jenkins, Empire-building: The Remarkable, real-life story of Star Wars (Carol Publishing: 1999), p. 37. Michael Kaminski, The Secret History of Star Wars: the Art of Storytelling and the Making of a Modern Myth (third edition, Legacy Books Press: 2008), p. 105. Kaminski, Saving Star Wars: The Special Edition Restoration Process and its Changing Physicality, The Secret History of Star Wars, 2009. Michael Heilemann, Like Father Like Son, Kitbashed. Rinzler, The Making of The Empire Strikes Back (Random House: New York, 2014. Enhanced Edition), p. 77, 105. Ibid. The Making of Return of the Jedi, pp. 377, 379, 725, 1030. Michael Heilemann, Fairytales and the Hero's Journey, Kitbashed. Taylor, p. 197. Lucas had used various dictionaries and name-books to come up with peculiar names, including Thesaurus, Webster’s, Penguin’s Dictionary of Surnames, Harper's Bible Dictionary and Asimov's Guide to the Bible. From Star Wars to Return of the Jedi. Aljean Harmetz, A Pained Lucas Ponders Attacks on 'Willow', New York Times, 9 June 1988. The Secret History of Star Wars, p. 105. Jones, NB p. 902. Lucas has been suggesting Star Wars as a shoestring budget, little-engine-that-could since 1977, but in fact even at his bleakest, he admits he thought it could make a thrifty $16 to $25 million domestically. Fox' contract specifically states the film has "substantial domestic and international appeals" and even the rejection letters from United Artists and Universal say its a potential hit, albeit a risky one. While the nearly $12 million budget seems modest, adjusted to inflation of USD as against British and Tunisian currency, Lucas will have gotten the equivalent of an $80 million movie in 2023 dollars out of it. Jeff Bonds, God Almighty!, in Film Score Monthly (Vineyard Haven: CA, January 2003), Volume 8, Number 1, p. 10. Michael Heilemann, The Origins and Inspirations of John Williams' Star Wars score, Kitbashed. Alex Ross, The Force is Still Strong with John Williams, The New Yorker, 21 July 2020. The Wizard of Star Wars. Doug Adams, Sounds of the Empire: Analysing the themes of the Star Wars Trilogy in Film Score Monthly (Volume 4, number 5), pp. 22–47. Conclusions Lucas main influences are Galactic Patrol (via the 1972 Panther reissue), Edgar Rice Burroughs' A Princess of Mars (probably via a 1970 reissue of Coleman Burroughs' John Carter of Mars strip), Space Soldiers Conquer The Universe (via reruns on Super Serial), and The Hidden Fortress (largely as summarized in Richie's The Films of Akira Kurosawa). From these he took the following: From Galactic Patrol: the concepts of the Jedi and the Force as they appear in the larger series, and much of the plot of the original film. From John Carter: removing Earth from the setting, focusing the plot on the rescue of a princess, setting much of it on a desert planet, hinging much of the conflict in Episode I on a conflict between two alien societies that join forces. From Flash Gordon: the original impetus to make a film on this topic, some designs, stylistic elements like the wipes, the idea of a rebellion against a tyrannical overlord. From Kurosawa: the idea of escoring a princess to safety in Episode I, and some stylistic elements and shots, including the repeated imagery of severed hands, the japanese flair of the Jedi, some plot points for Return of the Jedi and The Empire Strikes Back. From secondary sources: the urban planet, the emphasis on spacing guilds in Episodes I and II, Luke and then Anakin as "Chosen Ones" (from Dune), the lightsabres, the TIE-fighters and some broad archetypes (from Harry Harrison), Luke as an "everyman" in the original film, Ben and Yoda as wizard mentors, the Tatooine dwellings as rounded, underground homes (from The Hobbit), the cloying nature of the Ewoks, possibly the "Freudian" reveal in The Empire Strikes Back (from "Uses of Enchantment"), the trench run, the WWII trappings of the Imperials and some of the spaceships (from The Dam Busters), Luke finding his dead aunt and uncle and Anakin his mother (from The Searchers). In exploring Lucas sources, it is interesting to note how many of them were either fairly recent, or consisting of recent rereleases of genre classics: they mostly date from 1968 through to 1975. Furthermore, few of Lucas' primary sources are consistent with the "high brow" spin: Even with regards to Kurosawa, while A Hidden Fortress is an excellent, well-regarded film, it is far from Kurosawa's finest or even Lucas own favourites of the Japanese filmmaker's output. Lucas prefers Seven Samurai, and tries to construe ways in which his film derives from it, which it does not. Flash Gordon, Galactic Patrol and John Carter all fall on the pulpy side of things, and are more significant influences than Kurosawa and certainly then Bettelheim. Its rather poetic that having been sold to Disney Star Wars, being based on these quixotic and comic-book-like sources, should have finally pivoted from the novelistic style of the Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings (which Lucas aspired to between 1980 and 2005) film series, to a more comic-book-like picaresque style, ostensibly becoming the third major cinematic comic-book franchise alongside Marvel and DC. Also significant, I think, is the fact that much of the filmic influence of Lucas, both in terms of positive influence and in terms of showing him what he wanted to divorce himself from, comes from television: either shows or films that had aired on television. It is again poetic that this franchise should have now become ostensibly a television franchise.
  13. Hello! Just like we did with Jurassic Park (1 2) and ET (1 2), here is a thread to discuss the actual contents of the new release, leaving the existing thread to be where you can post your shipping updates type stuff, so actual discussion is separated from that stuff. I'll re-post here some comments from OneBuckFilms since I forgot to make this thread before he posted them there!
  14. Figured it would be nice to have a thread for this: THE PHANTOM MENACE Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1 CD) Star Wars Main Title and The Arrival at Naboo 0:07 Main Theme (A Section) 0:26 Main Theme (B Section) 0:48 Main Theme (A Section) 1:25 The Story Begins Duel of the Fates 0:00 B Section 0:16 Ostinato Accompaniment 0:24 A Section 1:40 B Section 1:58 Ostinato Accompaniment 2:11 A Section 2:37 B Section 3:02 Ostinato Accompaniment 3:07 B Section 3:22 Ostinato Accompaniment 3:37 A Section 3:43 B Section 3:52 A Section 3:55 B Section 4:08 Ostinato Accompaniment Anakin's Theme 0:00 A Section 0:16 B Section 0:50 C Section 1:24 A Section 1:54 Imperial March 2:08 Imperial March 2:12 B Section 2:35 Imperial March Jar Jar's Introduction and The Swim to Otoh Gunga 0:08 Jar Jar's Theme (A Section) 0:25 Jar Jar's Theme (B Section) 0:38 Naboo Battle Motif 0:45 Jar Jar's Theme (B Section) 1:04 Jar Jar's Theme (A Section) 1:23 Underwater Wonders 4:05 Jar Jar's Theme (A Section) The Sith Spacecraft and The Droid Battle 0:26 Naboo Battle Motif 0:49 Naboo Battle Motif 0:59 Naboo Battle Motif 1:10 Duel of the Fates A Section 1:26 Naboo Battle Motif 1:34 Naboo Battle Motif 1:43 Naboo Battle Motif 1:51 Naboo Battle Motif 2:14 Naboo Battle Motif The Trip to the Naboo Temple (The Audience With Boss Nass) 1:45 Jar Jar's Theme (A Section) 2:16 Queen Amidala/Boss Nass (Instrumental Connection) The Arrival at Tatooine and The Flag Parade 0:00 Jar Jar's Theme (A Section) 0:17 Jar Jar's Theme (A Section) 0:28 Unknown 1 0:40 Unknown 2 0:53 Unknown 1 1:14 Unknown 1 1:27 Unknown 1 2:04 Flag Parade (A Section) 2:38 Flag Parade (B Section) 2:51 Flag Parade (A Section) 3:25 Flag Parade (B Section) 3:35 Flag Parade (A Section) He Is the Chosen One 0:10 The Force Theme (Fragment) 0:19 Anakin's Theme 1:36 The Force Theme 2:11 Anakin's Theme 3:33 Hyperspace Anakin Defeats Sebulba 0:32 The Force Theme 0:53 Jabba's Theme 2:49 Podrace Motif 3:13 Podrace Motif 4:02 Podrace Motif 4:05 Anakin's Theme Passage Through the Planet Core 0:47 Queen Amidala/Boss Nass (Instrumental Connection) 2:19 The Force Theme (Fragment)? 2:51 The Force Theme (Fragment)? 3:10 Underwater Wonders 4:16 Naboo Battle Motif Watto's Deal and Kid's at Play 1:11 Anakin's Theme 2:28 The Force Theme 3:15 Unknown 3 3:49 Unknown 3 3:55 Jar Jar's Theme (Fragment)? 4:18 Anakin's Theme 4:31 Unknown 3 Panaka and the Queen's Protectors 0:09 Naboo Starfighters 0:20 Main Theme (A Section) 0:26 Naboo Starfighters 0:40 Naboo Starfighters 0:56 Duel of the Fates (A Section) 2:03 Naboo Starfighters 2:31 Naboo Starfighters Queen Amidala and The Naboo Palace 0:42 Queen Amidala/Boss Nass (Instrumental Connection) 1:17 Anakin's Theme 3:23 Queen Amidala/Boss Nass (Instrumental Connection) The Droid Invasion and The Appearance of Darth Maul 0:34 Trade Federation March 0:49 Trade Federation March 1:27 Trade Federation March 1:44 Trade Federation March 1:58 Trade Federation March 2:50 Trade Federation March 3:20 Dark Side? 3:44 The Emperor's Theme 4:18 Underwater Wonders 4:57 Duel of the Fates Ostinato Accompaniment Qui-Gon's Noble End 0:00 Duel of the Fates (B Section) 0:13 Naboo Escape 0:41 Naboo Escape 1:34 Standoff 1:39 Force Field 1:55 Standoff/Duel of the Fates (Lyric's Only) 2:24 Duel of the Fates Ostinato Accompaniment 2:34 Duel of the Fates Ostinato Accompaniment 2:53 Standoff 3:20 Duel of the Fates (A Section) 3:23 Duel of the Fates Ostinato Accompaniment 3:34 Standoff The High Council Meeting and Qui-Gon's Funeral 0:00 Discussion and Confrontation 0:55 Yoda's Theme 1:17 Imperial March 1:55 Jedi Funeral 2:14 The Force Theme 2:23 Jedi Funeral Augie's Great Municipal Band and End Credits 0:06 The Emperor's Theme (Reverse) 0:18 Naboo Parade 0:31 The Emperor's Theme (Reverse) 0:53 Naboo Parade 1:06 The Emperor's Theme (Reverse) 1:18 Naboo Parade 1:26 Main Theme (A Section) 1:35 Rebel Fanfare 1:41 The Rolling Thunder 1:44 Rebel Fanfare 1:55 The Rolling Thunder 1:59 Main Theme (A Section) 2:06 The Rolling Thunder 2:16 Duel of the Fates 6:29 Anakin's Theme ATTACK OF THE CLONES Star Wars Main Title and Ambush on Coruscant 0:07 Main Theme (A Section) 0:26 Main Theme (B Section) 0:48 Main Theme (A Section) 1:24 The Story Begins 1:39 Kamino Theme 2:11 Kamino Theme 3:00 Conspiracy Motif 3:16 Kamino Theme Across the Stars: (Love Theme from Star Wars: Episode II) 0:00 Across the Stars Ostinato 0:13 Across the Stars (A Section) 0:55 Across the Stars Ostinato 1:03 Across the Stars (A Section) 2:01 Across the Stars (B Section) 2:26 ??? 2:33 Across the Stars (A Section) 2:40 Across the Stars (A Section) 2:48 Across the Stars (A Section) 2:54 Across the Stars (A Section) 3:06 Across the Stars (A Section) 4:01 Across the Stars (B Section) 4:26 ??? 4:36 Across the Stars (A Section) 5:02 Across the Stars Ostinato 5:07 Across the Stars (A Section) Zam the Assassin and The Chase Through Coruscant 1:29 Coruscant Action 1:52 Coruscant Action 2:33 Coruscant Action 3:16 Speeder Action 3:43 Speeder Action 4:15 Speeder Action 6:09 Speeder Action 7:59 Speeder Action Yoda and the Younglings 0:45 Across the Stars (A Section) 1:07 Obi-Wan/Investigation/Jedi Order Motif 1:17 Yoda's Theme 3:10 The Force Theme 3:23 Across the Stars (A Section) Departing Coruscant 0:00 Across the Stars (A Section) 0:49 The Force Theme 1:14 Across the Stars (A Section) Anakin and Padme 0:00 Naboo Courtship Motif 0:59 Across the Stars (A Section) 1:28 Dies Irae? 2:11 Across the Stars (B Section) 2:26 Dies Irae? 2:43 Dies Irae? 3:15 Across the Stars (B Section) Jango's Escape 0:04 Jango Fight 0:25 Jango Fight 1:06 Action Strings 1:16 Jango Fight 1:58 Jango Fight The Meadow Picnic 0:00 Naboo Courtship Motif 1:36 Naboo Courtship Motif 1:39 Across the Stars (A Section) 2:12 Naboo Courtship Motif 2:40 Kamino Theme/Mystery Motif 2:46 Trade Federation March Return to Tatooine 1:23 Unknown Arpeggio Motif 2:48 Unknown Arpeggio Motif 3:10 The Force Theme 3:35 Duel of the Fates Ostinato Accompaniment 3:38 Duel of the Fates (A Section) 4:05 Duel of the Fates Ostinato Accompaniment 4:08 Geonosis Sneak 4:27 Geonosis Sneak 4:45 Geonosis Sneak 2 4:59 Geonosis Sneak 2 5:51 Conspiracy Motif The Tusken Camp and The Homestead 0:00 Sandpeople Motif? 1:26 Anakin/Shmi Motif 1:45 Greatest of All Jedi 3:27 Imperial March 3:59 Dark Side? 5:15 Dies Irae? Love Pledge and The Arena 0:12 Across the Stars (A Section) 1:55 Unleashing the Monsters 2:11 Unleashing the Monsters 2:42 The Monsters 3:20 The Monsters 4:15 The Monsters 5:03 The Monsters 5:23 The Monsters 5:54 The Monsters 6:09 Across the Stars (A Section) 7:11 Across the Stars (A Section) 7:24 Action Strings 7:39 The Force Theme 7:59 Action Strings Confrontation with Count Dooku and Finale 0:00 Dooku Escape 0:08 The Force Theme 0:42 Dooku Escape 0:51 Dark Side Motif (Prequels) 1:15 Dark Side? (From TPM)? 2:59 Imperial March 3:17 Imperial March 3:38 Across the Stars (A Section) 4:45 Main Theme (A Section) 4:54 Rebel Fanfare 5:00 The Rolling Thunder 5:03 Rebel Fanfare 5:11 The Rolling Thunder 5:18 Main Theme (A Section) 5:26 The Rolling Thunder 5:36 Across the Stars (A Section) 6:34 Across the Stars (B Section) 6:59 ??? 7:05 Across the Stars (A Section) 7:10 ??? 7:13 Across the Stars (A Section) 7:18 ??? 7:21 Across the Stars (A Section) 8:34 Across the Stars (B Section) 8:59 ??? 9:09 Across the Stars (A Section) 9:36 Anakin's Theme 9:56 Across the Stars (A Section) 10:01 Imperial March 10:06 Across the Stars (A Section) 10:12 Princess Leia's Theme Concert Arrangement Reference/Across the Stars (A Section)? 10:18 Imperial March On the Conveyor Belt (Target Bonus Track) 0:36 Droid Factory 2:35 Conveyor Belt 2:51 Conveyor Belt REVENGE OF THE SITH Star Wars and The Revenge of the Sith 0:07 Main Theme (A Section) 0:26 Main Theme (B Section) 0:48 Main Theme (A Section) 1:24 Coruscant Battle 1:38 The Force Theme 2:04 Coruscant Battle 2:16 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:24 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:26 Coruscant Battle 2:34 Coruscant Battle 2:49 Coruscant Battle 3:15 Buzz Droids 3:37 Buzz Droids 4:13 Buzz Droids 4:32 Buzz Droids 4:46 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 5:21 The Elevator 5:37 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 5:43 Dies Irae? 6:07 The Elevator 6:20 The Elevator 6:27 Dies Irae? 6:53 The Elevator Anakin's Dream 0:23 Across the Stars (A Section) 2:25 Across the Stars (A Section) 3:30 The Force Theme Battle of the Heroes 0:00 Ostinato Accompaniment 0:05 A Section 0:26 Ostinato Accompaniment 0:32 A Section 1:16 B Section 1:33 A Section 1:56 The Force Theme 2:11 Ostinato Accompaniment 2:17 A Section 2:51 A Section 3:06 Ostinato Accompaniment 3:10 A Section Anakin's Betrayal 0:00 Lament Theme 0:43 Lament Theme 1:26 Dies Irae? 1:38 Dies Irae? 1:59 Dies Irae? 3:20 Lament Theme General Grievous 0:05 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:11 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:16 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:25 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:26 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:32 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:38 Obi-Wan Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 0:44 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:52 Evil Dark Side Theme 1:04 Evil Dark Side Theme 1:49 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:15 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:22 Grievous Duel 2:32 Grievous Duel 2:43 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 3:02 Grievous Duel 3:22 Grievous Duel 3:44 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times Palpatine's Teachings 2:37 Imperial March 3:00 The Force Theme 3:13 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 3:40 A Dark Place 4:55 Hyperspace Grievous and the Droids 0:07 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:49 Main Theme (A Section) 1:16 Invisible Hand Battle 2:10 Invisible Hand Battle 2:38 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:45 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 3:01 Invisible Hand Battle 3:13 The Force Theme Padme's Ruminations 1:16 Across the Stars (A Section) 1:36 Dark Side Motif (From TPM and AOTC) Anakin Vs. Obi-Wan 0:02 Battle of the Heroes (A Section) 0:23 Imperial March (The Clash of Lightsabers Lift) 0:31 Battle of the Heroes (A Section) 0:55 Imperial March (The Clash of Lightsabers Lift) 1:52 Imperial March (The Clash of Lightsabers Lift) 2:30 Battle of the Heroes (B Section) 3:06 Battle of the Heroes Ostinato Accompaniment 3:10 Battle of the Heroes (A Section) 3:21 The Force Theme 3:36 Battle of the Heroes (A Section) Anakin's Dark Deeds 0:00 Dark Deeds 0:34 Slaughter 0:44 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 1:05 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 1:15 Slaughter 1:44 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:01 Imperial March 2:01 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:14 Bitter Revelation 3:17 Bitter Revelation Enter Lord Vader 0:19 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 0:50 To Mustafar 1:32 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 2:21 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 3:19 Imperial March 3:25 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 3:43 The Force Theme 3:49 The Emperor's Theme The Immolation Scene 0:00 Lament for Anakin 0:52 The Force Theme 1:04 Lament for Anakin 1:29 Lament for Anakin 2:02 Leaving Mustafar 2:17 Leaving Mustafar Grievous Speaks To Lord Sidious 0:00 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 1:14 Evil Dark Side Theme 1:27 Grievous/Dark Side Rising/Dark Times 1:58 Dies Irae 2:13 Bitter Revelation The Birth of the Twins and Padme's Destiny 0:00 Across the Stars Ostinato Accompaniment 0:38 Across the Stars Ostinato Accompaniment 1:33 Jedi Funeral 1:53 The Force Theme 2:00 Jedi Funeral 2:36 Jedi Funeral 2:52 The Force Theme 3:00 Jedi Funeral A New Hope and End Credits 0:07 Princess Leia's Theme 0:28 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:51 The Force Theme 1:24 Main Theme (A Section) 1:34 Rebel Fanfare 1:40 The Rolling Thunder 1:44 Rebel Fanfare 1:53 The Rolling Thunder 2:03 Main Theme (A Section) 2:20 Princess Leia's Theme (A Section) 3:26 Princess Leia's Theme (B Section) 4:00 Battle of the Heroes 5:30 The Force Theme 5:45 Battle of the Heroes 6:39 Battle of the Heroes Ostinato Accompaniment 6:43 Throne Room Fanfare 7:04 The Force Theme 7:38 Throne Room Fanfare 7:48 Throne Room Theme 8:08 Main Theme (B Section) 8:28 Throne Room Theme 8:49 Throne Room Fanfare 8:59 The Force Theme 9:45 Throne Room Theme 10:03 Escape Pod 10:13 Throne Room Theme 10:34 Main Theme (B Section) 10:55 Throne Room Theme 11:17 The Rolling Thunder 11:20 Main Theme (A Section) 11:37 Main Theme (B Section) 11:54 Rebel Fanfare 12:01 The Rolling Thunder 12:05 Rebel Fanfare 12:09 Throne Room Fanfare 12:18 Rebel Fanfare 12:33 Throne Room Theme 12:39 Throne Room Fanfare A NEW HOPE Main Title / Rebel Blockade Runner: 0:07 Luke's Theme A Section 0:26 Luke's Theme B Section 0:48 Luke's Theme A Section 1:25 Luke's Theme A Section 1:38 Rebel Fanfare 1:41 Mars, Bringer of War Reference 1:56 Rebel Rhythm 1:58 Rebel Fanfare Imperial Attack 0:00 Rebel Rhythm 0:04 Rebel Fanfare 1:11 Imperial Motif (Fragments) 1:41 Rebel Fanfare 2:20 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:31 Leia's Theme 2:52 Leia's Theme 3:43 Leia's Theme 4:06 Imperial Motif 4:47 Escape Pod 4:54 Imperial Motif 6:18 Death Star Motif Dune Sea of Tatooine / Jawa Sandcrawler 0:00 Stravinsky Reference 1:35 Jawa Rhythm 1:43 Jawa Theme A Section 2:13 Jawa Theme A Section 2:46 Jawa Theme B Section 3:16 Jawa Secondary/Sandcrawler Theme 4:12 Jawa Secondary/Sandcrawler Theme 4:47 Imperial Motif The Moisture Farm 0:10 Jawa Rhythm 0:16 Jawa Theme A Section 0:40 Jawa Theme B Section 1:03 Jawa Theme A Section 1:25 Luke's Theme A Section 1:45 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) Hologram / Binary Sunset 0:31 Leia's Theme 1:53 Unknown 1:56 Luke's Theme A Section 2:21 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:53 Rebel Fanfare 3:13-3:34 Dies Irae 3:13 Luke's Theme A Section 3:27 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) Binary Sunset (Alternative) 0:00 Unknown 0:22 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) 0:44 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) 1:00 Unknown 1:20 Threepio Motif? 1:21 Landspeeder Travel Motif? Landspeeder Search / Attack of the Sand People 0:00-0:32 Landspeeder Travel Motif 0:11 Luke's Theme A Section 1:46 Sand People Motif? 2:46 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) Tales of a Jedi Knight / Learn About the Force 0:09 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 0:45 Sand People Motif? 1:00 Threepio Motif? 1:08 Landspeeder Travel Motif? 1:40 Imperial Motif 2:10 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:45 Leia's Theme 3:53 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 4:13 Death Star Motif Burning Homestead 0:47 Landspeeder Travel Motif? 0:58 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 1:26 Landspeeder Travel Motif? 1:29 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 1:42 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) 1:50 Death Star Motif 1:53 Imperial Rhythm 1:55 Imperial Motif 1:58 Leia's Theme A Section Mos Eisley Spaceport 0:31 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 0:45 Landspeeder Travel Motif 1:06 Landspeeder Travel Motif 1:20 Imperial Motif 1:52 Landspeeder Travel Motif 1:53 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) Cantina Band 0:00 Main Melody 0:43 Main Melody 2:29 Main Melody Cantina Band No. 2 0:04 Main Melody 2:15 Main Melody Princess Leia's Theme 0:15 Leia's Theme 1:30 Leia's Theme 2:25 Leia's Theme Millennium Falcon / Imperial Cruiser Pursuit 0:30 Luke's Theme A Section 0:42 Imperial Spy Motif? 0:58 Luke's Theme A Section 1:09 Imperial Spy Motif? 1:34 Imperial Rhythm 1:37 Imperial Motif 1:40 Imperial Spy Motif? 1:54 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:13-2:34 Blasting out of Mos Eisley Setpiece/Motif? 2:16 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:34 Star Destroyer Chase Setpiece/Motif? 2:42 Blasting out of Mos Eisley Setpiece/Motif? 2:54 Star Destroyer Chase Setpiece/Motif? 3:30 Death Star Motif Destruction of Alderaan 0:02 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) 0:20 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) 0:46 Dies Irae (Fate Motif?) Death Star / The Stormtroopers 0:55 Rebel Rhythm 0:57 Rebel Fanfare 1:21 Stormtrooper Rhythm 1:39 Psycho Reference 1:46 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:08 Imperial Motif 2:58 Imperial Motif (Fragments) 3:18 Luke's Theme A section Wookiee Prisoner / Detention Block Ambush 1:22 Luke's Theme A Section 2:11 Luke's Theme A Section 3:21 Rebel Rhythm 3:23 Rebel Fanfare 3:27 Leia's Theme 3:40 Luke's Theme A Section Shootout in the Cell Bay / Dianoga 0:16 Imperial Motif 0:33 Rebel Fanfare 1:31 Imperial Motif 2:26 Dianoga/Trash Compactor A Section 2:48 Dianoga/Trash Compactor B Section 2:57 Dianoga/Trash Compactor A Section 3:22 Dianoga/Trash Compactor B Section The Trash Compactor 0:00 Trash Compactor 0:47 Imperial Rhythm 0:51 Imperial Motif 1:32 Trash Compactor 2:04 Trash Compactor Tractor Beam / Chasm Crossfire 0:00 Ben Sneaks Around 1:24 Ben Sneaks Around 2:01 Luke's Theme A Section 2:12 Luke's Theme A Section 2:24 Imperial Rhythm 2:34 Stormtrooper Rhythm 2:37 Imperial Motif 2:45 Imperial Motif 3:01 Stormtrooper Rhythm 3:23 Luke's Theme A Section 3:40 Luke's Theme B Section 3:58 Luke's Theme A Section 4:08 Leia's Theme A Section 4:17 Stormtrooper Rhythm 4:31 Luke's Theme A Section 4:45 Stormtrooper Rhythm 4:48 Imperial Motif Ben Kenobi's Death / Tie Fighter Attack 0:00 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 0:09 Leia's Theme 0:37 Rebel Rhythm 0:39 Rebel Fanfare 1:01 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) A Section 1:17 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:03 Here They Come Motif (Rebel Rhythm?) 2:12 Rebel Fanfare 2:20 Here They Come Motif 2:24 Rebel Fanfare 2:41 Here They Come Motif 3:14 Here They Come Motif 3:29 Death Star Motif The Battle of Yavin (Launch from the Fourth Moon / X-Wings Draw Fire / Use the Force) 0:54 Death Star Motif 1:11 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) A Section 1:26 The Rolling Thunder 1:30 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) A Section 1:49 Imperial Motif 1:55 Imperial Rhythm 2:46 The Rolling Thunder 2:56 Rebel Victory Fanfare 3:40 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) A Section 4:01 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) A Section 5:10 Imperial Motif 6:28 Luke's Theme A Section 6:49 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) A Section 7:03 The Rolling Thunder 7:10 Luke's Theme A Section 7:45 Luke's Theme A Section 8:07 Mars, Bringer of War Reference? 8:45 Rebel Fanfare Throne Room / End Titles 0:00 Throne Room Fanfare 0:17 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 0:48 Throne Room Fanfare 0:56 Throne Room Theme 1:11 Luke's Theme B Section 1:29 Throne Room Theme 1:45 End Credits Rhythm 1:47 Luke's Theme A Section 1:56 Rebel Fanfare 2:02 The Rolling Thunder 2:06 Rebel Fanfare 2:17 The Rolling Thunder 2:24 Luke's Theme A Section 2:40 Luke's Theme B Section 2:57 Luke's Theme A Section 3:21-4:02 Leia's Theme 3:23, 3:27, 3:31, 3:35, 3:39, 3:43, 3:47 and 3:50 (Fragments) Rebel Fanfare 4:03 The Rolling Thunder 4:06 Luke's Theme A Section 4:22 Luke's Theme B Section (Development) 4:38 Rebel Fanfare 4:44 The Rolling Thunder 4:47 Rebel Fanfare (Development) 4:58 Rebel Fanfare 5:11 Throne Room (Development) Throne Room (Gerhardt) 1:55 Throne Room Fanfare 2:04 Ben Kenobi's Theme (The Force Theme) 2:48 Throne Room Theme 3:10 Escape Pod 3:21 Throne Room Theme 3:39 Luke's Theme B Section 3:59 Throne Room Theme THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK Main Title / The Ice Planet Hoth 0:07 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:26 Luke's Theme (B Section) 0:49 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:38 Imperial March 1:52 Imperial March 2:49 Luke's Theme (A Section) 3:05 Luke's Theme (A Section) 3:18 Han Solo and the Princess 4:10 Luke's Theme (A Section) [Strings] 4:25 Luke's Theme (B Section) 4:42 Princess Leia's Theme 5:20 Princess Leia's Theme 5:47 Han Solo and the Princess 6:31 Droid Motif 6:59 Luke's Theme (A Section) 7:10 Luke's Theme (B Section) 7:25 Luke's Theme (A Section) 7:44 Han Solo and the Princess The Wampa's Lair / Vision of Obi-Wan / Snowspeeders Take Flight 1:07 The Force Theme 1:23 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:48 Hoth Blizzard 1:53 Rebel Fanfare 2:03 Droid Motif 2:46 The Force Theme 2:59 Hoth Blizzard 3:34 Luke's Theme (A Section) 4:09 Luke's Theme (A Section) 4:52 The Force Theme 6:43 Snowspeeder Search 6:57 Snowspeeder Search 8:10 Snowspeeder Search The Imperial Probe / Aboard the Executor 0:07 Imperial March 1:14 Imperial March Rhythm 1:40 Imperial March 1:57 Probe Droid 2:32 Imperial March Rhythm 2:50 Imperial March 3:45 Imperial March Rhythm 4:02 Imperial March The Battle of Hoth (Ion Cannon / Imperial Walkers / Beneath the AT-AT / Escape In the Millennium Falcon) 0:10 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:40 Imperial March Rhythm 0:54 Imperial March 1:20 Imperial March 1:42 Imperial March 3:06 Imperial March 3:13 The Rolling Thunder 3:14 Rebel Fanfare 3:27 Luke's Theme (A Section) 4:02 Imperial Walkers 4:30 Snowspeeders 5:03 Snow Battle 5:40 Snow Battle 6:17 Snowspeeders 6:46 Imperial Walkers 7:24 Snowspeeders 7:40 Hoth Evacuation 8:03 Droid Motif 8:33 Imperial March 8:38 Hoth Evacuation 9:14 Luke's Theme (A Section) 9:44 Luke's Theme (A Section) 10:11 Luke's Theme (A Section) 10:21 The Force Theme 10:45 Rebel Fanfare 11:16 Imperial March 11:59 Han Solo and the Princess 12:15 Imperial March 12:50 Imperial March 13:12 Han Solo and the Princess 13:20 Imperial March 13:32 Han Solo and the Princess 14:06 Han Solo and the Princess The Asteroid Field 0:05 Imperial March 0:33 Imperial March 1:19 The Asteroid Field 1:42 The Asteroid Field 1:59 Asteroid Chase 2:42 Asteroid Chase 3:26 Han Solo and the Princess Arrival on Dagobah 1:16 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:00 Droid Motif 1:20 Droid Motif 1:42 Droid Motif 1:54 Droid Motif 2:15 Droid Motif 2:41 Imperial March 3:04 Imperial March 4:35 The Force Theme Luke's Nocturnal Visitor 0:00 Yoda Playful 0:12 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 0:31 Yoda's Theme (B Section) 1:18 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 1:32 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 1:48 Yoda Playful 1:56 Yoda's Theme (A Section) Han Solo and the Princess 0:16 Han Solo and the Princess 1:32 Imperial March 2:07 Imperial March Rhythm 2:12 Imperial March 3:07 The Dark Side Jedi Master Revealed / Mynock Cave 0:09 The Force Theme 0:27 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:46 Yoda's Theme (B Section) 0:59 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 1:27 The Force Theme 1:50 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:13 Imperial March 2:51 Mynock "Cave" 4:32 Mynock "Cave" The Training of a Jedi Knight / The Magic Tree 0:06 Yoda's Theme 0:38 Imperial March 1:07 The Force Theme 2:14 Luke's' Theme (A Section) 3:57 The Dark Side 4:39 Luke's Theme (A Section) 4:46 Yoda's Theme 4:58 Imperial March The Imperial March 0:00 Imperial March Rhythm 0:10 Imperial March (A Section) 0:38 Imperial March Rhythm 0:48 Imperial March (B Section) 1:06 Imperial March (A Section) 1:39 Imperial March Rhythm 1:48 Imperial March (A Section) 2:16 Imperial March (A Section) 2:34 Imperial March Rhythm 2:39 Imperial March (A Section) 2:44 Imperial March Rhythm Yoda's Theme 0:07 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 0:58 Yoda's Theme (B Section) 1:19 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 2:06 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 2:33 Yoda's Theme (A Section) Attacking a Star Destroyer 0:00 Boba Fett Motif 1:58 Imperial March (Fragment) 2:13 Yoda's Theme Yoda and the Force 0:28 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:59 The Force Theme 2:18 Yoda's Theme 2:30 Yoda's Theme 3:01 The Power of the Force/The Dark Side 3:12 Yoda's Theme 3:41 Imperial March Imperial Starfleet Deployed / City In the Clouds 0:03 Imperial March 0:37 Imperial March 1:27 Han Solo and the Princess 1:51 Boba Fett Motif 2:03 Yoda's Theme 2:23 The Force Theme 2:46 Yoda's Theme 4:17 Cloud City 4:55 Cloud City 5:03 Cloud City 5:22 Imperial March (Hidden at Cloud City Variation)? 5:38 Imperial March (Hidden at Cloud City Variation)? Lando's Palace 0:06 Cloud City March (A Section) 0:29 Cloud City March (B Section) 0:43 Cloud City March (A Section) 1:22 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:42 The Force Theme 1:56 Imperial March 2:05 Yoda's Theme 2:26 Yoda's Theme 3:00 Luke's Theme (A Section) 3:16 The Force Theme Betrayal at Bespin 0:03 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:30 Han Solo and the Princess 1:06-1:27 Cloud City March (A Section) 1:14 Rebel Fanfare 1:24 Rebel Fanfare 1:27 Cloud City March (B Section) 1:42 Imperial March (Hidden at Cloud City Variation) 1:52 Boba Fett Motif 2:20 Luke's Theme (A Section) 3:13 Droid Motif 3:27 Imperial March Deal with the Dark Lord 0:00 Imperial March 0:08 Prison Motif? 0:14 Droid Motif 0:38 Prison Motif? 1:05 Han Solo and the Princess 2:10 Han Solo and the Princess Carbon Freeze / Darth Vader's Trap / Departure of Boba Fett 0:04 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:24 Imperial March 0:57 Han Solo and the Princess 1:19 Imperial March 1:27 Luke's Theme (Fragment) 1:35 Han Solo and the Princess 1:59 Han In Carbonite 2:27 Imperial March 3:22 Han Solo and the Princess 3:43 Han Solo and the Princess 4:17 Unknown 1 4:34 Imperial March 4:42 Unknown 1 5:00 Cloud City Trap 5:38 Yoda's Theme 6:07 Yoda's Theme 6:35 Yoda's Theme 6:46 Yoda's Theme 7:15 Imperial March 7:34 Cloud City Trap 8:12 Unknown 1 8:29 Unknown 1 9:18 Cloud City Trap 9:32 Han Solo and the Princess 9:57 Han In Carbonite 10:02 Han Solo and the Princess 10:29 Imperial March 10:59 The Force Theme 11:11 Yoda's Theme 11:35 Yoda's Theme 11:42 Luke's Theme (A Section) The Clash of Lightsabers 0:08 The Dark Side 0:41 Imperial March 1:41 Yoda's Theme 1:43 Yoda's Theme (Shadow) 2:00 Cloud City March (A Section) 2:16 Han Solo and the Princess 2:54 Han Solo and the Princess 3:23 Unknown 2 Rescue from Cloud City / Hyperspace 0:54 Imperial March 2:08 Unknown 2 2:13 Cloud City 2:20 Cloud City 2:25 Cloud City Rescue? 3:22 The Force Theme 3:50 Imperial March 4:02 Cloud City Rescue? 4:14 Cloud City Rescue? 5:06 Escape from Bespin 5:17 Princess Leia's Theme 5:23 Escape from Bespin 6:08 Escape from Bespin 6:24 Imperial March 6:41 Escape from Bespin 6:44 Droid Motif 7:13 Imperial March 7:47 Imperial March 8:10 Escape from Bespin 8:29 The Force Theme 8:43 Imperial March The Rebel Fleet / End Title 0:03 The Force Theme (A Section) 0:33 The Force Theme (B Section) 0:43 The Force Theme (A Section) 0:58 Han Solo and the Princess (A Section) 1:23 Han Solo and the Princess (B Section) 1:46 Han Solo and the Princess (A Section) 2:00 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:08 Rebel Fanfare 2:14 The Rolling Thunder 2:17 Rebel Fanfare 2:28 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 2:30 Rebel Fanfare 2:55 Yoda's Theme (B Section) 3:12 Yoda's Theme (A Section) 3:42 Imperial March Rhythm 3:52 Imperial March 4:46 Han Solo and the Princess (A Section) 5:05 Han Solo and the Princess (B Section) 5:25 Han Solo and the Princess (A Section) 5:53 Throne Room Fanfare 5:57 Rebel Fanfare 6:02 Rebel Fanfare 6:03 Imperial March RETURN OF THE JEDI Main Title / Approaching the Death Star / Tatooine Rendezvous 0:07 Luke's Theme (A Section) 0:26 Luke's Theme (B Section) 0:49 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:33 Death Star II 2:03 Death Star II 2:26 Trap Motif 2:35 Death Star II 2:54 Imperial March 3:01 Trap Motif 3:05 Imperial March 3:10 Trap Motif 3:15 Imperial March 3:21 Trap Motif 3:28 Imperial March 3:56 Imperial March 4:55 Imperial March 5:17 Trap Motif 5:20 Imperial March 6:00 Yoda's Theme? 6:36 Luke's Theme (A Section) 6:42 Droid Music? Jabba's Theme (B Section)? 7:16 Droid Music? Jabba's Theme (B Section)? Jabba's Baroque Recital 0:00 A Section 1:06 B Section 2:05 A Section Bounty For a Wookiee 0:20 Jabba's Theme (A Section) 0:59 Jabba's Theme (A Section) 1:14 Jabba's Theme (B Section) 1:47 Jabba's Theme (A Section) Han Solo Returns 2:24 Han Solo and the Princess 2:48 Jabba's Theme (A Section) 3:02 Jabba's Theme (B Section) 3:29 Jabba's Theme (A Section) 3:43 Jabba's Theme (B Section) Luke Confronts Jabba / Den of the Rancor / Sarlacc Sentence 1:39 Jabba's Theme 3:46 Rancor 4:28 Rancor 5:17 The Force Theme 5:32 Luke's Theme (A Section) The Pit of Carkoon / Sail Barge Assault 0:00 Unknown (From Binary Sunset) 0:34 Jabba's Theme 1:25 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:31 Rebel Fanfare 1:46 The Rolling Thunder 1:50 Rebel Rhythm and Rebel Fanfare (Ben Kenobi's Death Lift) 2:08 The Rolling Thunder and Luke's Theme Fragment (Battle of Yavin Lift) 2:18 Rebel Rhythm 2:26 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:38 Rebel Rhythm 2:41 Rebel Fanfare (Fragment) 2:48 Jabba's Theme 3:01 Jabba's Theme 3:05 Here They Come Motif (Tie Fighter Attack Lift) 3:12 Rebel Fanfare 3:30 Battle of Yavin Lift 3:45 Luke's Theme (A Section) 3:52 Rebel Rhythm 3:55 Rebel Fanfare 4:15 The Rolling Thunder 4:21 Rebel Rhythm 4:27 Rebel Fanfare 5:02 Victory Fanfare 5:21 Luke's Theme (A Section) 5:26 Victory Fanfare 5:39 Death Star Motif 5:41 Victory Fanfare The Emperor Arrives / The Death of Yoda / Obi-Wan's Revelation 0:03 Imperial March 0:20 Imperial March 1:05 The Emperor's Theme 1:48 Imperial March 2:04 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:13 Yoda's Theme 2:53 The Force Theme 3:10 Yoda's Theme 3:49 Imperial March 3:58 Luke's Theme (A Section) 4:33 The Force Theme 5:00 Yoda's Theme 5:35 Revelation 6:14 The Force Theme 6:21 Revelation 6:35 Revelation 7:04 Yoda's Theme 7:33 The Force Theme 7:54 Revelation 8:56 The Force Theme 9:43 The Force Theme 10:14 Princess Leia's Theme Alliance Assembly 0:16 Rebel Briefing 1:31 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:52 Rebel Briefing Shuttle Tydirium Approaches Endor 0:31 Unknown 1 1:06 Unknown 1 2:01 The Force Theme 2:19 Imperial March 2:41 The Force Theme 2:54 The Force Theme 3:00 The Dark Side 3:42 Imperial March Speeder Bike Chase / Land of the Ewoks 0:43 Speeder Bike Theft 0:48 Speeder Bike Theft 0:52 Speeder Bike Theft 1:08 Speeder Bike Theft 1:12 Speeder Bike Theft 1:16 Speeder Bike Theft 2:33 Discovery In the Forest 2:54 Discovery In the Forest 3:10 Discovery In the Forest 3:27 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 3:54 Discovery In the Forest 4:01 Wicket's Theme 4:43 Princess Leia's Theme 4:55 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 5:04 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 5:11 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 5:25 Imperial March 5:59 The Emperor's Theme 7:09 Princess Leia's Theme 7:28 Han Solo and the Princess 8:40 Han Solo and the Princess (Han Solo Returns Insert) The Levitation / Threepio's Bedtime Story 0:18 The Force Theme 0:45 Unknown 2 0:55 Unknown 2 1:36 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:43 Imperial March 1:54 The Force Theme 2:08 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:22 Han Solo and the Princess Sail Barge Assault (Alternate) 0:33 Rebel Fanfare 0:36 Unknown Action 0:47 Unknown Action 0:51 Luke's Theme (A Section) 1:29 Unknown Action 2 1:48 Jabba's Theme 2:01 Jabba's Theme 2:06 Unknown Action 2 2:19 Jabba's Theme 2:30 Unknown Action 2 3:14 Unknown 3 3:43 Unknown Action 2 4:03 Victory Fanfare 4:27 Victory Fanfare 4:41 Death Star Motif 4:42 Victory Fanfare Parade of the Ewoks 0:00 Ewok Theme 0:28 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 0:45 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 1:10 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 1:34 Ewok Theme 1:50 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 2:06 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 2:39 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 2:55 Wicket's Theme (A Section) Luke and Leia 0:27 Luke and Leia (A Section) 1:41 Luke and Leia (B Section) 2:23 Luke and Leia (A Section) 3:21 Luke and Leia (B Section) 3:48 Luke and Leia (A Section) Brother and Sister / Father and Son / The Fleet Enters Hyperspace / Heroic Ewok 0:27 The Force Theme 0:57 Luke and Leia 1:34 The Force Theme 1:46 Luke and Leia 2:17 Han Solo and the Princess 2:42 Han Solo and the Princess 3:46 Imperial March 4:49 The Force Theme 6:11 Imperial March 6:34 Luke's Theme (A Section) 7:14 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 7:30 Fleet Preparing for Hyperspace 7:36 Fleet Preparing for Hyperspace 7:45 Throne Room Motif 8:17 Death Star Motif 9:33 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 9:41 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 9:55 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 10:08 Wicket's Theme (B Section) Emperor's Throne Room 0:14 Imperial March 1:00 Emperor's Throne Room 1:07 The Emperor's Theme 1:39 Emperor's Throne Room 2:23 The Emperor's Theme The Battle of Endor I (Into the Trap / Forest Ambush / Scout Walker Scramble) 0:00 Trap Motif 0:24 Trap Motif 0:49 Imperial March 1:02 Trap Motif 1:15 Luke's Theme (B Section) 1:20 Trap Motif 1:44 Rebel Fanfare 1:53 Trap Motif 2:17 Rebel Fanfare 2:24 Rebel Fanfare 2:59 The Emperor's Theme 3:38 Capture 3:48 Imperial March 3:54 Capture 4:06 Capture 4:16 Imperial March 4:31 Scout Walker Scramble 4:48 Scout Walker Scramble 4:55 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 5:44 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 6:06 Scout Walker Scramble 6:23 Scout Walker Scramble 7:14 Ewoks In Trouble 8:21 Imperial March 10:13 Imperial March 10:35 Ewoks In Trouble 11:08 Rebel Fleet Fanfare The Lightsaber / The Ewok Battle [The Emperor Arrives Insert: 0:03 Imperial March 0:15 Imperial Rhythm 0:20 Imperial March 0:26 The Emperor's Theme] 0:48 The Emperor's Theme 1:43 The Forest Battle 3:35 Ewok Theme 3:46 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 4:00 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 4:05 The Forest Battle The Battle of Endor II (Leia Is Wounded / The Duel Begins / Overtaking the Bunker / The Dark Side Beckons / The Emperor's Death) 0:00 Defending the Bunker 0:07 Princess Leia's Theme 0:22 Han Solo and the Princess 0:29 Defending the Bunker 1:05 The Emperor's Theme 1:19 The Force Theme 2:16 The Force Theme 2:38 The Emperor's Theme 3:49 The Dark Side 5:37 The Force Theme 5:40 The Emperor's Theme 6:30 The Force Theme 7:13 Rebel Fanfare 7:44 The Emperor's Theme 8:49 The Emperor's Theme 9:08 The Force Theme The Battle of Endor III (Superstructure Chase / Darth Vader's Death / The Main Reactor) 0:00-1:54 Ben's Death / Tie Fighter Attack / Battle of Yavin Lift 0:00 Here They Come Motif 0:09 Rebel Fanfare 0:16 Here They Come Motif 0:20 Rebel Fanfare 0:37 Here They Come Motif 0:46 Rebel Rhythm 0:49 Rebel Fanfare 1:04 The Rolling Thunder 1:07 Luke's Theme (Fragment) 1:12 Rebel Victory Fanfare 1:50 Death Star Motif 2:45 Imperial March 3:42 Imperial March 4:04 Imperial March 4:58 The Rolling Thunder 5:02 Luke's Theme (A Section) 5:31 Victory Fanfare Leia's News / Light of the Force 0:00 Luke and Leia (A Section) 0:31 Luke and Leia (B Section) 0:51 Han Solo and the Princess 1:19 The Force Theme 2:12 The Force Theme Victory Celebration / End Title 0:16 Victory Celebration A Section 0:53 Victory Celebration B Section 1:15 Victory Celebration A Section 1:33 Victory Celebration B Section 2:26 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:35 Rebel Fanfare 2:41 The Rolling Thunder 2:44 Rebel Fanfare 2:55 The Rolling Thunder 3:02 Luke's Theme (A Section) 3:25 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 3:40 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 3:55 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 4:19 Ewok Theme 4:34 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 4:50 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 5:32 Luke and Leia (A Section) 6:28 Luke and Leia (B Section) 6:46 The Rolling Thunder 6:53 Luke's Theme (A Section) 7:08 Luke's Theme (B Section)/Throne Room Motif 7:23 Rebel Fanfare 7:29 The Rolling Thunder 7:44 Rebel Fanfare 7:57 Throne Room Motif The Forest Battle 0:00 The Forest Battle 1:45 Ewok Theme 1:57 Wicket's Theme (B Section) 2:10 Wicket's Theme (A Section) 2:21 The Forest Battle 2:33 Unknown 3 2:50 The Forest Battle Leia Breaks the News (Alternate) 0:00 Luke and Leia (A Section) 0:28 Luke and Leia (B Section) 0:45 Luke and Leia (A Section) 0:52 Han Solo and the Princess 1:02 Wicket's Theme (A Section) Ewok Celebration and Finale 0:18 A Section 0:49 B Section 1:00 A Section 1:10 B Section 1:26 A Section 1:36 B Section [End Title Film Take: 2:00 Luke's Theme (A Section) 2:09 Rebel Fanfare] Ewok Celebration (Film Version) 0:27 A Section 0:49 B Section 0:59 A Section 1:09 B Section 1:25 A Section 1:35 B Section THE FORCE AWAKENS Main Title and the Attack on the Jakku Village 0:08 Luke's Theme A Section 0:26 Luke's Theme B Section 0:49 Luke's Theme A Section 4:20 Kylo Ren's Theme 5:32 Kylo Ren's Theme 6:13 Kylo Ren's Theme The Scavenger 0:38 Rey's Theme? 0:53 Rey's Theme (Intro) 1:31 Rey's Theme (Main Theme) 1:59 Rey's Theme (Intro) 2:54 Rey's Theme I Can Fly Anything 1:19 Rey's Theme Rey Meets BB-8 0:00 BB-8 motif? 01:09 Resistance March Follow Me 1:12 Finn's/Action Motif 1:41 Finn's/Action Motif 2:00 Finn's/Action Motif 2:29 Rebel Fanfare Rey's Theme 0:00 Rey's Theme (Flute Intro) 0:13 Rey's Theme (Intro) 0:33 Rey's Theme 1:00 Rey's Theme (Intro) 1:21 Rey's Theme 1:40 Rey's Theme 1:54 Rey's Theme (Intro) 2:13 Rey's Theme 2:39 Rey's Theme (Intro) The Falcon 0:08 Rebel Fanfare 0:11 Finn's/Action Motif 0:50 Finn's/Action Motif 1:00 Finn's/Action Motif 1:19 Finn's/Action Motif 2:26 Finn's/Action Motif 2:39 The Snow Battle Reference? 3:06 Finn's/Action Motif (Strings)? That Girl With the Staff 0:08 Luke and Leia? 0:20 Rey's Theme The Rathtars! 0:44 Luke's Theme A Section 2:47 Finn's/Action Motif 3:06 Finn's/Action Motif 3:43 Rebel Fanfare Finn's Confession 0:00 Discussion and Confrontation (Talk of Podracing Reference) 0:48 Rey's Theme 1:00 Rey's Theme 1:17 Rey's Theme Maz's Counsel 2:14 The Force Theme 2:40 Rey's Theme Kylo Ren Arrives at the Battle 0:00 Dark Side (Carrying Home Mother Reference)? 0:51 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:17 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:29 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:43 Rey's Theme The Abduction 0:13 Unknown 1 (Starkiller Base)? 0:45 Kylo Ren's Theme 0:57 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:18 The Force Theme (Fragment)? 1:39 Rey's Theme Han and Leia 0:03 Luke's Theme A Section 0:10 Leia's Theme 0:29 Han Solo and the Princess (Luke To The Rescue Lift) 1:12 Resistance March 2:22 The Force Theme (Fragment)? 2:31 Rebel Fanfare (Fragment)? 3:25 Han Solo and the Princess 3:44 Unknown 1 (Starkiller Base)? 4:02 The Force Theme March of the Resistance 0:15 Resistance March Snoke 1:01 Snoke's Theme (Dark Side motif from ROTS?) On the Inside 0:45 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:04 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:27 Rey's Theme Torn Apart 1:06 The Force Theme (Fragment)? 2:14 Han Solo and the Princess (Twisted, Horns) 2:48 Kylo Ren's Theme 3:13 The Force Theme 3:44 Kylo Ren's Theme 3:52 Rey's Theme The Ways of the Force 0:13 The Force Theme 0:33 Rey's Theme 0:53 Rey's Theme 1:08 Unknown 1 (Starkiller Base)? 1:21 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:35 Kylo Ren's Theme 1:50 The Force Theme 2:08 Rey's Theme 2:38 The Force Theme 2:52 Rey's Theme Scherzo for X-Wings 0:14 Luke's Theme A Section 0:32 Luke's Theme A Section 0:50 Luke's Theme A Section 1:04 Luke's Theme A Section 1:19 Luke's Theme A Section (Fragment) 1:34 Luke's Theme A Section (Fragment) 2:03 Luke's Theme A Section 2:07 The Force Theme Farewell and the Trip 0:11 Rey's Theme 0:47 The Force Theme 1:26 Rey's Theme 1:49 Han Solo and the Princess 2:12 The Force Theme 2:55 Leia's Theme 3:45 Rebel Fanfare 3:51 Luke's Theme A Section 4:03 Rey's Theme (Flute Intro) 4:07 Rey's Theme 4:34 Rey's Theme (Flute Intro) The Jedi Steps and Finale 0:04 Luke's Theme A Section 0:19 Rey's Theme/Luke's Theme Hybrid? 0:41 Rey's Theme/Luke's Theme Hybrid? 1:10 Rey's Theme/Luke's Theme Hybrid? 1:37 The Force Theme 2:14 Luke's Theme A Section 2:23 Rebel Fanfare 2:29 The Rolling Thunder 2:41 Luke's Theme A Section 2:58 Rey's Theme (Intro) 3:02 Rey's Theme (Flute Intro) 3:11 Rey's Theme 4:01 Rey's Theme (Flute Intro) 4:25 Unknown 1 (Starkiller Base?) 4:45 Kylo Ren's Theme 5:02 Finn's/Action Motif 6:05 Resistance March 7:27 The Force Theme 7:31 Rey's Theme 8:07 Rebel Fanfare 8:22 Rey's Theme 8:34 Luke's Theme A Section
  15. I made a rip of the main title theme and opening (with a jazz version of the same theme). The main theme sounds a bit like Raksin's LAURA; very "Golden Age": http://www.celluloidtunes.net/non-website/ipassedforwhite.mp3
  16. Hello! If you've heard the Last Jedi OST album and would like to discuss the music on it, this the place! The original thread can still be used to talk about receiving your physical copy, differences between various editions, where to buy or stream it online, etc, but here, it's all about the music. Starting the thread now because I found this on youtube, and I haven't checked yet to see if its real or fake.
  17. http://www.starwars.com/news/sony-classical-to-release-ultimate-editions-of-original-star-wars-soundtracks
  18. MV Gerhard from La-La Land Records just announced: https://www.facebook.com/lalalandrecords/photos/a.181243738754.155532.56031953754/10152525579163755/?type=1&theater It will go up for sale Tuesday, June 24th at 12PM PST at www.lalalandrecords.com and other soundtrack retailers. Stay tuned to JWFan.com (Main Page) for exclusive previews and further information!
  19. Hey does somebody know wether John Williams played piano in the documentary Ennio Morricone - The Maestro? I ask because I saw someone playing Once upon a time in America in the trailer and fought it might be John when he was interviewed for the movie....
  20. http://www.facebook....31953754&type=1 http://www.facebook....31953754&type=1 Available to order at 1PM PST on Tuesday, December 4th, 2012 at http://www.lalalandrecords.com/ and other fine retailers.
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